Ethics quiz 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Noumenal Order
Causes things-in-themselves, transcends human experiences- the world is not simply a world of appearances- there must be something underlying
Types of Utilitarianism:
"1. Hedonism
AristotleBelieved human being was _______ animal
Rawl’s “veil of ignorance” implies that the less the common people know about governmental affairs, the better off they’ll be
Categorical Imperatives
Prescribes action without condition
Desire to maximize one's long-term being
Human fulfillment in the fullest sense. This involves virtue and pleasure but is not fully in a person?s control since it also involves external goods and good fortune. For Aristotle human happiness has human rationality and its exercise as essential elements in happiness. Happiness in the highest degree involves excellences or virtues of thought (intellect) as well as excellences or virtues of character. The second best kind of happiness is that of the good citizen of good moral character.
Objectivism claims that right and wrong are determined by society and social
Preference Utility
(vs. Perfectionist)- i.e. Smoking; caffeine addiction- what we want to do
Abortion is, in itself, morally neutral.

Secondary effects could raise moral consideration however
Killing versus letting die (Example)
"Paramilitary decision:
What did Marx call the Bourgeoisie?
A teleological school of thought is one that holds all things to be designed for or directed toward a final result, that there is an inherent purpose or final cause for all that exists.
ends or purposes
Man’s natural virtue: pity (apart of his human nature)Precedes self interest.
This is the object of appetite regarded as a good to be sought after. Pleasures in themselves are neither good nor bad for Aristotle but rather their goodness or badness depend on the activities which give rise to the pleasures.
• Moral Skepticism
moral knowledge is impossible to know
optimal pollution
having the greatest amount of pollution compatible with health and aesthetic concerns
Prima facie duty:
a conditional or potential duty
What does the “Irenaean” Theodicy refer to?
General evil
Objective List
"Several things exist that have intrinsic value
WHo says Euthanasia is wrong?
J. Gay Williams
an imperative requirement or need for something:
Aristotle-what is good?
that towards which all things tend
Practical reason
Reasoning which aims at working out, discovering and carrying out the right moral action determined by reason.
This is another name for Aristotle?s ethics but this name stresses that his ethical thought is about the attainment of happiness or human fulfillment. EUDAIMONIA is the Greek term which is usually translated Happiness. 
• Subjectivism
everyone has their own claim to what is right and what is wrong
Believes that what’s good is what aids my will to power
Master Morality
Rule utilitarianism:
act according to the rule whose general adoption will produce the most good
Who came up with The Cosmological Argument?
Thomas Aquinas

Spontaneous breathing marks the beginning of one's life at birth
The breathing impulse occurs much earlier than the time of one's birth.

We do not mark the end of one's life by the cessation of spontaneous breathing
Truth Telling"
"-No reason to presume anyone is telling you the truth.
What is Affirmative Action?
Giving preferential treatment to groups of people
Who goverened the Kingdom of Ireland in the 1900s?
Great Britian
Categorical imperative
Unconditional- "You aught to do B. Do B!"
what is happiness?
happiness is the full realization of our rationality
• Principle of utility criteria
the definition of utilitarianism. Maximize your pleasure, minimize your pain. Defined by Bentham.
Just war theory:
war is self-defense; if someone is attacking you, you have the right to fight back
Maximizing vs. Satisficing (Conequentialism)
Satisficing sets up a threshold; maximizing is doing all you can to get more/the most
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com11.) According to Aristotle, what is happy?
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11.) According to Aristotle, what is happy?

 Happy = creating yourself into a virtuous/good person.
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com23.) According to Aristotle, ethics is an ___.
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23.) According to Aristotle, ethics is an ___.

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 2.) Ethics of character is based on ____, ____, ____.
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2.) Ethics of character is based on ____, ____, ____.
 Person, personality, character
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20.) Elaborate on the waste of time problem.
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20.) Elaborate on the waste of time problem.

If this theory is true, than philosophy and questioning is a total waste of time.
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10.) Define command ethics.
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10.) Define command ethics.
 Command ethics is a philisophical theory that states something is right/wrong if God/Bible says so.
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com31.) Thomas Hobbes added to Egoism, his own defintion of self-interest, which is ...
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31.) Thomas Hobbes added to Egoism, his own defintion of self-interest, which is ...

 Self-interest: the belief that you will gain pleasure in either the short or long run.
Brought to you by www.MiamiManni.com2.) Elaborate on the existence problem.
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2.) Elaborate on the existence problem.
The exist of God is doubtful to a lot of people.
What did Kant conclude about consequentialist theories because conditional moral obligation is relative?
Consequentialist ethical theories cannot reveal moral absolutes
Appeal to Consequences
Abortion should not be prohibited or restricted to such an extent that women seek illegal abortions and are left to deal with the consequences.

The consequences of prohibiting abortions such as infections, sterility, death, etc, often occur when abortion is prohibited because women seek to have illegal abortions.
The Dependency Thesis:
"God's willing of an action is the reason that said action is morally right
What court case conviced the Supreme Court that US citizens to have a right to privacy?
Griswald Vs. Connecticut
We call both the sky and blue jeans by the same color: Blue. However, clearly a pair of jeans and the sky are not the same color; moreover, the wavelengths of light reflected by the sky at every location and all the millions of blue jeans in every state of fading constantly change, and yet we somehow have an idea of the basic form Blueness as it applies to them. Says Plato:[29][30]

But if the very nature of knowledge changes, at the time when the change occurs there will be no knowledge, and, according to this view, there will be no one to know and nothing to be known: but if that which knows and that which is known exist ever, and the beautiful and the good and every other thing also exist, then I do not think that they can resemble a process of flux, as we were just now supposing.

[edit] The argument from perfection

No one has ever seen a perfect circle, nor a perfectly straight line, yet everyone knows what a circle and a straight line are. Plato utilizes the tool-maker's blueprint as evidence that Forms are real:[31]

... when a man has discovered the instrument which is naturally adapted to each work, he must express this natural form, and not others which he fancies, in the material ....

Perceived circles or lines are not exactly circular or straight, and true circles and lines could never be detected since by definition they are sets of infinitely small points. But if the perfect ones were not real, how could they direct the manufacturer?
what is justice?
in particular it is habituation and it aims at a mean. justice is a state of being capable of doing just acts from choice (habitual state); it looks to the good of the other person first; the voluntary interaction between two persons; concerns the right time, dispositions, amount, etc.; resulting in each party retaining an equal amount before and after interaction.
The Dark Ages 
476-1000 A.D. 
-the fall of the Western Roman Empire 
-a period of religious struggle 
-much less art, architecture, and literature 
-have to become a monk to study philosophy
-culture flickered
-Emperor Justinian closed Plato's school on 539  A.D. 
-development of Islam 
The point of the story of the ring of Gyges is to raise the question of whether we should be just even if there were no penalties for unjust acts
6.) What do philosophers do?
6.) What do philosophers do?
They construct and analyze arguments
Analyzes the structure and form of arguments
What is the difference between Consequentialist and Non-Consequentialist Theories?
Consequentialist theories evaluate the ethical status of actions based upon their consequences
Non-Consequentialist ethical theories evaluate the ethical status of actions based on their conformity to some standard of right and wrong
The objection misses the point because the issue is not __________ but what would be ________ if God _________
"What God would command;
Why is AA wrong?
1. AA is potentially harmful to everyone
2. AA is harmful to the people AA is trying to help
3. AA is discrimination and discrimination is wrong
4. AA is misplaced punishment
What was the name of the Russian leader who was assasinated by an anarchist?
Czar Alexander II
What does a priori mean?
Those things which are prior to experience and conditions for possible experience.
According to Nietzsche, the Judeo-Christian ethic is:a. the one true morality of the universeb. an excellent moral outlook, though not superior to the views of other religious traditionsc. a mixture of good and bad, like most customs and traditions.d. an
d. an inverse of the true morality
Give 3 types of affirmative action.
Give 3 types of affirmative action.

Quota: Set a target number of minorities for a position even if they're slightly less qualified.

Handicapping: Give minorities a slight boost on standardized tests (FCAT, SAT, MCAT, LSAT)

Preference: Of 2 equally qualified candidates, you pick the minority. Race is the tie-breaker.
What is Moral Nihilism?
The view that no moral claims or judgments are ever true
What does Morris say about Freedom?
Morris- suggest that moral absolutism gives us the most freedom
Arguments from effects on the user?
A. Modification of the user's incentive structures

B. Destruction of the user's empathy

C. Tendency to encourage or cause coercion
How does the utilitarianism avoid the problem of having a duty to procreate?
Maximize AVERAGE utility over individual utility.
What two government commissions studied the link between porn and crime? What did they say?
1. Obscenity commission: There is no evidence that porn causes crime and violence
2. Meese Commission: Porn may or may not cause crime and violence
How long did it take for the Soviet Union to pull out of Afghanistan?
about 10 years
Language and Literature in Golden Age of Greece 
-mass production was difficult, oral or handwritten
-sharing through poems & theatre 
-Illiad by Homer was popular
-Theogany - by Hesiad Theo means God
4 Examples of Principle of Humanity
1. Suicide2. Loans - (with no intention to pay back)(Perfect duties - can be fulfilled)3. Culture - duty to develop your talents4. Charity(Imperfect duties)
What is important about Romans 10:9-10- “believe with your heart”?
People can believe with their minds but not trust God with their lives
God wants belief and trust from our hearts
What does Thompson's Positive Argument attempt to show?
That there is no plausible theory which will show that the fetus has a right to use the mother's body.
What does the Pendulum argument say we are fighting?
Lingering effects from pst discrimination
Persons as Ends Formula
You aught always to act so as to treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never merely as a means.It is morally right for S to do act A if and only if in performing A, S treats no human being as a mere means.
• Divine Command Theory of Ethics
God made the rules, so they should be followed.
Why does Baxter exclude animals and the natural environment from the ethical community
humans are superior to other animals and other forms of life and the earth itself . Environmentalist include them to gain power for themselves
3.) Elaborate on the cannot be falsified problem
3.) Elaborate on the cannot be falsified problem
 Cannot be falsified due to all possibilities and there are limitless possibilities
In science theories/hypotheses are those that could potentially be shown to be false.
You can make the claim that any action is motivated by self interest, you can never falsify egoism
What are the Direct Statements that we look for in the Bible like?
10 Commandments etc.
It is the simplest, but weakest approach
Who might try to augment the Naiive Argument?

In the argument of what position might this strategy be employed?
Defender of the Naiive Argument against abortion.

Concede that the violinist's right to life does not entail a right to the use of the woman's organs.
e.g., ""if you want sex, buy me shoes""
"Whether you have the aim stated in the antecedent (the ""if"" clause)
What are the 3 conditions whereby terrorism can be right?
1. Deprivation of basic human rights taking place
2. Reasonable likelihood that use of terrorism will be successful
3. Use of terrorism must be the means (method) of last resort
how do you acquire moral virtues
it cannot be taught; it is innate and can only be acquired by habituation and exercise
According to Rawls, from behind a “veil of ignorance” most people would choosea. limiting the wealth of the very rich in order to provide for the basic needs of the poor b. unlimited wealth and abject poverty, since most people believe they would be a
a. limiting the wealth of the very rich in order to provide for the basic needs of the poor
What did Aristotle believe about the natural principles of ethical conduct in the world?
This is how we know the virtues (response to criticism #2 of virtue ethics)
Helps us determine who is virtuous
Continuity Argument:

The life of a person begins at conception because?
From that state on there is a gradual and continuous development into an individual that is clearly a person.we must hold that a person's life begins at conception.
What are te claims of Religious Moralism regarding the truth of moral claims?
The truth of moral claims depends on the truth of religious claims
What are bin Laden's three goals?
1. Get the US out of Saudi Arabia
2. Get the US to stop supporting Israel
3. Palestinian people to have their own coutnry - Israel
For Plato, a “form of evil” is:a. another name for the form of goodb. another name for the form of humanityc. equally real, bu the opposite of, the form of good.d. nonexistent: there is no form of evil.
d. nonexistent: there is no form of evil
What is an example of looking for general principles in the Bible?
2 Corinthians 6:14- Do Not Be Unevenly Yoked to Unbelievers
Applies to businesses, churches, marriages etc.
What does the analogy of the conscientious driver who hits a pedistrian show?
In reality, people do not act as if they truly believe that people are responsible for the outcomes of any risk taken, even if they act to minimize that risk.
Why does using animals waste food?
It takes 10 pounds of grain to get 1 pound of meat
What is true of morality in Moral Nihilism?
We should make up our own ideas of what is right and wrong
Nothing is inherently moral or immoral so we choose
Rational Basis of the CI as stated by the end in itself?
"The end in itself may also be seen as a requirement of consistency.
What is Neo willing to do and how can he justify it?
He is so convinced that Morpheus is important that he risks his life, Trinity’s life, and many other people’s lives
It is worth the death of thousands to benefit the millions in Zion
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