Exam 232 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Asparation
Choking
adenylyl cyclase
paracellular
- around/between cells
The Nucleus
–Nuclear envelope–Nucleoplasm•Nucleoli•Chromatin •The cells genetic library and control center
Interstitial fluid volume
11 L
Glycine
Amino acid
ligand gated
low molecular weight
inhibitory CNS
 
Retina
Layer that contains photoreceptors.
Cell that makes bone
Osteblast
CNS
- brain and spinal cord
Lactose Interlerance
 
Metabolic Defect
Lactose not utilized
Cerebellum
Control of rapid muscle movements-Knows the plan and receives info on what is actually happening to make sure the 2 line up.-Stops movement when a target is reached-Necessary for balance
Surface barriers
– skin, mucus membranes
Anabolism
energy-requiring building phase of metabolism in which simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances
Blood Vessels
Contain: Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, and Veins
Where does estriol come from?
Placenta
automatic
occurring independently of volition, as certain muscular actions; involuntary
Endocrine Signaling
Mode of intercellular communication involving hormones
Erythropoietin stimulates what to produce higher numbers of RBCs
bone marrow
Disaccharides
Sucrose = glucose + fructose
Table Sugar
 
Lactose = glucose + galactose
 
Maltose = glucose +glucose
If one type of neurotransmitter binding to its receptros caused sodium channels to open, then sodium ions would move into the cell and the resulting graded potential would be what
depolarization
Cerebellar Disorders
-Ipsilateral loss of function-Past pointing- overshooting an object-Intention tremor-absent at rest-Ataxi-uncoordinated movements-Decomp of movement- steps instead of fluid-Slurred speech- dysarthria
distinguish between
systole
Diastole
Systole: contraction of the heart
Diastole: period between contractions including rest
Five molecules involved in sliding filament theory
Myosin
Tropomyosin
Actin
ATP
Troponin
Also calcium ions
frontal lobe
lobe for planning, memory, speech
Cellular level
Molecules are organized into cells
sarcoplasmic reticulum
modified endoplasmic reticulum that consists of a fine network of interconnected membrane encloded compartments surrounding each myofibril like a sleeve
endocrine glands
secrete hormones into the bloodstream
sarcolemma
cell membrane of a muscle fibers
The _____________________ shifts down and to the right during the transition from rest to exercise.
oxy-hemoglobin association-dissociation curve
When blood glucose increases, the __________ signals beta cells to release insulin.
hypothalmus
T/F there are no parasympathetic fibers leaving the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord?
True-only sympathetic
Louder noises result in __________ action potentials in the sensory neuron.
more frequent
Define prehormone:
Molecule secreted by endocrine glands that are inactive until changed by their target cells. Also indicates a precursor of a prehormone. ex. preproinsulin.
Flow
A subjective state that people report when they are completely involved in an activity to the point of forgetting time, fatigue, and everything else but the activity itself. While flow experiences are somewhat rare, they occur under specific conditions; there is a balance between the persons skills and the challenges of the situation, there is a clear goal, and there is immediate feedback on how one is doing.
divergence
A few presynaptic neurons branch to affect a larger number of postsynaptic neurons
Receptor potentional
graded potentials produced in response to a stimulus acting on a sensory receptor
Given an Action Potential Graph, be able to determine where the Na activation gates are open and where that NA inactivation gates are closed.
Parkinson's
-Voluntary tremors due to lack of dopamine-scarcity of movement-Treated with L-Dopa
tabes dorsalis
affects dorsal root ganglion and impulse velocity suffers
Exercise – Influence on ventilation
• Poorly understood• Immediately when a person exercises ventilation increases• PO2 and PCO2 are normal• Probably causes:• 1) Activation of skeletal muscles and respiratory centres• 2) Proprioceptors in muscles, joints, tendons might be sending impulses to the respiratory centres• 3) Anticipation of exercise could increase ventilation• 4) Increase in body temp as you exercise.
Base
Any substance that reduces the number of H+ ions in a solution either by accepting them or releasing OH- to form water. The purines and pyrimidines in DNA and RNA are organic nitrogenous bases.
SALTY
THE TASTE QUALITY PRODUCED BY THE CATIONS OF SALTS
Cytoskeleton
Acts as skeletal support and as cellular “muscle”. –Microtubules  –Intermediate fibers: –Microfilaments
IV. Trochlear
Both, moves eyeballs downward and laterally
Is intrinsic or extrinsic control the type of control that is built into the organ being regulated?
intrinsic
Heat loss occurs via _
Skin and respiration
Aortic Arch baroreceptor transmits via what nerve to the medulla?
vagus (X)
Explain the sympathetic pathway
Epi/Norepi are the neurotransmitters
enlarge ampulla with receptor cells are called ____________ ; function is to sense angular acceleration and deceleration
Crista ampullaris
organelles
contained in the cytoplasm. They are small structures that perform specific functions.
T/F the glycogen in muscle cells can only be used in muscle cells?
True
Out of cell, less
Potassium moves ____ cell,Its concentration gradient is ____ outside the cell than inside.
Pathway of the respirator zone
respiratory bronchioles--> alveolar sacs
 
Generalized expectancies that events are outside of one's control is called an external locus of control.
Generalized expectancies that events are outside of one's control is called an external locus of control.
Astrocyte
CNS only. Highly branched. Take up and release chemicals at the synapse.
 
Provide substrates for ATP production, maintain homeostasis by taking up water and K+, provide blood brain barrier.
Graded potential
a relatively small change in membrane potential produced by some type of stimulus that triggers the opening or closing of ion channels
strength of graded potential is relative to strength of stimulus
Psychogenic Immune Deficiency
-numerous disorders are tied to reduced immune reactions which may have a psychological origin. -People that have Depression, Pessimism, or Anger are more likely to develop a host of different diseases.
Epi affect on beta receptors
-Increase glycogenolysis:glycogen to glucose-Converts lactate to glucose(gluconegenesis)
4th heart sound
active contraction of atrium that forcefully pushes blood through the AV valves
See page 862, fig 22.22a for diagram at tissueSee page 862, fig 22.22b for diagram at lung.
Phospholipase C
Enzyme catalyzing the removal of polar head group such as choline from phospholipids
Two Types of Plasticity
Experience Expectant and Experience Dependant
Chemical equilibrium
Once the reaction reaches a “steady state” (no changes in amounts of reactants or products)
Associative Learning
learning by associating 2 or more stimuli, aka conditioning
bile
- an aq. alkaline fluid that contains bile salts, cholesterol, lecithin- bicarbonate ion which neutralizes acid in duodenum- waste products (e.g. bilirubin) which es excreted via GIT
____ compounds readily diffuse through cell membrane
nonpolar (fat soluble)
Action of IGF1
Liver - tissue growthLong bones growth in kids
Cells in the parathyroid that secrete PTH.
Chief cells
Recall that when GLUT-4 is in the cytoplasm, it __________ take up glucose from the bloodstream.
cannot
cervical
of or pertaining to the cervix or neck.
what type of transport is critical in maintaining concentration gradients on either side of cell?
active transport
A nucleotide consists of
a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
What is in the nutrients of plasma
glucose
amino acids
fatty acids
cholesterol
vitamins
Other processes affected by Ca++ pathway
inflammation, metabolism pathways, memory, immune responses
Functional Fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.
When a substrate binds to an enzyme, i does so through weak interactions (hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces but not covalent bonds).  Molecules tha tinteract with proteins in this manner are called
Ligands
calorie
 
kcal
energy needed to raise 1 g of h20 1degC at 15degC
 
needed to raise 1000g 1degC at 15degC
 
 
carrier-mediated transport in general
requires protein carriers, which are usually specific for the molecules they transport carriers exhibit a transport maximum in diabetes this results in glucose being left in the urine instead of being reabsorbed
what is the acrosome?
: acrosomal enzymes needed for penetration of egg
Intercalated disk
: any of the specialized regions of the sarcolemma and underlying cytoplasm of cardiac muscle cells that comprise the longitudinal and end-to-end junctions between adjacent cells and that function to connect them mechanically and electrically
what is the value of residual volume (minimum amount of air in lungs)
1200 mL
What is the objective of middle ear?
Amplify sound waves
etiology of inflammatory bowel disease
- unknown- genetic predisposition, environment, psychogenic
Outside __ and ___ receptors don't adapt?
20C and 40C
Immounoglobulins- Antibodies
IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM, IgE are Y-shaped proteinsVariable regionCan bind 2 antigens/Ab, must be same type of antigenConstant regionTail regionActivates some aspect of immune system when antigen bound
WHAT IS ACTION POTENTIAL?
A LAARGE WAVE OF DEPOLARIZATION FOLLOWED BY A REPOLARIZATION THAT IS INITIATED AT THE TRIGGER ZONE.
biological clock
an innate mechanism of the body that regulates its rhythmic and periodic cycles
 Four functions of the Digetive System
1. Motility (moving stuff along)
 -Perstalsis
-segmentation
2. Secretion- addition of digestive enzymes,etc.
3. Degestion- biomechanical breakdown of food using hydolysis
-CHOs frm starches/glycogen --> monosaccarides
-Protiens --> polypeptides and amino acids
-Trigycerides --> glycerol and fatty acids
4. Absorption- From digestive tract into blood or lymph
Stroke volume (SV)
volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in one contraction
usually expressed in liters per beat
Mechanisms that control the intracellular appearance of calcium
Plasma membrane calcium channels open in response to 1st messenger. Calcium is released from ER by second messenger or by an opening of voltage gated calcium channels
If a person repeatedly breaks the law, uses deceit to con others, and behaves compulsively. It would be true to say that, that person has...?
Antisocial personality disorder.
What is the air remaining after a passive expiration called?
functional reserve capacity
Gestalt psychology
a whole is greater than a sum of parts.
how do complement proteins work? where are complement proteins?
complement/enhance certain immune responses - causes cytolysis, promotes phagocytosis, contrib to inflammation-- in blood plasma or plasma membrane
what type of CT exists the entire way down the respiratory tract?
elastic cartilage
effects of steroids on cardiovascular system
induces artherosclerosis, reduces HDL, elevates blood pressure, damages heart mscle
contributing factors to ascites
- increased capillary P from portal hypertension and obstruction of flow through liver- retention of Na and water by kidneys- decreased colloidal P (impaired albumin synthesis from failing liver)
Length of pre vs post in parasympathetic neurons
Long pre, short post
WHAT IS MEMBRANE POTENTIAL?
A SEPARATION OF CHARGE EXISTING ONLY AT THE MEMBRANE.
"Z" disc is made up of ?
filamentous proteins different from actin and myosin
Describe CCK (a polypeptide found in the CNS):
Some polypeptides (AKA neuropeptides) function as hormones in other organs (such as in the small intestine) are also produced in the brain and may function as neurotransmitters. CCK is secreted as a hormone from the small intestine but when secreted as a neurotransmitter it may produce feelings of satiety in the brain afterwards.
Bronchial Asthma: Extrinsic (Atopic) Asthma is typically induced by what?What other disorders to people with this type of asthma often have?What are the allergens implicated in this type of asthma?
-by a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction induced by exposure to an extrinsic antigen or allergen-often also have hay fever, hives and eczema-house dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, animal danders and the fungus Alternaria
What is the DSM- IV's primary purpose?
Provid descriptive criteria for diagnosing mental disorders.
Cells that secrete dopamine must contain which enzymes? 105) _____ A) tyrosine β-hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase B) dopamine β-hydroxylase C) dopa decarboxylase D) dopamine β-hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase E) tyrosine β-hydroxylase
A) tyrosine β-hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase
Maintaining pH in blood Lungs
• Acts within minutes to restore the pH.• Excess H+  Stimulates the peripheral chemoreceptors  ↑ventilation• When the ventilation increases the lungs will blow off more CO2: H+ + HCO-3  H2CO-3  CO2 + H2O• By eliminating CO2 reaction reverses and get less H+. This removes H+ from the blood and puts it back into homeostatic range.• Lungs take care of about 70% of this imbalance.
Netrins, Slits, Ephrins & Semaphorins
chemicals that can either attract or repel the growth cone during the axon’s development.The growth cone is also influenced by Neutrophins (Growth Factors) and Neurotransmitters (i.e. GABA)
Where does sympathetic nerves attach to the heart?
SA node, AV node and myocardium
What are the compensations to CHF?What are the treatments?
Compensations are tachycardia and vasoconstriction of the GI tract, the skin, kidneys, and musclesAlso the kidneys stimulate the production of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in vasoconstriction
an increase in ADH also occurs
CHF is treated with digitalis, vasodilators, and diuretics
During exercise (increased cardiac output), the vessels in the apex of the lung ___-------_______
Vasodilate such that V/Q approaches 1 (versus normal apex V/Q of 3)
what is an example of a collateral ganglia?
solar plexus called celiac ganglion
Describe how blood pressure is regulated:
Baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses affect the cardiac rate and the total peripheral resistance via the sympathetic nervous system. The baroreceptor reflex causes pressure to be maintained when an upright posture is assumed. This reflex can cause a lowered pressure when the carotid sinuses are massaged. Other mechanisms that affect blood volume help to regulate blood pressure.
Chylomicrons are too large to enter the capillaries so they enter the
lacteal, and eventually reach the blood when the lymph duct drains into a vein
what are spatial and temporal summation
spatial summation is when two influxes of a positive stimulus from different places on the soma add up
 
temporal summation is when several positive stimuli from the same presynaptic terminal add up
a 14-year-old stallion has an elevated concentration of t4 and tsh.  his heart rate is elevated. this horse most likely has which one of the followingiodine deficiency
hypothalamic tumor secreting large amounts of crh
pituitary tumor secreting large amou
    pituitary tumor secreting large amounts of tsh
Bohr Effect
Left and Right Shifts significance
Bohr effect: the affinity for O2 decreases as pH decreases and co2 increases
 
when exercising, you have a decrease in pH which causes the Bohr effect to allow the hemoglobin to unload O2 as quickly as possible
 
Exercising leads to a right shift
Opposite = left shift
What is the purpose of the lymphiod system?
proliferation of lymphocytes examine and clean lymph
Ch. 11 Endocrine Glands and Hormones
 
2
nervous system is reactions are rapid and short-lived; endocrine system is slower and more prolonged
hormones are released to the tissue spaces and carried through the body by the circulatory system
During graded exercise, the increases in systolic blood pressure are explained by the __________________, whereas the lack of change in diastolic blood pressure is explained by the increases in heart rate being offset by the decreases in systemic vascular
increases in stroke volume and cardiac output
A hematocrit is used to indicate
the packed cell volume; the ratio of red blood cells to the total blood volume
Examples of molecules that act on as neurotransmitters
glutanmate - learning and memory
GABA - inhibitory neurotransmitter
serotonin - regulating peristalsis in the gut, and in mood, appetite, and sleep in the CNS
dopamine - reward pathways, motivation ,congnition, regulating physical movements nuropeptide
Y - stress and hunger acetyleholine - skeletal muscle, CNS ANS
What is involved during the inspiratory phase of respiration?
Fresh air comes in and oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.
Central chemoreceptors - ↑CO2 (in cerebral spinal fluid) diffuses into the medulla oblongata and reacts with H2O. This results in:
• Results in an increase of H+ in the medulla.• The central chemoreceptors in the medulla would pick up on the increase of H+• Chemoreceptors respond to the CO2 by sensing the increase of H+• Indirect response
what are the fxs of the gallbladder
- stores and concentrates bile- stored bt meals- emptied during meals- gallstones possible
What is the function of the T tubule?
allows depolarization to travel down it, leading to muscle contraction
Our perceptions are products of our brains; they relate to physical reality only indirectly and incompletely. Explain this statement using vison and cold as an example:
Vision: Vision is limited to light in a small range of electromagnetic wavelengths known as the visible spectrum. UV, X-rays, infared and radiowaves are the same type of energy as the visible light, but it cannot excite photoreceptors.
Cold: There is no such thing as cold, only varying degrees of heat. The perception of cold is entirely a product of the nervous system, and is critical for survival.
What is tidal volume? What is a typical tidal volume?
Normal volume during quiet inspiration OR expiration. Includes the volume of air that fills the alveoli plus the volume that fills the airways. Approximately 500 mL.
describe air speed as it goes through the resp. systems
fast in trachea and bronchii
slow and laminar in bronchioles
diffusion slow in alveolus
Explain what is meant by the term "opportunistic disease".
When a person is immunocompromised, an organism that does not normally affects a healthy person becomes capable of causing an infection.
what is the Role of estrogen and progesterone:
- secretion of E and P stimulate the growth and secretions of the endometrium to ensure support of the developing embryo - E also plays a role in uterine contractions
Cori Cycle
 
What is it? When is it used?
 
 
The cori cycle is when lactic acid (as a result of anaerobic glycolysis) is transported to the liver and converted back into glucose that can be used in glycolysis.
 
used when there is a build up of two much lactic acid during anaerobic conditions.
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