EPPP Ethics 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Informed Consent
1. Capacity
2. Comprehension
3. Voluntariness

-LEGAL concept

-protects a client's confidentiality in the context of legal proceedings
General Principle C: Promote honesty, accuracy, and truthfulness in the science, teaching, and practice of psychology.
Family Education Rights and Privacy Act

-applies to records maintained by educational institutions receiving federal funds

-FERPA prohibits schools from disclosing personally identifying info from student records without the consent of the parents of students or students 18 older

-grant parents and students the right to inspect the student's educational records
Buckley Amendment
aka, Federal Educational Rights & Privacy Act, 1974 (FERPA)parents have the right to inspect, review, & challenge contents of their child's educational record; prohibits schools from disclosing identifying information from student records without consent of parent or adult studentwritten notice is NOT needed to transfer a student's records to another school they plan to enroll in
A California Supreme Court case which set forth a duty of the professional to protect others from a client who has made a serious threat of violence against an identifiable victim. Many states now have some form of a duty to protect law on the books, and
Vicarious Responsibility
Supervisors or employers may be responsible for the acts of employees or supervisees. Based on differential in in training and experience and the right. ability, and responsibility of the supervisor or employer to control the actions of the supervisee.
Privilege in court-ordered evaluation
waived by the court
Informed consent for research
-purpose, duration and procedures
-right to decline to participate and to withdraw once participation has begun
-foreseeable consequences of declining or withdrawing
-potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects
-prospective research benefits
-limits of confidentiality
-incentives for participation
-whom to contact about research and research participant's rights
- to educate publice, profession, interested parties regarding speciality prof practices and to facilitate continued systematic developmentof profession
on parenting capacity, psychological and developmental needs of child and resulting fit
The Ethics Code sets forth a common set of _______ and ________ that psychologists build their professional and scientific work upon.
1. General Standards
.01 Applicability of Ethics Code
To work related/psychological activities only
Informed consent and assent
-with research, assessment, therapy, counseling, or consulting, must obtain informed consent using language that is reasonably understanding

-for those legally incapable, you still provide an appropriate explanation, seek individual's assent, consider such person's preferences and best interests, and obtain permission from legally authorized person
General Principles
- Fidelity & Responsibility
- get trust from others
- accept respon of own beh
- consult with others to serve others
- concern self with other psych's conduct
- give some pro bono
1 - PROVIDERS - focus on responsibility and competence
2 - PROGRAMS - what types of services to provide (a) responsive to needs of client; (b) service consistent with ETHICS code; (c) consult with others if need; (d) maintain good records; (e) ensure confidentiality
3 - ACCOUNTABILITY - (a) human welfare primary principle; (b) evaluation of services; (c) contribute part of the services for free/little fees
Specialty Guidelines
A set of APA standards that provides guidance to professionals, users, and sanctioners on what can be reasonably expected in clinical, counseling, school, and industrial/organizational settings.
6. Teaching, training, supervision, research, pub
.18 Providing Participants with info about study
Offer prompt opportunity for participants to access nature, results, conclusions of research, correct their misconceptions.
If delay in this info, reduce harm
Deception in Research
-deception is only acceptable when the following conditions are met...
a) deception is justified by the study's significant prospective value

b) prospective participants are not deceived about conditions that can be reasonably expected to cause physical pain or severe emotional distress

c) participants will be debriefed at the conclusion of participation but no later than at the conclusion of the data collection
STANDARDS - what MUST records of info contain at minimum
- identifiers
- dates of services
- types of service
- fees
- assessment reports
- intervention plans
- releases of infor
STANDARDS -multiple relationships means
when PSY in professional role with person and
1 - same time has another role with client
2 - same time has relshp with persnly close / related to client
3 - promises to enter into another relshp in future with client or close person
Vicarious Liability (Respondeat Superior)
Being responsible for interns or employees actions.
How should forensic psychologists obtain informed consent?
Unless court ordered, must obtain informed consent from client or legal guardian.
If client doesn’t have capacity, must provide reasonable notice to legal representative before starting
1. General Standards
.11 Sexual Harassment
Don't do it. Can't discriminate against those who have either made a complaint or are the subject of a complaint
2. Eval, Asmt, Intervention
.03 Test Construction
Use scientific procedures and knowledge for test design
Standards For Educational And Psychological Testing
Guidelines that provide criteria for the evaluation of tests, testing practices, and the effects of test use.
FORENSIC TERMS - fact witness
who testifies as to what he saw/heard/observed regarding a circumstance, even as it actualy took place
- no opinion allowed, no address issues not involved in and no hypothetical situations
MALPRACTICE - conditions for malpractice
1 PSY has prof relshp with client
2 show PSY breached standard of care
3 show client harmed or injured
4 show PSY's breach was proximate cause of client's harm
- to get monetary compensation, must measure harm in economic terms
STANDARDS - what to do if fees divided by PSY
based only on services provided by each NOT based on referral (no referral fee unless a referal agency)
what to do when conflict bet Ethics Code and law
- always use higher standard
- make law know comitmnt to Code but if can't resolve, ensure human rights
Informed Consent in Research
Not always necessary (not likely to caus harm; is part of normal educatin or occupatinal practices; or involves administering an anonymous servey.
How do the Ethical Standards
define “test materials”?
Test materials includes manuals, instruments, protocols, and test questions or stimuli
(not required to release this to protect integrity of materials)
4. Therapy
.04 Providing MH services to those served by others
1. Carefully consider tx issues
2. Consider ptx welfare
3. Discuss issue with ptx
4. Consult with other service provider if appropriate
5. Proceed with caution and sensitivity
1. General Standards
.04 Boundaries of Competence
Provide services within boundaries of competence, seek training in new areas
1. General Standards
.21 Third party requests for services
Clarify nature of relationship with each party, limits of confidentiality, clarify own responsibilities
STANDARDS - acceptable breaches of confidentiality
1 - client danger to self or others
2 - client abuse of child/elder/dependent
34. A graduate student complains to her supervisor that her research study is causing harm to subjects. The supervisor tells her not to worry about it. Later, one of the subjects is determined to have been emotionally harmed by the research procedures. W
34. B Psychologists are responsible for the ethical conduct of research conducted by them or by others under their supervision.
Tarasoff Decision and Duty to Warn
1. TARASOFF DECISION: Decision in the Tarasoff v. Regents of University of California (1976) case, which established the legal responsibility of psychologists to warnappropriate persons when a client is believed to pose a clear and imminent danger toanother person (e.g., to warn the victim, the notify the police or take other appropriate steps to ensure the victim's safety).2. DUTY TO WARN: A therapist's legal obligation to warn a client's intended victim of threatened harm. The duty to warn was established by the original Tarasoff decision.
When a psychologist provides therapy involving couples or families, they take reasonable steps to clarify at the outset:
1) which of the individuals are clients/patients
2) the relationship the psychologist will have with each person
1. General Standards
.25 Fees and Financial Arrangements
As early as possible reach agreement with ptx, don't exploit them, keep fee practices law abiding, don't misrepresent fees. If money will limit services, discuss at outset. Inform ptx if collection services may be used and give opportunity to pay
36. Informed consent to research is:
a. always necessary
b. necessary, unless dispensing with it clearly poses no harm or is scientifically justifiable.
c. unnecessary, except in research which poses a clear risk of serious harm to participants.
d. never
36. B
A psychologist should obtain informed consent from participants before conducting research. Some exceptions do exists, however, such as naturalistic observations or anonymous questionnaires.
Responding to a Subpoena
1) is it a legally valid demand

2) if it is, a formal response is required but psychologist should first contact client to discuss implications of providing the requested information

3) if client consents to disclosure , psychologist should provide info

4) if client does not consent, psychologist or his lawyer can attempt to negotiate with party who issued a subpoena

5) if the requesting party continues to demand info be provided, the psychologist can seek guidance from the court informally or attorney can file a motion to quash the subpoena or a motion for a protective order
STANDARDS - when you can have sex with students
1 - not in your department
2 - former students/supervisee
11. You are working for a large corporation as an industrial psychologist. You observe more than one incident of sexual harassment. Which of the following is your best course of action in this situation?a. You should observe the incidents, and prep
11. B Psychologist take reasonable steps to avoid harming those they work with and to minimize harm when it is foreseeable and unavoidable.
What 4 conditions must be met for a client to claim malpractice against a psychologist?
1. Psychologist had professional relationship with person
2. Demonstrable standard of care was violated
3. Person suffered harm or injury
4. Psychologist’s violation of standard of care is main cause of person’s harm or injury
56. If a psychologist undertakes an experiment which might cause discomfort and some negative adverse effects to the subjects, but she feels the possible findings are worth the risk, she should:
a. decide not to do the research
b. run the research, but no
56. C
Appropriate approval by a review board must be obtained first, and then informed consent from each subject (after informing them of all potential risks and side effects) must be obtained.
STANDARDS - 3 factors to consider for accepting multiple relshps
1 - POWER DIFFERENTIAL - diff in power bet PSY and client
2 - DURATION OF RELSHP - longer the relshp, more dubious to accept mult relshp
3 - CLARITY OF TERMINATION - what is chance client will want more services in future
25. A male psychologist provides an adult female client brief behaviorally-oriented therapy focused on anxiety reduction. After 4 sessions, the woman feels she has made progress and wishes to terminate. The psychologist agrees, terminates the relationshi
25. A 10.08 a) Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with a former client/patient for at least 2-years after cessation or termination of therapy.
3. Advertising & Public Stmts
.02 Statement by Others
If use others to create or make public statements, retain responsibility. Prevent others from making deceptive statements about self, don't compensate for publicity in a news item. A paid advertisement must be identified as such.
25. A male psychologist provides an adult female client brief behaviorally-oriented therapy focused on anxiety reduction. After 4 sessions, the woman feels she has made progress and wishes to terminate. The psychologist agrees, terminates the relationship
25. A
10.08 a) Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with a former client/patient for at least 2-years after cessation or termination of therapy.
1. The primary value underlying the existence of Ethical Principles is:a. confidentiality of therapist-client communication.b. the continued prosperity of the field of psychology.c. the advancement of the welfare of society as a w
1. D. As stated in the preamble of the APA Ethics Code "it has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom psychologists work, and the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline".
52. A student complains to the ethics board about the instructor in his psychology course. The student claims the instructor: did not adequately cover the material he should have, the tests administered did not adequately assess the students' knowledge, a
52. B
This answer is the most judicious alternative. It is a low level intervention for an offense that while not grave is serious. It recognizes that there is a probability that the instructor may be acting unprofessionally, and it prompts him to re-evaluate his procedures.
22. After three sessions, a man you are treating in conjoint marital therapy says he wants to see you in individual treatment. You should:a. refer him to another therapist.b. tell him to wait until marital therapy is over.c. set up an a
22. A 10.02 makes clear that in conjoint therapy situations, psychologists should avoid performing potentially conflicting roles. A referral would be your most ethical course of action.
37. You are asked by the attorney of a divorced woman to evaluate her. The attorney explains that he would like your opinion regarding whether the woman is more competent as a parent than her ex-husband. As an ethical psychologist, you should:
a. evaluate
37. c
Psychologist must base their assessment and conclusion on sufficient information. Determining the most competent parent involves obtaining information on both adults and their interactions with their children. Even then, the conclusions should be qualified with limitations.
7. You are seeing a client who is in therapy as a condition of probation. The client says he wants to terminate therapy. You should:a. tell the client he must stay in therapy.b. tell the client he can leave if he wishes, but explain the legal
7. B When providing services at the request of third parties, psychologists must clarify the use of the service they provide and the information they obtain.
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