Century Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
15th Century
Danish War
20th century
Baby Boom
French Revolution (2)
17th century
England develops constitutionalism
Jan van Eyek
15th Century
Who uses quotations freely?
Napoleonic Code
-conservative on women's rights
-didn't want labor unions
-liberal on issues of serfdom and freedom of religion
overly pretty, decorative, escapist style
a syntactic relation between expressions, usually consecutive, that have the same function and the same relation to other elements in the sentence, the second expression identifying or supplementing the first. In Washington, our first president, the phras
Led by Robespierre, this group replaced the Girondist in dominating the National Convention in 1793.
Queen Victoria
-property and high moral standards
-imperial crown of India
-elaborate and high decorate architecture
-grandmother of many European monarchs
Made Germany respectable. west German chancellor from Christian democratic union worked to maintain diplomacy with Germany. Used authoritarian methods domestically, but advocated social welfare.
Period of literature from 1660-1800. Traditionalism. A great respect for classical writers. Art for humanity’s sake. Attack human pride. The golden Mean. Submission to position in cosmic order.
Many rags end in what key?
a melody of timbre in which instrumentation of a piece is as important as the pitch and rhythm and has its own structural function. (Schoenberg).
Joseph II
Austrian Enlightened despot who made most radical liberal reforms, only to have them all undone after his death because he didn't win the support of the nobles
Ems Dispatch
Bismarck tricked Napoleon III by editing this to make it look like William I had really insulted the French. Bismarck then leaked it to the press, so Nappy III would declare war on Prussia
Hitler got official right to annex this at the Munich Conference
Octavia Hill
woman who created renovated, quality housing for the poor, est. the National for the preservation of historic places & open spaces
Bartok's 6 volume collection of piano pieces in gr
pitches that are not present in the Western equal tempered system. Found in 20th century music, music of other cultures (Carnatic and Indonesian gamelan), and blues.
Suez Canal
"The lifeline of the British Empire" due to it's importance in reaching eastern British colonies
people inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution and the enlightenment, supported laissez faire
Dostoevski and Tolstoy
geniuses of Russian literature: led way for the psychological novel, examined the inner character of violence vs. innocence, the nature of Russian society, gender relationships
Julius Weiss
Joplin's teacher who taught him voice lessons and
Musical Quotations
directly quoting another work in a new composition.
middle class, bourgeoisie
According to Marx and Engles, this class was exploiting workers
Restoration and Charles II
He restores things like composeres, french actors and play wrights, dutch paitners, new fashions to england
What did the Princess de Polignac commission? Fro
Socrates from Satie
Alexander Jackson Davis, John C. Stevens House New York 1845
Davis: very well-educated; knew Duran's (Fr.) and Pictoresque-era works
-- Wrote books on architecture
-- Very wordly; influenced by various international works
Stevens House: uses classical designs; Ionic columns
-- Democratic transformation of design
-- His work is eclectic; uses neo-Gothic, neo-Classical
Prix de Rome
Debussy won but didn't give a concert, Ravel never
Frank Furness, Provident Life and Trust Company, Philadelphia 1876-1879
Strange carpel columns with Corinthian decorations and polychromatic and visible cast-iron beams
LaBrouste and Furness both question: should architects be shy or not about use of new technology? Should they expose the material they are using?
What are two features of the Rite of Spring
Mixed meters, polymeters
Frank Lloyd Wright, Larkin building, Buffalo, N.Y. 1902-1906, perspective drawing and interior.
Office building built in an industrial area; mailing office
Inward looking aspect; the company's dominant work force was female
Few windows on the outside, and office all looking towards the central part of the building
Window on the top, bringing in light
Column design: intricate decoration and two strange spheres (similar to the Sezession) -- connection with European avant-garde movement
How did people feel while listening to Wagner's mu
A prolonged sense of longing... like falling in lo
Chardin,Saying Grace,1740
16th Century
french revolution
El Greco
16th Century
The Crucible
Arthur Miller
Jean-Baptiste Greuze,The Village Bride, Salon of 1761
Pre Romantic
Classical Elements-polished expression of ideas-balanced parallel structure-sophisticated vocab-allusions to mythology-inverted sentence structureRomantic Elements-focus on nature-values common folk-expression of personal feelings, emotion-individual personal point of viewin Elegy, he writes about how it's no better being rich because you die in the end anyway, and thats no better than the commonfolk.
This religious group dominated Parliament during the English Civil War and the successive commenwealth.
Pierre-Denis Martin,Assembly of the Academie,early 18th century
The Grapes of Wrath
John Steinback
Decorative shapes by trimming shrubs or trees.
Italian unification
made possible by:
-leadership of Cavour
-military support of Napoleon III
-failure of Great Britain to intervene
-military victories of Garibaldi
Jacques-Louis David,
The Oath of the Horatii
Salon of 1785, France
watson and the shark, copley, 1778
Who was skeptical of pro musicians?
15th century
Start of the Age of Exploration
The Great Elector
Nickname for Prussian elector Frederick William because he had permanent standing army, used for tax collection and as policemen, and made Prussia an absolutist state.
splendid isolationism
British foriegn policy after Crimean War
Maurice-Quentin de La Tour Madame de Pompadour Salon of 1755, pastel
the death of general wolfe, west, 1770
The Catcher in the Rye
J. D. Salinger
Fluttering tongue
wind instrument technique in which the tongue is fluttered against the roof of the mouth, used in Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring
Navigation Acts
Passed to undermine the Dutch merchant marine, by requiring goods traveling to England to be in English ships or ships of the country of origin.
Frankfurt Assembly
Early attempt at German unity, offered King Frederick William IV the throne. He refused the "Crown from the gutter" because they proposed to include Austria
Security Council
This United Nations agency has the greatest role within international relations
An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard
Thomas Gray
a foot of three syllables, two short followed by one long in quantitative meter, and two unstressed followed by one stressed in accentual meter, as in for the nonce.
Frederick William I
Prussian "Soldier King" who beefed up Prussian military. Tall soldiers.
Crimean War
fought over control of Black Sea as the Ottoman Empire weakened- Russia vs. Ottomans, France, and Great Britain
Tom Turpin
Wrote music that appealed to the fact that America
falling band
soft collar that stood on top of the shirt collar
Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie house, Chicago 1906-1910, project.
House for an industrial family
Element: flat roof that protrudes from the mass of the building
Wright style: using simple geometrical elements to create something complex
Blue notes
Flat 3 or 7 usually, usually played in the melody
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
North, allied with USSR, attack South in 1950 (Korean War), independence as communist state afterwards
McKim Mead and White, Pennsylvania Station, New York 1902-1911, the main
Champion of the past
MMW realized the importance of technology
Penn Station: external had classical references; internal has reference to technological references
Gottschalk's Home Country
Poeme Electronique
Synthesized sounds. (Think of space?)
-Uses "live" sounds and is assimilated into an electronic composition, and the manipulated.
American Banmasters Association founded in 1930. promoted bands and band music including professional traing for conductors and standardization of ensembles.
Cardew, Cornelius
English, 1936-1981

Composer; Arranger of numbers from Peking Operas, revolutionary songs, etc.; Author of Treatise Handbook; Editor of a number of publications including Stockhousen Serves Imperialism, 1974. 

Served as assistant to Stockhausen, particularly on the score of Carre for four choral-orchestral groups.  


Stockhausen had an influence on his first works, but from 1960, he moved more toward Cage.  This period culminating in the beautifully drawn Treatis for unspecified forces.

In 1969, he founded the Scratch Orchestra, a group of amateurs who gave rough and ready performances of music new and old 
Coolege Band Directors National Association founded 1942. promoted bands and band music, including professional training for conductors and standardization of music ensembles. They promoted the concept of the concert band (symphonic band) as a vehicle for serious concert music.
Suite from the Ballet "Pulcinella"
-orchestral colors are clear and simple
-the beginning features an oboe/clarinet sound
-you can hear either mainly clarinet or sad violins
Music for Sarah
for solo flute
Key clicks can be heard (there's even a section of just key tapping and just some wind blowing). Shows her interest in dance.
Busoni, Ferruccio
Italian, 1866-1924

Italian pianist, conductor and composer.

A child prodigy, he toured Europe playing Bach, Beethoven and Liszt.

He also conducted a series of concerts containing music of his contemporaries.

Much of his music is based on music of the past, and his most famous composition are the Bach Chaconne in d minor for solo violin and Toccata and Fugue in d minor for organ, both arranged for piano.

He also influenced Edgar Varese by his "Sketch of a New Aesthetic of music" (division of octave in more than 12 degrees)
Harris, Roy
American composer (1896-1981)
His music is noted for its skillful use of counterpoint.

Harris employed traditional tonal material but avoided the use of key signatures.  In effect, he wrote in a key without saying so.
Sometimes his themes are based on American folk songs, altough the tunes are usually no longer recognizable.

The most successful symphony of his is No. 3 (1938).

His works also include many chamber compositions, several ballets, choral music, and numerous pieces for piano
Thompson, Virgil

1896-1989, American composer.
He spent time in France studying with Nadie Boulanger and met Satie, Cocteau, and "Les Six".

He met Gertrude Stein and began to collaborate.  They collaborated on Susie Asado, Preciosilla, Capital Capitals and an operas Four Saints in Three Acts and The Mother of Us All (based on the life of Susan B. Anthony).
His music often makes allusion to Protestant hymns, popular song, and folk dances.

His instrumental works inculde a violin sonata, two string quartets, a series of instrumental potraits of friends and others. 
France. Opposed being called an "Impressionist". However, was an Impressionist Composer.
Erik Satie
Satiristic Avant-garde composer who wittily upends the conventional ideas. Instead of the romantic notions of expressivity and individuality and variety, his pieces are all ostenatiously plain and unemotional, using the same slow tempo, similar modal harmonies and puzzling dynamics.
Wrote directions in his music for his players such as withdraw your hand and put it in your pocket, or "that's wonderful!" or "heavy as a sow" used to satirize the music of his contemporaries in their descriptive and programmatic music.
Wrote pieces titled "Three pieces on the Form of a Pear" which was actually seven pieces; "Automatic Discriptions"; Dessicated Embryos which was a moking "quotation from the celebrated mazurka of Shubert (actually it was Chopin's funeral march).
He was a signifiant inspiration for the American avant-garde composers Virgil Thomson and John Cage as well as French composers Milhaud and Poulenc.
Le Tombeau de Couperin
Prelude (Piano version)
-Feathery quality
-Blur of impressionist music, yet also neo-classic
-Piano reflects interest in harpsichord.
-Hands on piano remained mostly in middle of keyboard.
the presence of all tonal centers
Whose works have been highly influential in regard to indeterminancy in music?
Delius, Frederick

1862-1934, An English composer.
His music combines features of both romanticism and impressionism, as well as making use of native English materials.
His best works are short pieces portraying the English countryside, such as his On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring and  The Walk to the Paradise Garden (from his opera A Village Romeo and Juliet).
He also adapted various folk elements to his music, as in Appalachia (he lived in the US for a year), Brigg Fair, and North Country Sketches.
Although the forms he used were those of the romantic period, Delius employed a number of devices made popular by the impressionists, notably dissonant harmonies and the whole-tone scale 
Ligeti, Gyorgy
b.1923, Transylvanian composer who studied in Jungary.
Like Penderecki, he worked with clusters, but unlike Penderecki (who treated clusters as "solid" blockes of sound made up of undifferentiated individual parts), Ligeti formed his clusters from separate components that changed constantly to produce subtly transofrming internal patterns.
In this type of composition with planes of sound, or Klanflachenkomposition, the clear articulation of melody, harmony, and rhythm are abandoned (though still notated ) in favor of the timbre and texture of the sound itself.

Ligeti's Atmospheres (1961) is in this style.  Some of his later compositions use microtones. 
Nielsen, Carl
1865-1931, Danish composer and contemporary of Sibelius.
Like Sibelius, he built his work firmly upon the foundation of the 19th c. symphonic tradition, renouncing the innovations introduced by other composers.
His six symphonies are true to established classical formal categories, with triadic models supporting a traditional tonal structure.
His music generally avoids excessive chromaticism, favoring lightness and textural transparencym, whcih creates an almost "Classical" character quite different from the earlier Russian and German symphonists, and from Sibelius.
His also composed two operas, concertos for violin, flute, and clarinet, and chamber works, including a woodwind quintet.
Developing Variation
The continuous evolution and transformation of the thematic substance, strictly avoiding literal repetition.  It is related to the concept of "musical prose".

Both concepts are used by Schoenberg in his First Quartet. 
(Verdi) - about Nebuchadnezzar and oppression of Israelites - Italy also oppressed and not a country until 185?
Russia. Published a number of books throughout his career in addition to music.
John Cage
Leading composer and philosopher of the postwar avant-garde. From his earlier experimetation with percussion mosuc and the prepared piano, he turned in the 50s and 60s to ever more radical reconceptions of music. He strongly opposed the museum-like preservation of music from the past and argued for music that focused the listener's attention on the pressent moment. His main strategy for accompolishing this were chance, indeterminacy and the blurring of boundaries between music , art and life.
nondigetic music
sometimes called underscoring. This is background music that conveys to the viewer a mood or other aspects of a scene or  character in film.
Pierrot Lunaire (what’s “lunaire”? Who’s Pierrot?)
the mythical tortured clown
"the disassociated images of a dream"
Who was the main developer of serialism?
What German composer was the early leader in the developments in electronic music?
Hindemith, Paul
A German Composer (1895-1963) who became one of the outstanding musical figures of the first half of the 20th century

He left Germany for the US during the 1940s and later became a United States citizen.
He developed various styles in more than 40 years as a compsoer.
His early works, such as Suite 1922 for piano, reflect his rebellion against the 19th century romantic tradition, expressed mainly in his use of dissonant harmonies.

Gradually he began to adopt elements of the music of earlier periods, particulrly the counterpoint of the baroque and the polyphony of the Renaissance.

Active as a teacher and theorist, Hindemith was also an excellent violist, and he began to write for older instruments (such as the viola d'amore) and to perform in and direcet presentations of early music.
At the same time he formed new views concerning the ocmposer's place in society, coming to believe that music should be directed to the people who listen to it and perform it, not just to composers and professionla musician.  He became a leading advocates of Gebrauchmusick, and durin ght e1920's and 1930's wrote many works for soloists and small ensembles to be performed by amateurs and studnets.
Among these are sonatas; chamber works, a children's opera Wir Baueb eine Stadt.
His major works include the operas Cardillac, Mathis der Maler, and Die Harmonie der Welt, a symphony based on Mathis der Maler; Ludus Tonalis, a set of 12 fugues for piano.

Also wrote an important 2-vol. book om compositon, The Craft of Musiclal Composition (Unterweisung im Tonsazt_
Metrical modulation
A rhythmic technique devised by Elliott Carter, and first employed in his Cello Sonata (1948).  
The term (not coined by Carter) is actually a misnomer, since what is changed is not meter but tempo; the basic pulse is altered by taking some fractional subdivision (or multiple) of its total value and treating that as a new pulse of different value.
The result is a proportional shift in rate of pulse - in other words, a change of tempo 
Shostakovich, Dmitri
1906-1975, From his earliest years, Shostakovich believed that music should have an ideological function and he strove to reach as large an audience as possible.

His fateful opera, Lady MacBeth of the Mtsensk Districk, met with initail success but was later the cause of his being attached by the Party in Pravda.

Soviet music from this point forward (1936) took a very repressive tone.

Shostakovish entitled his Fifth Symphony the composer's "creatuve abswer ti hystufued crutucusn."
Shostakovich's  style features an essentially tonal language, but one which is extremely chromatic and features the use of "dissonant counterpoint".

His music also displays an amazing arrays of affects, ranging from despair (Symphonies 5, 8, and 10, String Quartet 8) to gaiety  (Symphonies 9.15)
Ptich continuum
or pitch-space
a term used by analysts of twentieth century music to describe the division of all audible musical space into half-step increments.
Thus, pitch-space or the pitch continuum constitutes all audible musical pitches.
It is distinguished from all audible musical sound (which is not divided into half-step increments) and pitch-class space (in which register is ignored and only the twelve pitch-classes are considered)
Sibelius 1865-1957
Finnish - bleak, austere terrain, matches personality? main composer responsible for spreading symphonies around Scandinavia, kalevalah
Italy. Was born in Italy, but moved with father to France the day after he was born, so was recorded as "Born a Frenchman"
Ondes Martenot
invented in 1928 by Maurice Mrtenot. Was controlled by a wire, ribbon or keyboard. Like the Theremin, produced one not at a time, and were capable of glissandos along the entire pitch continuum. Both produced haunting, almost voice-like sound. Featured in some orchestral works, they became common in film scores like Hitchcock's Spellbound, where they lent an eerie or futuristic effect, but they were not used in electronic music itself.
Gustav Mahler
Known for as a leading Austro0German composer of symphonies after brahms and Bruckner and one of the Great master of the song for voice and orchesta. He made his living as a conductor, renowned for his dynamism, precision and expressivity. After conduction at numerous opera houses, he directed the Vienna Opera for 10 years, the Metropolitan Opera in New York for 3 years and the New York Philharmonic for 2 years. Was a prime influence on Schoenberg, Berg, Webern and other Viennese composers.
Le Tombeau de Couperin
Rigaudon (Piano)
Piano sounds like it's dancing/jumping around. Lots of dynamics from the piano. Half way through it softens up to piano volume and gets louder near the end.
What is white noise?
All possible frequencies sounding simultaneously
Who played a decisive roll in the development of music in Mexico during the second quarter of the 20th century?
As a reaction to the complexity of serialism, it is a style which is intentionally limited, whether in terms of rhythm, melody, harmony.
However, in contrast to the compression and constant change of serial music, the length of these compositions is anything but minimal.
One of the pioneers of the movement is La Monte Young, with The Tortoise: his dreams and journeys.
Terry Riley, an outgrowth of La Monte Young's ensemble, experimented in Mescalin Mix, with a tape loop of repetitions of short phrases against a continuous regular pulse and piling these up on another.
Steve Reich is perhaps the best known of minimalists, used a quasi-canonic procedure whereby musicians lay the same material slightly out of phase with each other.
Other prominent minimalists include Philip Glass and John Adam
Kandinsky, Wassily
A leading figure in the expressionist movement

He was the first major artist to create completely non-representational painting, in Munich during the years immediately preceding World War I.

His 1914 oil Winter (painting Number 201) suggests something of the nature of the season through the descriptive powers of abstract menas.
He and Schoenberg exhcanged ideas. 
Peer Gynt
Grieg - Norweigan peasant (play for which he provided incidental music, then became more)
George Crumb
  (1929) Created new sound out of ordinary instruments and objects. Wrote Ancient Voices of Children, a cycle of four songs on poems by Federico Garcia Lorca with two instrumental interludes, unusual sound sources include toy piano, musical saw, harmonica, mandolin, Tibetan prayer stones, Japaniese timple bells, and electric piano. Created special effects also from conventional instruments such as players must bend pitch of the piano by applying a chisel to the strings, thread paper in the harp strings, and tune the mandolin a quarter tone flat.
Used many other extended techniques. His music always has a musical purpose such as to help express his reations to the Vietnam conflict, the social unrest oint he United States and the horrors of wars.
Sergei Rachmaninov
Russian composer but made his home in US after Russian revolution. Vertuoso pianist. Held on to classical and romantic traditions but with a popular twist.
What is Hindemith’s book on the philosophy of music?
A Composers World
Who are the principle exponents of minimalist music?
Riley and Glass
Tristan & Isolde (Prelude)
(Wagner) all blown away like insubstantial dream - one thing left: LONGING -symbolized by long musical phrases, only cure is death, longing without ever being able to arrive
Chromatic Saturation
Method used by Hugo Wolf where he used all twelve chromatic notes while maintaining tonality.
The appearance of a note that has not recently been sounded can give a sense of moving forward harmonically. As a corollary, once the twelfth chromatic note has appeared, there can be a sense of fullness and completion, which Wolf in a tonal context and Schoenberg in an atonal context usd to reinforce the feeling of completion a phrase.
Who were the composers of the FIRST
Viennese School?)
Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven
Cocteau, Jean
A french poet and author of the early 20th century.
He brought forth an influential essay in 1918 entitled "Cock and Harlequin" in which he said that "Satie teaches what, in our age, is the greatest audacity - simplicity."  He warned not only against the influences of German music (Wagnarian fog) but also the impressionistic leanings of his own countrymen (Debussian mist and theatrical mysticism, "Rite of Spring").
Cocteau extoled the virtues of "everyday" music which would have the flavor of the street, the circus, and jazz.
Cocteau not only helped Satie's rise to fame, but he also penned a ballet, which Satie set to music and which the Ballet Russe performed.  It was entitled Parade, which featured jazz music and the antics of street entertainers and acrobats.
Rimsky-Korsakov. Who was he?
The father of a fellow student of Stravisnky and leading composer of the RUssian nationalist school.
What are the significant characteristics of Prokofiev’s music?
1. Nationalism is present but is mingled with Classic and Modern features.2. He used traditional forms and was adept at motivic development.3.His music is tonal, with lyrical but angular melodies, strong motor rhythm, and sudden modulations to unexpected keys.4. Bosso ostinato occurs frequently.5. The instrumental writing is idiomatic.6. Fuller sonority is achieved by having dissimilar instruments double the passage.7. Symphonies include piano and harp.
What is the philosophy of expressionistic composition?
A composer sought to express inner feelings and created atonal/pantonal works in which the music is abstract and intense and traditional harmony and formal patterns are distorted or ignored.
How did Stravinsky use rhythm?
He based rhythms on the constancy of a minimum value and used multiples of that, making whatever adjustments were necessary in meter signatures and bar line placements.
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