ethics and values Flashcards

Terms Definitions
utilitarianism
Consequentialist theory
-value of action depends on it usefullness- greatest good for the greatest amount of people- ie healthcare reform
beneficence
to do or promote good
The application of ethical principals to healthcare.
Bioethics
Something that one accepts as true.
a)attitude
b)belief
c)value
d)moral
b)belief
Mental dispositions or feelings toward a person, object, or idea.
a)attitudes
b)beliefs
c)values
d)morals
a)attitudes
According to professional ethics, your first allegiance is to whom?
The patient
Compensatory justice
Focuses on compensation for wrongs that have been done to individuals- malpractice suits usually incur these
Ethics of care
Nursing philosophy- responsibility to care as part of professional behavior
-attending to particulars, promoting dignity,
-code of ethics in action and standards of care tell you how to practice within this philosophy
Nonmaleficence
- Maleficence refers to harm or hurt

- Nonmaleficence is the avoidance of harm or hurt

- The will to do good and also equal commitment to do no harm

- The commitment to provide least harmful interventions illustrates nonmaleficence
Feminist Ethics
- Critiques conventional ethics such as deontology and utilitarianism
It focuses on inequalities between people

- Proposes that principles distract you from dealing with larger issues of community

- Propose that the natural human urge to be influenced by relationships is a positive value
A person's right to choose and his ability to act on that choice.
a)autonomy
b)beneficence
c)nonmaleficence
d)fidelity
a)autonomy
we attempt to understand our own values regarding an issue and know when to put them aside to become nonjudgmental when providing care to patients.
Value neutrality
Systems of thought (theories) that are the basis for the differing perspectives people have in ethical situations.
moral frameworks
Values clarification
Process of becoming conscious of and naming ones values
- Nurse acts on these within self and when a patient is non compliant
Value
Is a personal belief about the worth of a given idea, attitude, custom, or object that sets standards that influence behavior

Ethics
- Is the study of conduct and character

- Concerned with determining what is good or valuable for individuals
What mode of value transmission best describes the followAing:
A child is given an ice cream cone for being good in the grocery store
a)moralizing
b)modeling
c)laissez-faire
d)responsible choice
e)reward & punishment
e)reward & punishment
What is consequentialism?
The rightness or wrongness of an action depends on the consequences of the act rather than on the act itself.
Allocating Scarce Resources
- Key issue in discussions about access to care
- Organ transplants, vaccines, blood
Advocacy
- Refers to the support of a cause
- You advocate for the health, safety, and rights of the client

- Follow institutional policies and procedures to report any occurrence of incompetent, unethical, illegal, or impaired practice by any health care member that has the potential to affect client health or safety
A set of values that you have reflected on and chosen that will help you lead a good life.
a)attitudes
b)beliefs
c)personal value system
d)morals
c)personal value system
The value of an action as right or wrong is independent of its consequences. (i.e., based on moral rules and unchanging principles)
a)deontology
b)consequentialism
c)values system
d)utilitarianism
a)deontology (aka formalism)
Give three reasons that nurses should study ethics.
1. Nurses will encounter ethical problems frequently in their work.
2. Ethics is central to nursing.
3. Multidisciplinary input is important.
4. Ethical knowledge is necessary for professional competence.
5. Ethical reasoning is necessary for nursing to be taken seriously by other disciplines.
6. Ethical proficiency is essential for providing holistic care.
7. Nurses should be advocates for patients.
8. Studying ethics will help you make better decisions.
What are three characteristics of values?
1. are freely chosen
2. are often taken for granted
3. are learned in conscious and unconscious ways
4. are learned through observation and experience in social groups
5. become a part of a person's makeup
6. Give direction to life
7. Can be individual or shared
8. Vary from person to person
9. Can change over time
10. May be expressed overtly or manifested indirectly
Moral frameworks affect moral decisions
Are systems of thought that offer a basis for how to act in a certain moral situations but don’t give specific answers
What does the ethics-of-care model emphasize?
the role of feelings, but not at the expense of the principles that are part of conventional ethics, such as autonomy and beneficence
veracity
to tell the truth
justice
The obligation to be fair
The obligation to keep promises (faithfulness).
a)autonomy
b)beneficence
c)nonmaleficence
d)fidelity
d)fidelity
Do no harm and prevent harm.
a)autonomy
b)beneficence
c)nonmaleficence
d)fidelity
c)nonmaleficence
The duty to do or promote good.
a)autonomy
b)beneficence
c)nonmaleficence
d)justice
b)beneficence
Procedural justice
Relevant in processes that require ranking or ordering "first com first serve"
consequentialism
The rightness or wrongness of the action depends on the consequences
-also called teleology- meaning study of ends
Responsibility
- Refers to willingness to respect obligations and to follow through on premises
- You are responsible for your actions
Confidentiality
- In health care has widespread acceptance in US

- HIPAA mandates the confidential protection of clients’ personal health information
When nurses make moral decisions but are unable to carry them out.
a)impaired nursing practice
b)moral distress
c)whistleblower
d)moral outrage
b)moral distress
The following is an example of which moral principle?
being careful to prevent medication errors
a)autonomy
b)beneficence
c)nonmaleficence
d)fidelity
c)nonmaleficence
nursingg ethics
Formal process for making logical and consistent moral decisions
Compliance Officer
Responsible for making sure that the institution remains in compliance with health care standards and regulations
Quality of Life
Central to discussions about futile care, cancer therapy, physician-assisted suicide, and DNR
Fidelity
- Refers to the agreement to keep promises
- Supports the reluctance to abandon clients
- Includes an obligation to follow through with care offered to clients
- Assess a client for pain, offer a plan to manage the pain
- Monitor the client’s response to the plan
Making a list of pros and cons and deciding which action will result in the most benefits for the most people is and example of what type of moral framework?
a)deontology
b)consequentialism
c)values system
d)utilitarianism
d)utilitarianism
Ethical Process
- Is this an ethical dilemma?
- Gather as much information as possible that is relevant to the case
- Examine and determine your own values on the issues
- Verbalize the problem
- Consider possible courses of action
- Negotiate the outcome
- Evaluate the action
Accountability
- Refers to the ability to answer for one’s own actions
- Health care institutions also play a role in accountability by monitoring individual and institutional compliance with national standards established by The Joint Commission and the ANA
- National guidelines to ensure client safety and workplace safety through consistent, effective nursing practices
- Monitoring provision of client education about smoking cessation for all client populations
- Establishing national standards for continuing education and curriculum development for nursing schools
- Protection of ethical decision making, by requiring health care institutions to create and accessible multidisciplinary forum for discussion about ethical issues
A type of justice that is relevant in processes that require ranking or ordering.
a)compensatory justice
b)process justice
c)distributive justice
d)procedural justice
d)procedural justice
Ethic of Care
- People who write about this are often nurses or physicians
- They promote a philosophy that focuses on understanding relationships, especially personal narratives
- “the one-caring” and “the cared for”
- Emphasize the role of feelings but not at the expense of principles such as autonomy and beneficence
- His definition of care includes the obligation to appreciate, understand, and even share the pain or condition of a client

Code of Ethics
- Is a set of guiding principles that all members of a profession accept
- Codes serve as guidelines to assist professional group when questions arise about correct practice or behavior
- ANA reviews and revises the code regularly, to reflect changes in practice
What are some of the societal factors giving rise to ethical problems in nursing?
1. Increased consumer awareness.
2. Technological advances
3. Multicultural population
4. Cost containment
How values affect moral decisions
Include beliefs of what you feel is important and may shape what you feel to be correct morally while it may not be correct for you patient
Give three examples of purposes of a nursing code of ethics.
1. inform the public about the professionl's minimum standards
2. demonstrate nursing's commitment to the public it serves
3. outline major ethical considerations of nursing'
4. provide general guidelines for professional behavior
5. guide the profession's self-regulating functions
6. remind us of the special responsibility we assume in caring for the sick
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