Century Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Schuller
1957
Stravinsky, Igor
Wagner's Home Country
Germany
Finlandia, Symphony #5
Sibelius
The Banshee
Cowell
 
1925
 
- Screeching sounds made from the strings inside the piano
Brahms
Germany. Mastered counterpoint and development.
"Pierrot Lunaire" was composed by:
Shoenberg
Sonata for Unaccompanied Violin
 
Mvmt 1, "Ciaccona"
Bartock
 
1944
 
-Has interesting half steps where you would not expect it.
-Has hints of folk-music
Dahlhaus, Carl
b. 1928, German musicologist 

 

1966, he completed Habilitation, a fundamental study on the development of tonality.  
 
He focused on 15th and 16th C music, particularly Josquin, and also worked on modern contemporary music.


He also provided an important stimulus into the research of 19th C music by being the editor of the anthology Studien zur Trivialmusik des 19 Jahrhundert.


His work brought about renewed interest in Wagner scholarship
Gershwin, George
American composer (1898-1937)
 
The first to succeed in combining American popular and serous music.

 
Gershwin's earliest success was the immensely popular song "Swanee", which he wrote at the age of nineteen.
 
His first important serious composition was Rhapsody in Blue for piano and jazz orchestra, first performed (with the composer as soloist) in 1924.
 
Gershwin wrote musical comedies and popular songs, as well as serious concert pieces.

 
To his popular music he brought the craftsmanship of a trained musician; to his serious music he brought elements from ragtime, jazz, the balck tradition of spirituals and blues, and the Latin American dance rhythms so popular during the 1920s' and 1930's.  
 
His best-known works are the symphonic poem An American in Paris, the Concerto in F for piano, the folk opera Porgy and Bess, the musical comedies Lady be Good, Strike Up the Band, Funny face, Girl Crazy, and Of Thee I Sing
Partch, Harry
1901-1974, American composer, instrument make, and performer.
 
His works draw on American folklore, immigrant culture, Christian hymns, and Native American, African and eastern cultures.

 
His outlined his esthetic in a book, Genesis of a Music (publ in 1949).

 
His interest in alternate tuning systems (his 43-note scale could produce pure, untempered consonances), and the construction of insturments on which his tunings could be conveniently employed;
 

influenced microtonal composers such as Ben Johnston, as well as composers of mixed-media works and miniamlists.

 
Most of his works involve actors and dancers as well as musicians; he also wrote music for films.

 
His Li Po Songs (1930-33) were his first work in his new style; the voice inflects the words in a speech-like, chanting manner, and is accompanied by "adapted" viola.
Williams
America. His career spanned six decades.
Erwartung 
Schoenberg followed Mahler in treating instrum,ents soloistically and in swiftly alternating timbres to produce a great variety of colors. This opera is the height of expressionism in music using exaggerated gestures, angular melodies, and unrelenting dissonance to convey the tortured emotions of the protagonist. Lacks any reference to traditional form.
Harmonic stasis
Messiane's harmony avoids moving forward to a resolution. Rather, chord series are simply repeated to create a sense of stasis or meditation.
Suite from the Ballet "Pulcinella"
 
Scherzino
Stravinsky
 
1919
 
Fashioned from a ballet score
 
-A little more than half way through you can hear the violins interacting with horns, almost like they're interrupting each other.
Minimalism
music that is characterized by repetition of short figures, tonal harmony, slow harmonic rhythm, and more or less regular pulsation
Who was the most outstanding American-born composer between the world wars?
Copland
Vaughan-Williams, Ralph
1872-1958, The foremost English composer in the first half of the 20th century.
 
He was motivated by national and cosmopolitan sources (English folksong, hymnody, and English literature - as well as the hymn For All the Saints).
 
Other important works are the Sea Symphony (with voices), Fantasia on a theme of Thomas Tallis, The London Symphony, the Pastoral Symphony, and his many songs 
Eaton, John
b. 1935. American composer.
His compostion teachers inculde Babbitt, Cone and Sessions.

 
His earlier career was a jazz pianist.

 
Received three American Prix de Rome (1959, 1960, 1961), two Guggenheim Fellowships (1962, 1965).

 
He has utilized the varied resources of electronic instruments with exceptional originality and virtuosity.
 
He has been closely identified with the syn-ket, a type of electronic synthesizer invented by Paolo Ketoff in 1964, which has several keyboards sensitive to pressure and sliding movement.

 
Eaton's Concert Peice for Syn-ket and Symhony Orchestra was first performed in 1966 at Tanglewood by the Boston SO conducted by Schuller.  
 
The primiere of his opera Heracles took place in April 1972 at the opening of the Musical Arts Center at Indiana University
Futurism
Initiated by poet and dramatist Marinetti(1876-1942) in 1909; later among the Italian visual artists flourished, such as in the works of a futurist painter Luigi Russolo.

 
Futurist dispise everything "old"; admire speed, technology, youth and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city. All that represent the triumph of technology over nature.  They were also passionate nationalists.

 
A few young musicians joined this: Franco Casavola (1891-1955), Nuccio Fiorda (1897-1975), Antonio Russolo (1877-1942) and Silvio Mix (1900-1927).
 

Fiorda combined "intonarumori" (Noise-intoners) - series of cumbersome machines - with conventional instruments, as did A . Russolo (Luigi's brother) in Corale and Serenata (c. 1921)
Berio, Luciano
Italian, b. 1925
This leading contemporary Italian composer has drawn inspiration for his composition from a wide range of sources, including anthropology, electro-acoustic research, ethnomusicology, phonetics, and experimental traditions of the theater.  
 

Early works reveal influence of NeoClassicism (Magnificat, 1949) and serialism (Five Variations for piano, 1953).  Electribuc music was next (Perspectives, 1957).  Virtuosic studies for large orchestra followed (Sinfonia, 1969)

 
Berio spent the 60's and early 70's in the US, generally teaching composition at Julliard until 1973. 

 
From '74 until '80, Berio worked at the elctronic music studio at IRCAM in Paris, where he supervised the creation of a revolutionary system permitting the use of live electronic sound (Sequenza IX, 1980). 
 
In 1987, he established his own research institute in Florence, called Tempo Reale, dedicated to bringing electronic sounds into live contact with traditional instruments.  
Wagner
Germany. Originally wrote the tune for "Here Comes The Bride". Opera. You can hear his story through music. His phrases represent objects. Flying Dutchman.
Ragtime
Style popular from the 1890's through the 1910's that featured syncopated rhythm against a regular, marchlike bass. This syncopation apparently derived from the clapping Juba of American blacks, a servival of African drumming and hand clapping. The emphasis on offbeats in one rhythmic layer against stedy beats in another reflects the cmplex cross-rhythms common in African music. Leading composer of this style was Scott Joplin.
neoclassicism
Represents a broad movement from the 1910s to the 1950s in which composers revived, imitated, or evoked the styles, genres and forms of pre-Romantic music, especially that of the eighteenth century, then called Classic. The movement grew in part from a rejection of Romanticism, whose associations with high emotions, irrationality, yearning, individualism and nationalism were all suspect in the wake of the wanton destruction of World War I. Stravinsky was recognized as the leader of this movement.
Musique Concrete
Pierre Schaeffer who pioneered using recorded sounds, munipulating the chosen sounds through mechanical and electronic means, and assembling them i to collages. Worked at RDF (Radiodiffusion Fancaise or French radio) in Paris. He called it musique concrete because he worked concretely with sound itself rather than with music notation.  He and his collabortor Pierre Henry created the first major work, Symphonie pour un homme seul (Symphony for One Man) premiered in a 1950 radio broadcast. Tape recorders, which became widely available around that year, made it possible to record, amplify, and transform sounds, then superimpose, juxtapose, fragment, and arrange them as desired toproduce pieces of music.
Expressionism
the effort to convey the artist’s inner feelings rather than to represent external reality
Gebrauchsmusik
German "music to be used" "utility music".
 
A term invented in the 1920s for music to be played (used) at home by amateurs instead of a concert hall by professional performers.
 
Among those who felt that home performance had been neglected was the composer Paul Hindemith, who along with others wrote music specifically for this purpose.
 
To make home performance easier, such compostions call for small groups of players and are not too lengthy or technically difficult.

 
Moreover, they often allow for substituting different instruments when the ones called for are not available.
 

Hindemith's Gebrauchsmusik compositions include a children's opera, Wir bauen eine Stadt ("We are Building a City", 1930) ; Spielmusik ("Music for Playing") for string, flutes, and oboes; and a set of easy duets for two violins.
Expressionsim
A term borrowed from painting to describe certain kinds of 20th century music written as though to express the innermost feelings of the composer or, in stage works, of the characters.
 
Like expressionist paintings, which is distortion and exaggeration to picture a kind of inner reality, expressionist music often seems harsh and discordant, as well as emotional and dramatic.
 
Outstanding examples are Schoenberg's Verklarte Nacht, Pierrot lunaire, and Erwartung, Berg's two operas: Lulu and Wozzeck, and more recent Harrison Birtwhistle's Punch and Judy (1966) and Peter Maxwell Davies' Eight Songs for a Mad King (1969).

 
As might be expected, both texts and music of these stage works concentrate more on the psychology of the characters than on external events.
Craft of Musical Composition, The
Hindemith's composition textbook. 
In it he explains his system of the composition based on dissonance classifications for different sonorities (ranked 1 through 6). 

 
His belief was that music should began simply (triad) and move to a point of maximum dissonance (climax) and ultimately return to simplicity (which is why his pieces always end with a major triad).
 
The book is characterized by its rigor and systematization - almost to the point of dogmatism.
 
Hindemith wished to extend the rules of traditional tonality, rather than breaking them altogether.  Thus, the triad remained the foundation of his work.
Sprechstimme
a vocal style halfway between singing and speaking.
 
Calls for only the approsimate reproduction of pitches.
 
Often notated with an "x" on the notehead.
 
found in expressionistic music, particularly that of Schoenberg (Pierrot lunaire) 
moment form
A concept introduced by Stockhausen, it is a compositional approach in which a narrative overall line is deliberately avoided.
 
The component moments in such a form are related by non-linear principle of proportions.
 
However, this does not mean that it avoids goal-directed processes.
 
also called "mosiacs of moment", in turn, "self-contained (quasi-)independent section, set off from other sections by discontinuities"
 
Exaple of his work containing moment form are Kontakte and Momente
Lieder/Song Cycle
Tells a story through melody and chromatic harmony. New genre in Romantic Period.
John Cage
Sought to bring into music sounds, approaches and ideas that previously had been excluded. He repeatedly challenged the core concepts of music itself and therby played a leading role in the postwar avant-garde. His music in the late 30s and 40s focused on new sounds, building on the work of his teacher Henry Cowell. He wrote numerous works for percussion ensemble using both traditional instruments and untradional ones, such as tin cans of various size and pitch in Third Construction in Metal and an electric buzzer and electronlically amplified noises in Imaginary Landscape No. 3 (1942). His experimentation with timbre lead to his inventionof the prepared piano.
Created some controversy even today with his challenge that music is found everywhere and even in silence.
Alban Berg
Student of Schoenberg His twelve tone methods wee more approachable than his teacher's.  His claim to fame was Wozzeck and his Violin Concerto.
 
diegetic music
sometimes referred to as source music. Music that is heard or performed by the characters themselves in film.
Define Sprechstimme
A form of dramatic declamation between singing and speaking
Who used the term Musique Concrete as a term to describe taped compositions?
Schaeffer
Glass, Philip
An american composer (b. 1937), who first became known for his minimalist music, based on extensive repetition, rhythmic regularity, and conventional tonal harmony.
 
In the late 1960s Glass founded his own eight-member ensemble of electric keyboards (synthesizer, organ, piano), amplified wind instruments, and voices, for which most of his compositions were written.
 
In the mid-1970s, Glass also began writing operas.  The first was Einstein on th eBEach (1976), in collaboration with playwright-director Robert Wilson, who contributed the scenario and assisted with staging and sets. 
 

Well received in Europe, it received its American premiere at the Metropolitan Opera and shocked audiences with its text of solfege syllables, and interior monologues.

 
The muisc of this four-and-one-half-hour work and is different form his earlier work in its tonal and textual richness, though the melodic patterns are still repeated relentlessly
 
Zappa, Frank
1940-1993, Rock song writer who was first recognized with the band Mothers of Invention.
 
Beginning in the 1980s, he was involved in avante-garde composition and performance.
 
His album, Jazz from Hell was written on the synclavier.
 
He was also a powerful lobbier in Congress against censorship in music 
Pfitzner, Hans
1869-1949, A German composer famous in his own country, but not ouside of it.
 
His compositions never pass beyond the limits of late Romantic tonal and harmonic practice.
 
His best-known work is the opera Palestrina (1915) about an apocryphal event in Palestrina's life.

 
Pfitzner was a staunch conservative who defended the principles of Romantic music (expression and feeling) vs. what he saw as the calculating and intellectual music of the 20th century.
 
His most important polemic was the pamphlet Futuristengefahr (danger of the Futurists) written in 1917 as a rebuttal to Busoni's New Esthetic of Music
La Pulcinella Suite
The work that symbolized Stravinsky's transformation to the Neo-Classical style.
 
He leaned way from Russian folk music to earlier Western Art music as a source of imitation, quotation and allusion.
 
He also began to prefer a cool, balanced, and more objective approach to his music.
 
Pulcinella was a ballet for which Diaghilev asked Stravinsky to arrange some 18th C music to accomp a commedia dell'arte scenario.
 
He chose the music of Pergolesi (found later to be erronesouly attributed to him).
 
Stravinsky is quoted as saying that his experience in writing Pulcinella, in looking back to music of the past, and linking it with his modern sensibilities, led to an epiphany for which his later works were made possible
sound masses
A body of sounds characterized by a particular timbre, register, rhythm, and melodic gesture, which may be stable or may gradually be trasformed. Term adopted by Varese.
Electronic music studios
Between 1951 and 1953 studios to create electronic music were founded at Columbia University in New Yourk and at radio stations in Cologne (Germany), Milan (Italy), and Tokyo (Japan) followed by many others across Europe and the Americals. At most studio s, composers focused on producing sounds electronically and manipulating them through electronic devices and on tape. A whole noew realm of possible sounds became available, including sounds not producible by any natural means.
What popular work by Kodaly is a Singspiel and an Orchestra Suite?
Hary Janos
What influenced the melodies of Messiaen?
Chant and Folk song
Union of soviet composers
The single most important musical organization in the Soviet Union.
 
The government sponsored organization was established in 1932 in reaction to a group of young composers headed by Shostakovich.
 
The idea was to end the permissive period of music making and control Soviet culture.
 
This move was reinforced by the official condemnation of Shostakovich's opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District 
Second Viennese School
A group of composers in Vienna who wanted to take music beyond it's current tonality and limits.
Early Minimalism in music
A paralell movement was nurtured among musicians in New York City and in the California conterculture. One of the pioneers of musical minimalsim was La Monte Young, whose The Tortoise: His Dreams and Journeys (1964) was an improvisation  in which instrumentalists and singers come in and out oon various harmonics over a fundamental played oas a drone bya a sythesizer. Terry Riley who once performed in Youngs ensemble experimented with tape loops, short segments of magnetic tape spliced into loops that wne fed through a tape recorder play the same recorded sounds again and again. His most famous work, In C uses a similar procedure with live instruments.
tone cluster
One of the new timbres of the 20th century.
 
Tone clusters were first used on the piano by Henry Cowell in the 1920s in pieces like Tiger and later by John Cage in his prepared piano pieces. 
Tape and Live performance
One of the most moving early examples is Babbitt's Philomel for soprano soloist with a tape that includes altered recored framents of the singer as well as electronic sounds. The live voice and the voice on the tape engage in dialogue, accompanied by sythesized sounds, all worked out according to Babbitts usual serial procedures.
Erwartung and Die gluckiche Hand are from which of Schoenberg’s style period?
2nd – Dissonant pantonal Expressionistic works
When did the neoclassic movement begin?
near the end of World War I
“Tin Pan Alley” Carnegie Hall --define and locate them.
Tin Pan Alley was b/w 5th & 6th Avenue in New York City.
 
Carnegie Hall - One of the most famous venues in the US. Located in Manhattan, New York.
What are the four main points of Hindemith’s compositional philosophy?
1. music must be understood as a communication between the composer and consumer of the music2. a composer must be a performing musician and must have acquired familiarity with instruments through participation in ensembles3. key tonality is unavoidable4. endorsed the theory expressed in the writings of Plato, Ptolemy, Boethius, and other ancient and medieval philosophers that the principles of order governing the acoustical ratios of musical intervals and the order within a musical composition symbolize and reflect the principles that govern the universe
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