Exam 233 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
IP3
HbF
Fetal Hemoglobin
Plasma volume
3 L
Inhibitory
Hyperpolarizing (goes down)
ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis
sex steroids
 
what are they?
 
what are the main types?
 
where are they made?
 
what do they do?
strabismus
deviation of the eye
What is normal?
8-12 mEq/L
Apnea
Not breathing-happens everytime you swallow.
skeletal muscle
responsible for volunatry movemnets
Normal PaCO2, PaO2, and R
PaCO2=40mmHgPaO2=100R=VCO2/V02=.8
Epi/NEpiEpinephrine/Norepinephrine(target/action)
any cell with adrenergic receptorscontinues work of SNS
Toxoplasmosis
Transmitted transplacentally to child and can cause still birth or CNS lesionsTransmitted by raw undercooked meat or fecal-oral transmission,Caused by intracellular parasite affecting cats, birds, mammals
Medulla Oblongata
Respiratory controller
controls RR <respiratory pace maker>, TV
pays attention to blood (plasma) content of CO2 and O2, pH (H+)
Do the testes make estrogen?
Yes
what is masication? deglutition
chewing; swallowing
What by-product results during the production of nitric oxide?
citrulline
Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques
Inspection, Palpation, Auscultation, Percussion
basement membrane
dense mat of extracellular matrix
Sleep
a cyclically occurring state of decreased motor activity and perception
what are steriods derived from?
 
solubility of steroids?
 
what do they do?
cholesterol
 
water/plasma INsoluble
 
plasma membrane soluble
 
they initiate protein synthesis in target cells
Osmolarity gradient:
- tissue osmolarity increases from cortex to the inner medulla- urea and salt contribute to sustaining this gradient
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids.Stimulated by CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone); inhibited by glucocorticoids.
How a neurotransmitter works?
Hypothalamus- Pituitary gland-hormones-target organs and glands
Which contractile protein extends from the Z line to the bare portion of the myosin filament?
Titin
chromosome
a long, threadlike structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA; found in the nucleus
Periodic Table
-elements are attanged vertically- Group # tells valence shell electrons (# of electrons in outer orbital)
Arteries-Arterioles
Blood vessels- 3 layers- endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, connective tissueCapillaries only have endothelium
Cytoplasmic __________ in calcium not only trigger skeletal muscle contractions, but they also stimulate skeletal muscle glycogenolysis through the activation of the phosphorylase enzyme
increases
mental
of or pertaining to the mind:
what are the 4 characterstics of muscle tissue?
1.exictability
2.contractility
3.extensibility
4.elasticity 
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the
choroid plexus
Polar molecule
Contains significant number of polar bonds (unequal sharing of electrons)
convenience sample
becuase obtaining random samples is very difficult many studies use __________ and then randomly assign subjects to the various experimental conditions
symport carrier
A membrane transport protein that moves two or more molecules in the same direction across a membrane
Normal Curve
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
Some people with what schizophrenia completely withdrawls in private world, sitting for hours without moving?
Catatonic Schizophrenia
Baroreceptors
-Stretch receptors in aortic arch and carotid sinus. Inhibit sympathetic-If BP drops, HR inc and vessels constrict-If BP increases- HR drops and vessels dilate.
Catabolism of Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides are hydrolized into disaccharides
Edema
– swelling of tissues between the cells1) Hypertension (chronic) causes ↑BHP – increase in filtration (ex: ankles become swollen)2) Blood OP↓ (caused by malnutrition, liver disease – less proteins in blood)Filtration will occur, but ↓reabsorption. Fluid remains around the cells3) ↑IFOP (more protein in IF – caused by allergic reactions)↑filtration, ↓reabsorption4) 10% in lymph – surgery, blocked by cancer, parasites• Get swelling
Cilia
a minute short hairlike process often forming part of a fringe ; especially : one of a cell that is capable of lashing movement and serves especially in free unicellular organisms to produce locomotion or in higher forms a current of fluid.
Neuronal migration
Neuronal migration is the process where the neurons travel along glial fibers to the correct region where the cell bodies of these neurons should be located on the brain (layer of the cortex). Similar to climbing a ladder. Neuronal migration occurs between the 7th and 16th weeks of pregnancy (critical period of brain development).
gap junction
a communicating juction between cells; channel proteins link together
Parts of Brain stem
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata
antagonism
- one hormone causes decrease in another hormone's receptors, therefore diminishing the effectiveness of the other hormone- ex: estrogen increases when females are pregnant therefore decreased receptors for estrogen therefore prevents uterine contraction
Phagocytosis
type of endocytosis in which large particles are engulfed and destroyed by lysosomes
Thyroid hormones travel by_
binding to plasma proteins
Factors requiring phospholipid surface for activation?
IX and X
Posterior pituitary
- neural connection to hypothalamus
- ADH (pee, absorption in kidney)
- Oxytocin
The binding of norepinephrine to its receptors results in the opening of _________ channels.
sodium
impulse
a progressive wave of excitation over a nerve or muscle fiber that has a stimulating or inhibitory effect
what is the upper limit of frequency of impulse called?
tetanization
20) The parietal cells of the gastric mucosa secrete:
a. HCL
b. Pepsinogen
c. Intrinsic factor
 d. Gastrin
e. Both A and C above
E
August Krogh
-Nobel prize winner from Denmark -key work in the area of capillary circulation and gas diffusion-study of gas exchange-also designed a great deal of instrumentation used in exercise physiology
RNA polymerase
Enzyme needed for synthesis of mRNA from DNA
Echoic Memory
- a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 sec.
Rules of syntax
Words are in a sensible order
93 mmHg
what is the normal reading for MABP
What steroid is made in the zona reticularis?
androgens
increasing contractile force of the heart
beta 1 adrenergic
Alkaline secretion of the pancreas
– stimulated by secretin• Produced by the duct cells (duct from the pancreas to the duodenum)• Neutralizes the HCL. Secretion contains bicarbonate ions• HCl + HC0-3  H2CO3 (carbonic acid (weak) – produces less H+ ions then HCl
What is ventilation?
Ventilation (or breathing) = the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs. Consists of inspiration (movement of air into the lungs) and expiration (movement of air out of the lungs). Normal ventilation = 4.2 L/min
what percent of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin
98.5
What type of ATPase is the Calcium pump?
 
 
 
P-type
Ventricular Muscle
Apex cells activated first by Purkanje Fibers, then muscle cell-to-cell through gap junctions.
Contraction spreads upward, forcing blood into aorta and pulmonary artery.
what are brush borders
- special, hairlike projections (microvilli) on epithelial cells of small intestine
What is the role of phosphodiesterases
Phosphodiesterases deactivate cAMP
Describe Antiport
-Moves more then one solute-At least one solute moves in OPPOSITE direction
ACh and catecholemines alter the slope of phase 4, which determines the ------- ------.
heart rate
Three molecules of ATP are formed for ______ molecule of NADH that enters the electron transport chain.
every
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
the parasympathetic nerves arise from ____?
cranial or sacral region
What sequences are emphasized in the study of physiology?
Cause and effect
Transverse Plane (aka...)
divides teh body or organ into superior and inferior portions (upper and lower)AKA: Cross-sectional or horizontal plane
enteric nervous system
Neurons in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract that are capable of sensing and integrating information and carrying out a response without input from the CNS
Spinal Cord
White matter
white matter contains tracts of axons, relaying sensory information up to the brain and motor information down from the brain
7-9 mmHg
what is the pulmonary pressure in the capillaries
Energy Sources in Muscle
Only ATP can be used.Phosphocreatine can give a littleGlycolysis(Anaerobic) provides enough for a 1.3-16 minutes of max muscle usageOxidative Metabolism- provides the most for sustained physical activity.
the two most critical hormones for lactation arelh and fsh
estrogen and progesterone
prolactin and gh
oxytocin and prolactin
gnrh and progesterone
 oxytocin and prolactin
what is a GABA agonist - enhances it's inhibitory effect?
valium
Primary Function of proximal tubule:
-bulk reabsorption of isomotic fluid-most reabsorption takes place there
covalent bonds
sharing of electrons b/w 2 or more atomsex. water and organic compounds
effects of steroids on liver
creates liver dysfunction, increases risk of cancer
pernicious anemia
- due to inability to absorb adequate amts of vit B12 from the digestive tract- low absorption of B12 due to lack of "intrinsic factor"
  adrenergic receptors, two major classes, alpha and beta
 
alpha-adrenergic receptors generally stimulate contraction ("a" as in contraction) of smooth muscle
beta-adrenergic receptors generally inhibit ("b" as in inhibit) contraction, i.e. cause relaxation
major beta exception: heart, which is stimulated to contraction faster and with more force and has beta-receptors. Called beta-1 receptors as compared to other organs, such as lung bronchioles, which have beta-2 receptors
antagonists prevent action of neurotransmitters, agonists intensify them
beta blockers (NE antagonists) are used to slow down the heart, but its important to be specific for beta-1 and not affect beta-2
 
Nerves that release norepinephrine are called adrenergic nerves. Adrenergic nerves are part of the postganglionic sympathetic nerve system** and parts of the central nervous system. (**A nerve that carries the impulse from the ganglion to the effecter cell is a postganglionic nerve.)
Reabsorption of - is under the control of - (hormone) in the early distal convoluted tubule,
Ca+2, PTH
A 4-component criterion estimate of body composition is determined from 3 different body composition assessment techniques. For instance, body density from either underwater weighing or the Bod Pod, total body water from isotope dilution, and ___________
total body bone mineral
3 types of Excitation of Nerve Cells
1. Chemical (acetylcholine, norepinephrine, Hormones)
2. Mechanical ( Crushing, pinching, pricking...)
3. Electrical (Muscle, Intestines)
Reactive hyperemia is triggered by
local accumulation of paracrines due to reduced blood flow
Locus of Control
Locus of control is a concept that describes a person's perception of responsibility for the events in his or her life. It refers to whether people tend to locate that responsibility internally, within themselves, or externally, in fate, luck, or chance. Locus of control research started in the mid-1950s when Rotter was developing his social learning theory.
ANS motor nerves are divided into what 2 divisions?
-sympathetic and parasympathetic 
-together the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS control nearly all of the body's internal organs
What is the exception to the “indirect vs. direct innervation rule” within the ANS?
somatic cells- direct innervation
visceral- indirect innervation
 
BUT the exception is Chromaffin cells of the Visceral Nervous System have direct innervation
The unequal distribution of charge in solutions on either side of a membrane will lead to a ________ of charge across the membrane and a ________ of counter ions in a region close to the membrane. A) collection : clustering B) collection : restriction C)
E) separation : clustering
Little Albert
11 years old infant, no fear of white rat.
White rat + noise => fear. Generalization => fear rabbit, dog, stealskin coat but not dissimilar object such as toys.
DNA Transcription
One of the two major steps in the transfer of genetic code information involving the transfer of information from a DNA gene's base sequence to the complementary base sequence of an mRNA molecule.
Protons and neutrons
Each have the same approximate mass (1 amu)
Tx for metabolic derangements of ketoacidosis
- fluid and electrolyte replacement
Alveolar gas pressure (O2 & CO2)
O2--> 100mm Hg
CO2--> 40mm Hg
Relative refractory period
Until there are as many Na channels in resting state as there were before AP, greater depolarization is needed to generate second AP. 20 msecHelp prevent repetitive firing, retrograde transmission and cardiac arrhythmias.
A ___________________ is determined from 3 different body composition assessment techniques. For instance, body density from either underwater weighing or the Bod Pod, total body water from isotope dilution, and total body bone mineral from dual-energy x
4-component criterion estimate of body composition
Describe process and function of Na/K ATPase

Process 
for every ATP hydrolyzed, 3 Na out and two K in
electrogenic pump with coupling ratio of 3:2


function- maintain electrochemical gradient across the membrane
results in reducing osmotic particles inside cell so cell does not swell, burst
THUS, NORMAL CELL VOLUME AND PRESSURE DEPEND ON PROPER FUNCTION OF THIS ACTIVE TRANSPORTER
When the heart rate is slowed from 70 beats per minute to 40, how much does the duration of systole change?
Does not change.
Two gating mechanisms which alter the permeability of neural and muscle membranes to specific ions?
Mechanically gated channels: membrane ion channel that is opened or closed by deformation or stretch of the plasma membrane.Voltage gated channels: cell membrane ion channel opened or closed by changes in the membrane potential
What is the apneustic center? Where is it located?
It stimulates inspiration/inspiratory gasps; prolongs contraction of the diaphragm. Located in the lower pons.
Which of the following classes of chemical messengers moves to the target cell by diffusion? 94) ______ A) both paracrine and neurotransmitter B) hormone only C) both hormone and neurotransmitter D) paracrine only E) neurotransmitter only
A) both paracrine and neurotransmitter
Blood flow is indirectly proportional to resistance:• if resistance increases then ...• if resistance decreases then...
• if resistance increases then blood flow decreases• if resistance decreases then blood flow increases
what is the main factor in determining hemoglobin saturation?
partial pressure of oxygen
mass movements of the large intestine
- propel colonic contents long distances- drive feces into distal part of large intestine- material stored here until eliminated by defecation- primarily occur via gastrocolic reflux (stomach in the colon; "stomach talking to colon" by gastrin)
Which symptoms would you have if you had hypothyroidism
Obesity with reduced appetiteExcessive sleepingMental slowing downConstipationDecreased body temp.
Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that breaks down ACH.Nerve gas and Neostigmine inhibit ACHE therefore prolonging ACH action
nerve gas keeps skeletal muscles contracting producing cramps in the diaphram (air loss)and inhibits the heart--die of slo
Mitochondria in old times was a _____ type cell that invaded a ____ type cell
prokaryotic , invaded a eukaryotic
Type of tissue that is composed of cells of the greatest diversity in function and form?
Connective: bone, cartilage, blood, adipose, ligaments, tendons
Describe amino acids in the blood
 
amino acids are used for the synthesis of proteins
or catabolized for energy by proteolysis
the proteins function as amino acid stores that can subsequently be broken down to amino acids
which can then be catabolized for energy or released into the bloodstream for use by other cells
Describe pulmonary blood flow (source, distribution, regulation).
Source: cardiac output from the right ventricle.Distribution: gravity ensures uneven distribution (better flow at the base than the apex); while supine, the blood flow is even among all the parts of the lung. A small fraction goes to supply the metabolic needs of the bronchi/bronchioles. Regulation: local factors, but mainly the partial pressure of oxygen.
what is erectile dysfunction? what can be done to help someone with ED?
): reduced ability for penile erection- drugs such as Viagra can be used- enhances vasodilatory f(x) of NO
what value does PO2 have to be at for peripheral receptors to become sensitive?
below 60 mmHg
what parts of the GIT are relaxed during vomiting?
- stomach, esophagus, associated sphincters
Shift right in dose response curve causes_Shft left causes _ Why?
decreased affinity - takes more concentration to get same responseShift left - increased affinity
Explain Frank-Starling concept of the heart's autoregulation of output and discuss one cardiac mechanism for this phenomenon.
FS states that increased volume of blood in the heart will stretch the muscle fibers of the chambers causeing an increase in force of contraction of the muscle fibers. The Mechanism by which this works relates to the increased distance that the stretch of increased filling has on actin and myosin fibers in the muscle cell--they can then come back together with greater force.
Explain how the modalities of salty and sour taste are produced:
They are produced by the different chemicals that come into contact with the microvilli of the taste cells. The salty taste is due to the prescence of Na+, which activate specific receptor cells for the salty taste. Na+ passes into the sensitive receptor cells through channels in the apical membranes. This causes a depolarization in the cells, which opens Ca2+ channels, causing them to release their neurotransmitter. The mechanism for the sour taste is the same as in the salty taste, except the ion responsible for the sour taste is H+, and the degree of sourness corresponds to the fall in pH within the cells.
What does a tension pneumothorax result in?
1) Rapid increase in pressure in the chest with a compression atelectasis of the unaffected lung2) A shift in the mediastinum to the opposite side of the chest3) Compression of the vena cava with impairment of venous return to the heart
What is used to test for a gastrinoma?
secretin (increases gastrin from a gastrinoma but not fromt he antrum)
Which one is the carrier protein that transports absorbed proteins to the blood cells?
Transferrin is the carrier protein that transports absorbed iron to the blood cells.
what are 3 stimuli of the H+/K+ ATPase
- histamine; external- gastrin- vagus nerve (produces ACh); external
What are the characteristics of a cell membrane?
- Encloses each cell- Selectively permeable- ICF inside cell-ECF surrounds cell
What is the function of the valves in the heart?
Valves of the heart ensure unidirectional flow; Valves passively open/close in response to pressure changes
if an organism who usually lives in cold temperature acclimates to slightly warmer temperatures what does it do to its metabolic rate?
it deacreases the metabolic rate to save energy
Resting membrane potential = and is dependent upon
total Eion, ion concentration in and outside of cell and membrane permeablity to a given ion
In what direction of the curve does affinity decrease/increase?
Decrease - to the rightIncrease - to the left
the blood pressure of which circuit is effected more by volume change?
 
which cicuit has the largest operating range?
the arterial bp is affected more by volume change
 
venous has the largest operating range
 
 
What happens to the H+ that was given off in the reaction of CO2 to bicarbonate?
it binds with Hb--Hb acts as a bufferand kicks off Oxygen for tissues to use
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