European History Section 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Native Americans
Matthias Rust
stuff worth money
a dissenting group
Axis Powers
Italy, Germany, Japan
Napoleon defeat
Waterloo; by Wellington
Catholic Church's response to Protestant Reformation
Wrote "Don Quixote"-fun of knights
Mercenary Army
led warfare during Renaissance
Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who conquered much of central and south America. (means "conquerer" in spanish)
"The Last Supper" (da Vinci)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
An epidemic, usually fatal disease caused by a waterborne bacterium that induces violent vomiting and diarrhea; devastating outbreaks swept across Europe in 1830-1832 and 1847-1851.
Henry VII
First Tudor king of England
Lech Walsea
Cofounder of solidarity, became president of Poland in 1990. Trade union and human rights activist
Philip II
Inherited holding 1553-1555. Attempted to consolidate Europe. Economy based on Bullionism. Wanted catholic Europe. Cracked down with Inquisition. Spanish armada was defeated under him. Sack of Antwerp, tried to take more power than traditional in the Netherlands and was rewarded with a revolt (Sent Duke of Alba in). He had good relations with England until Elizabeth began issuing Letters of Marque, and sent the failed Armada against them in 1588
20. Principia
demionstrated the mathematical proofs for his universal law of gravitation and completed the new cosmology begun by Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
Treaty of Lodi
(1454-1455)alliance between Naples, Milan, and Florence and their rivals, Venice and the Papal States
Leader of the Soviet Union, 1964-1982.
Johannes Kepler
German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Known by his eponymous laws of planetery motion
Ancien regime
France prior to the French Revolution
Giuseppe Mazzini
italy idealistic patriot; preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people
European Coal/Steel Community
1951, Step towards Economic Integration. Regulated prices on coal/steel. Tried to stop Germany from gained power over exports again
Councils of workers and soldiers first formed in Russia in the Revolution of 1905; they were revived to represent the people in the early days of the 1917 Russian Revolution.
Zimmerman telegram
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
Another powerful family in the south and west of France. In league with the Montmorency-Chatillon, the Bourbons supported the Huguenot protesters to battle the Guises for political reasons.
The beliefs of Christians who opposed, or protested against, the Roman Catholic Church in th e1500s; the beliefs of people who follow a Protestant religion today.
Tiananmen Square
protest against Red China. China cracked down and killed people and ended the prottest
Dutch pirates with Letters of Marque issued by William of Orange. They were a problem because the killed innocents.
Civis Romanus Sum
I am a Roman citizen
Dante Alighieri wrote The Inferno, one of his greatest works, where he fictionally descends into Hell with the poet Virgil. An allegory showing the levels of Hell.
From what country did Australia gain its independence
3. July 4,1776
the second continental congress approved a declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson
Cardinal Richelieu
Considered the first prime minister; king’s prime minister; regent of France for the nine-year old King Louis
Provision crops
supplied plantations with food thought out the year-corn potatoes
Elizabeth dies, End of Tudor reign - Steward reign begins
Tennis Court Oath
National Assembly promised not to disband until they had created a new constitution.
Berlin Blockade
Divided West and East, Soviets blocked supplies to West, so US sent Berlin Airlift to West
Sir Francis Drake
- pirate/privateer who served Queen Elizabeth I by harrying Spanish merchant ships and the Armada
Secondary Source
Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).
Henry Valois
Heir to the French throne, but personal problems led feelings of guilt-later assassinated
Edict of Nantes
A document of religious toleration issued by Henry IV which ended religious fighting Protestants and Catholics in France. This brought peace to France, but also Henry IV's assassination. It was cancelled by Louis XIV in 1685.
Theodore Herzl
Zionist Movement Leader, Send the Jews back to their homeland...this lead to the modern day Isreal
54-68 AD. Had 2 tutors: chief advisor – Seneca, burrus – head body guardo 64, great roman fire.Pisonian conspiracy – nero killing off political rivals hurting roman literature greatly
The Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683, the high point of Turkish power in Europe, was broken by a multinational force
The _________ involved the movement of products and diseases between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
Columbian Exchange
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.
first four books of the new testament; means "good news"
Westberry v. Sanders
districts have to be approximately equal in population
Italy is ______- shaped peninsula that extends into the ____________ Sea.
boot, Mediterranian
David Lloyd-George
As representation of Britain at the Versailles Peace Conference, he wanted to punish Germany politically and economically, clashing with French Premier Georges Clemenceau, American President Woodrow Wilson and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio.
Benvenuto Cellini
A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise.
Johann Goethe
the greatest of all German writers. He was a poet, novelist and playwright, but he was also an actor, administrator, scientist, geologist, botanist and philosopher. He had a very important influence on lots of writers and thinkers in the 19th century and even in our own time. He contributed to science with his work in botany and his Theory of colours.
Joint stock Company
Is an organization in which investors can contribute money to fund the venture and as a result, they become joint holders of the trading stock of the company, with a right to share in any profits in proportion to the size of their holding. Such examples are like the East India Companies in the 1600s.
King Charles I
The English monarch who was beheaded by Puritans during the English Civil War; who then established their own short-lived government ruled by Oliver Cromwell (Mid 1600s).
Social Mobility
a change in position within the social hierarchy
Isabella of Castille
Queen of Spain, very Catholic, did exact same things that Ferdinand did
In late medieval Europe what two things helped determine a woman's rghts?
Class and Religion
19. Ferdinand Magellan
after passing through the strait named after him at the southern tip of South America, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Philippines where he met his death at the hands of the natives.
Society of Jesus
1. Absolute obedience to the Papacy, 2. Common Education, and 3. Detemination to engage in "conflict for God".
What is it called when Britain and the Allies pretend that Hitler's military build up was not serious and ignored it?
A belief that is contrary to a basic belief of the faith
what school do you go to
north hall middle school
A revolt in the Netherlands against Philip II began over the issue of
the Spanish Inquisition
Joan of Arc
for years, French had heard of a divine messenger would save them; visits Dauphin, telling him to take the crown and go to Reims cathedral; 1429-aids in lifting the siege at Orleans; burned at stake as a witch, Dauphin does not aid her; pious/brave
"Knowledge is Power"
The phrase is Bacon's and captures the changing perspective of the seventeenth century and its new confidence in the potential of human thinking.
Pax Romana
-a 200 year period of peace that began during the rein of Alexander the Great
3. Thomas More's: Utopia
Reflected More's own concerns with the economic, social, and political problems of his day.
Christine de Pizan
A witness to the 100 Years’ War. Wrote a poem to honor Joan of Arc.
16. the National Assembly
the deputies of the third estate arrived at their meeting place only to find the doors locked< they moved to the royal tennis courts and took the tennis court oath
Wilson's 14 points included
an end to secret alliences, reduction in military, the establishment of the Leauge of Nations
Dutch East India Co.
a joint stock company chartered by the States-General of the
Netherlands to expand trade and promote relations between the Dutch government and its
colonial ventures. It established a colony at the Cape of Good Hope (1652)
Jean Paul Sartre
He was one of the leading figures in 20th century French philosophy, existentialism, and Marxism, and his work continues to influence fields such as Marxist philosophy, sociology and literary studies.
12. The Edict of Worms
Made Martin Luther ab outlaw within the empire.
Who was John Knox?
John Knox began to reform of the Church in scotland and in 1560 established the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
how do you write your name correctly
last name , first name
Defenestration of Prague (1618)
Central start to 30 years war. Threw 7 ambassadors out window (defenestration means throwing something out of a window, de- down from & fenestra- opening.)
What is a ships' hold?
Cargo storage, about 5-6 ft tall, put in layers, 2-3 layers of people, shackled to another person
Le status de candidat potential
Zone de libre echange; Mise en place un cooperation. Processus de Stablilsation et d’Association (PSA). Avant c’est Accords d’Europeen. Les pays doivent integrer les institutions internationals.
How did Lenin adapt Marx to conditions in Russia?
He created a dctatorship of the proletariat
9. Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws
This treatise was a comparative study of governments in which Montesquieu attempted to apply the scientific method to the social and political arena to ascertain the "natural laws" governing the social relationships of human beings
The Bill of Rights of 1689 provided for all of the following EXCEPT
only commoners could be arrested and detained without due process
Poullain de la Barre and the “Woman Question”:
He said that the belief in women’s inferiority originated in men’s taking advantage of their greatest strengths in the earliest period of human history and was perpetuated because it was in men’s interest to magnify the importance of their own sex. Customary ideas of women’s inability to reason, their unfitness for public office, their lack of courage, were merely the result of preiudice, perpetuated by supposedly learned men who had no better reason for believing it than what they themselves had been taught. Poullain’s writings became part of the quarrel about women and were picked up and opposed by more conservatice writers, but also found support. He was the first person to raise this question and used Enlightenment ideas to doubt and question social norms.
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