ESCI Quiz 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Vasco Da Gamma
sedimentary rock undergoes melting because of pressure and changes into_ rock
3.5 % or 35 ppt
________ very dense, solidified, iron-rich alloy.
inner core
the measure of porosity AND tortuosity
metamorphic rock
transformation of pre-existing solid rock under the influence of change in environmental conditions; compositional change, not just physical
Sir Martin Frobisher
Searched for NW passage
Spring Tides
Sun and moon are aligned
53. ______________ is associated with frigid regions at high latitudes.a. Creep/b. Debris flowc. Solifluction/d. Earth flowe. none of these
Lower mantle
D layer--amount of pressure increases because of the weight of the rock above. Stronger as we travel towards the core
Which of the following is/are most susceptible to chemical weathering by dissolution?
Sea Snake, 54 different species, found from south tip of Africa to India to South East Asian Islands to Japan to north half of Australia, primarily tropical habitat, coastal estuaries, coral reefs, open sea, 33-36 degrees celsius
Ocean Layers
Shallow- 2%
Transition- 18% thermo and halo
Deep- 80%
30. Karst topography is mainly the result of acid precipitation meeting and dissolving the limestone bedrock.a. Trueb. False
49. The controlling force of mass wasting is ___________a. water/b. gravityc. composition of surface materiald. earthquake activitye. none of these
Geosphere(solid earth)
from surface to center of the earth
A ________ is an erosional feature specifically produced by alpine glaciation.
U-shaped valley
carbon dating
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
Global Conveyor belt
continuous deep water current; takes 1,000 years to flip ocean; begins in N. Atlantic
Benthopelagic Fishes
The Open Ocean, bottom living fishes, 200m to 8000m, neutrally buoyant
22. When sediment is floating in a stream creating “murky” water, the sediment is moving (transported) as part of its _____________ load.a. dissolvedb. suspendedc. bedd. sortinge. flooding
41. Mid-ocean ridges display what types of plate boundaries?a. divergent and convergentb. convergent and transformc. transform and subductived. divergent and transforme. only convergent
divergent and transform
Four spheres of the earth are?
Hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere(solid earth)
shield volcano
layers of basalt lava flows; occurs at mid-plate hot spot
Sea Snake Osmoregulation
skin is impermeable to salts; salts eliminated by sublingual gland
77. New igneous rock is formed at the mid-ocean ridges as magma rises and cools.a. Trueb. False
upper mantle is composed of _ different layers
lithosphere(rigid outer shell) asthenosphere(weaker) and Transition zone
The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be ________.
solid iron-nickel alloy
Which kind of volcanism is typical of mid-oceanic ridge systems?
submarine; basaltic lava flows
Shallow Water Wave
a wave that occurs in an area where the depth of the water is equal to 1/20 or less of the wavelength
99. The degree of destruction caused by an earthquake is influenced by ___a. ground typeb. dist from the earthquakec. building designd. ground type and building designe. ground type, distance from the earthquake, and building design
ground type, distance from the earthquake, and building design
The P-wave shadow zone is largely the result of ________.
refraction of P waves crossing the mantle-outer core boundary
Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th and 18th century proponents of catastrophism envision the Earth's age?
They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates.
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