*Assess student’s strengths/weaknesses.
*Teach based on needs.
*Adjust instruction based on how well student responds and learns.
|Response Project Ideas||
-Mural, mobile, collage
-Dramatizations/Dress up as character
|Elements of Comprehension||
*Background Knowledge of Genre and Subject
*Decoding and Vocabulary Knowledge
-Marzano – Background knowledge is represented by vocabulary.
-“the process of analyzing our own comprehension processes or ‘thinking about thinking’ ”
-Strategy to repair understanding-- rereading
-Helps us make predictions about what to expect
Q. and A.
Show and Tell
Predictable texts/whole texts
|Assessing Student Work||
*Assessments should reflect activities
*Include experiments/oral work demonstrations/drawing
*Consider using portfolios
-Systematic plan for evaluation
-Communicate standards to students AND parents
-Student choice in samples to include for evaluation
Knowledge of students – strengths, linguistic and literacy levels, learning preferences
Ongoing assessment – before, during, after instruction
Classroom climate – respectful and caring
Variety and flexibility in organization, materials and grouping
|“Developed in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, this method also emphasizes childlike experimentation with ESL. The physical setting must be relaxing and aesthetically pleasing. Music, art, drama, yoga, and physical exercise are used to encourage relaxation,||
student work samples
|Strategies to Support Beginning Readers (b)||
*Illustrating Stories and Poems
-Allows all levels of students to participate
-Provides opportunities to respond to literature
*Shared Reading with Big Books
-Simulates “lap reading” in larger setting
-Can be used for explicit instruction in conventions of print, word recognition, etc.
|Postreading Strategies (semantic feature analysis):||
*Semantic Feature Analysis
-Graphic method of listing and analyzing critical attributes of a particular category or concept
-Particularly useful for abstract relationships
-Related visual strategies
|Word Wall Ideas for Beginners||
*High frequency/survival words
*Include pictures with the words
*New words from a unit or theme
*Words from the same word family
*Group the words into categories: alphabetically, by theme, etc.
*Students should keep personal dictionaries
|To Know a Word||
*Distinction between L,S,R,W
*What does it sound like? How is it pronounced? How is written? What does it mean? Does it change meaning depending on the context?
*Depth and breadth of word knowledge – gradual process over time
|Postreading Strategies (rehearsing)||
*Reformulation or re-presentation of information to self or others
-Paraphrasing and writing
-Using Venn diagrams
*read with a purpose in mind,
*mentally process word sequences & sentences to construct meaning,
*use prior knowledge of text content and genre and
*monitor their own understanding as they read
|Peer Response Groups||
*Focus on content.
*Model appropriate responses.
-Share sample papers on overhead.
-Talk about literature.
-Find something positive!
*Give students techniques to help one another.
-Lead, focus, voice, show not tell, ending
-Six + 1 traits -- ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, and presentation
*Provide a structure and clear guidelines.
|More about Text Structure||
*Headings and Subheadings
-setting, characters, conflict, sequence of events, denouement (problem resolution)
-the act of reflecting on one’s own thinking
-includes the ability to monitor one’s own comprehension of the text and knowing
|“Sometimes the term immersion is used in referring to this method but this use of the word should not be confused with immersion bilingual programs, in which there is always substantial native-language support in school. The direct method focuses on tot||
Jigsaw (Aronson, 1978)
Spencer Kagan (Kagan, 1994) structures to facilitate student learning
Structures are included for content tasks that promote teambuilding, classbuilding, mastery, thinking skills, information sharing, and communication skills.
Example: Think-Pair-Share, Numbered Heads Together
|Oral Language Proficiency Test Barriers to Success||
Reciting Numbers in Sequence
Conjugating Irregular Verbs
Culturally-bound Items – “What season is Mother’s Day?”
direct observation and measurement of the desired behavior
Texas Primary Reading Inventory, Tejas LEE, TAKS writing, TELPAS writing
|Reading Assessment (IRI)||
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) - commercially available assessment tool.
-Includes sets of passages of gradually increasing difficulty, PK-6.
-Following each passage is a set of comprehension questions for students to answer.
-Goal is to continue until a passage is reached where student has difficulty.
|Teaching Vocabulary: What Works?||
*Class discussions, cooperative groups, songs, chants
*Access to a variety of fiction and expository books of varied reading levels
*Computer assisted instruction
*Direct instruction by the teacher
|Interactions with Text||
*Rosenblatt sees two types of interaction with texts -
-Efferent- purpose is to carry away information
-Aesthetic- purpose is to be emotionally moved or to experience the text
*Teachers can facilitate comprehension by stating explicitly what students are to gain and what they are to do with what they’ve read.
|Process Writing and Scaffolding||
*Empowers students by
-Allowing choice in topic
-Valuing student voices
-Allowing student collaboration
-Not necessarily most effective approach (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001)
How many words in English language?
Depends on what counts as a word. Most conservative estimate - 200,000
First 1,000 highest frequency words account for 84% words we hear in conversation PLUS
Next 1,000 highest frequency words account for 90% of words we hear in conversation and 78% of words in texts
Note: To comprehend academic texts – need to understand 95% of the words
|Language Exposure Gap||
*Graves & Slater – (1987)
-1st graders from high SES homes know twice as many words as 1st graders from low SES homes.
*Hart and Risley study (1995)-
-Average child- (native English speakers)
-Low SES family – hears 3 million words per year
-High SES family – 11 million words per year
|Behaviors for Reading Success||
-Develop background knowledge
-Set a purpose for reading
-Organize information to remember what was read
|Working with errors||
Fluency feeds into correctness and into form and they all feed into each other, but to obtain correctness you need scaffolds, modeling, and direct instruction
over 3,000 years ago by the Phoenicians
|“Developed by Charles Curran, this method is based on principles from humanistic psychology. The most important goal is creation of a cooperative learning community, in which students are responsible for each other. On the first day, learners are seated||
Community Language Learning
are to be implemented as an integral part of the instruction in each foundation and enrichment subject of the TEKS.
|Oral Language for Intermediate||
Grammatical abilities are still developing.
Avoid the tendency to constantly correct them during a conversation.
Interact as appropriate while modeling correct grammar, syntax, word usage.
|Krashen’s Five Hypotheses||
Based on Innatist theory.
Acquisition versus learning.
Monitor– formal study – 3 conditions needed
Natural order – the rules of a language acquired in a predictable order.
Comprehensible input – understandable but a bit beyond current proficiency level.
Affective filter - learning environment needs to be supportive and low anxiety. Focus should be on communication not form. “Silent period” should be allowed.
|Developmental Phases in L2 Reading||
*Stages are not clearly delineated
-Intersection of age, L1 literacy, and L2 proficiency
*Beginning L2 Readers
-Just starting to pull meaning from short texts
-May be struggling with English alphabet and spelling patterns
-Have a small sight word vocabulary
-Can read predictable texts, but comprehension is still at sentence level
|Peer Editing and Publishing||
*Focus on mechanics.
*For ELLs, set clear guidelines on what to look for.
-Provide a checklist of the features that students should know.
-Update it regularly.
*Publishing can take many forms.
-Class and individual books
-Charts, posters, pamphlets
|Postreading Strategies (other)||
*Deep Practice (Daniel Coyle – The Talent Code)
-Journals and Learning logs (Teacher should respond about once a week)
|Evaluating Emergent Literacy Development||
-Use several work samples gathered over time.
-Focus on what student can do.
-Checklists are a starting point. Unless they are mandated, feel free to adapt them to your context.
|“is still used my many teachers who are not native speakers of English and who feel less comfortable with their level of proficiency in English. The students’ L1 is used a great deal to explain the grammatical structures of English, to define vocabula||
|Bilingual Programs (native language used)||
Transitional (for lang. minority students) – called Traditional in HISD
Maintenance (lang. min. students) – called Developmental in HISD
Immersion (lang. majority students) – goal is bilingualism
Two way immersion (lang. minority & majority students)
Newcomer programs (recent immigrants) Designed to support initial adjustment to the country, short term. Goal -- to prepare students to succeed in regular school setting.
|Principles for Authentic Assessment||
(Ruddell & Ruddell, 1995)
Based on authentic tasks
Tied directly to curriculum standards, instructional goals and teaching
Should take into account learner characteristics and needs
Collaborative – allow student self-evaluation
Based on current research and theory about language, literacy and learning
|Jerome Bruner (1915 -- )||
Support structured by the adult to help students successfully complete a task
Gradually withdrawn as students approach mastery of the skill or task
|Developing Topics/Project Ideas||
*Allow for as much student choice as possible
-Embed abstract concepts in real-life contexts
-Written and Oral Collaborative Research – Oral Histories
-KWL+ (Organizing the “L” into a coherent format)
|Marzano’s 6 Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction (2005)||
*Teacher provides a description, explanation, or example of the new word or term.
-restate the explanation in their own words.
-create a nonlinguistic representation of the word.
-engage in activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms.
-are asked to discuss the terms with one another.
-are involved in games that allow them to play with the terms.
|Which Words to Teach?||
Use direct instruction ONLY for words that
-are important to text comprehension
-occur frequently in the text
-can be generalized to other contexts
|Semantic Feature Analysis example:||
Types of governments vs. features of such governments
|Key Features of Each Proficiency Level (TEA, 2009)||
-Little or no ability
-Limited ability, simple language structures, high-frequency vocabulary, routine contexts
-Grade appropriate, with second language acquisition support
-Grade appropriate, with minimal second language acquisition support
|Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System||
(TELPAS): required for all LEP students even those who have waived special language program services
|So, what do we do for writing development? (Intermediate)||
*Show Not Tell
*Sentence Modeling (from literature)
*Mind Mapping/Graphic Organizers
|Literature Circles: Not Just Another 12-Step Program (a)||
*Students choose their own reading materials.
*Small, temporary groups are formed, based on book choice.
*Different groups read different books.
*Groups meet on a regular, predictable schedule to discuss their reading.
*Kids use written or drawn notes to guide reading and discussion.
*Discussion topics come from the students.
|Meaningful Differences (Hart and Risley 1995)||
Many similarities across SES in the ways parents interacted with children
*Number of words heard by age 3
Professional families – about 30 million
Working class families – about 20 million
Welfare families – 10 million
|What to Do for L2 Beginning Readers||
*Regardless of L1 literacy level, beginning readers need
-Immersion in reading and writing for readily perceived purposes
-Practice in sound/symbol correspondence in English and English print conventions
|Ferreiro & Teberosky (1982): How writing develops||
-Writing does not serve to transmit information. No distinction between writing and drawing.
-Fixed number and variety of characters. Letters of child’s own name often used.
-Each letter stands for one syllable. Vowels are stable and conventional.
-Children move from syllabic to alphabetic hypotheses.
-More consonants added to words.
-Children segment subject and predicate. Children notice characters within syllables. They begin to make orthographic distinctions between s and z, ll and y, and k, c and qu.
|Alphabetic Principle: Language sounds are represented by letters and letter sequences.||
Phoneme -- the smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning in a language.
Grapheme -- the letter or letter combination such as “d” or “th” that represents that sound (Stahl, 1992).
Phonemic awareness- understanding that individual sounds that constitute spoken words. Different languages have different phonologies.
|IRI Yields three levels of reading performance-||
1. independent - relatively easy for student, 98% word recognition & 90% comprehension
2. instructional - 95% word recognition, 70% comprehension
3. frustration - 90% word recognition, below 70% comprehension