Exam 246 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Stress
ethologists
animal behavioralists
Locke
heavy empiricist scientist
proximity,similarity,closure,common movement,good form
gestalt principles
Population
Entire group of interest
Psychosomatic Disorders
real physical illness
subliminal
employing stimuli insufficiently intense to produce a discrete sensation but often designed to influence the behavior of an individual
Emotion
An identifiable feeling state involving physiological arousal, a cognitive appraisal of the situation or stimulus causing that internal body state, and an outward behavior expressing the state
alzheimers disease
incurable,fatal disease involving brain damage,memory loss with detioration of personality/
function of eating
gives you energy
importance of dominance in humans
Short-Term Memory
'working memory'several secondscurrent thoughts
Somnambulism
Sleepwalking; occurs during NREM sleep.
Skinner said reinforcement determines the aquisition of a response. Bandura said reinforcement determines _____ of a response
performance
Adolescence
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
Neurotransmitter
Chemical that crosses the synaptic cleft between nerve cells to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next. Relative excess or deficiency of neurotransmitters is involved in several psychological disorders
Psychology
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
phonemes
smallest sound categories in human speech that distringuish meanings. Phonomes vary from language to language
Synapse
A junction where information if transmitted from one neuron to the next
Id
present at birth, contains instinct energies. It operates according to the pleasure principle (seek immediate gratification and avoid pain)
difference threshold
aka noticeable difference, smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
manic episodes can be triggered by
tricyclics
night terrors
horrific dream imagesoccurring in stage 4 sleep– wake up screaming– may not recall in morning
Schemas
If have many negative experiences during childhood, ___ develop that guide attention to enhance and recall negative events.
Principles of Test Construction
1. Standardization
2.Reliability
3. Validity
Hamilton's rule - C=?
Cost to actor
Schizophrenia - symptoms
Positive symptoms (presence): delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate behaviors and thoughts, disorganized speechNegative symptoms (absence): flat affect (no emotion), limited speech, avolition
Perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, sizes, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change
examples of insight therapy
psychoanalysisclient centered therapygroup therapy
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
rhodopsin
a rosy-colored substance that is separated into retinal and opsin, affects message creation in rod cells
Gender typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
classical conditioning
 
discovered by?
 
how? what did he do?
 
 
 
2 things
Ivan Pavlov
 
interested in dog digestion -- "dog drool"
Concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Because of poverty, unemployment and overcrowding, residents of impoverished areas are especially likely to experience
D) hypertension
adrenaline
the chemical that prepares the body for emergency activity by increasing blood pressure, breathing rate, and energy level
olfactory nerve
the nerve that transmits information about odors fromt he nose to the brain
sedatives
are sleep-inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system activation and behavioral activity ex: barbiturates-seconal, non-barbiturates-quaaludes..ppl generally consume larger doses than prescribed, produce euphoria similar to drinking, loosened inhibitions
manic episode
a sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapid thoughts of speech
somatization disorder
-have dramatic reports of physical pain-no specific illness
Which of the following procedures would increase the likelihood that neither the experimenter's nor the participants' expectations would impact the results of a research project?A) random sampling C) control groupB) double-blind procedure D) random as
double-blind procedure
cognitive behavioral treatments
use combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techneques to help clients change maladaptive paterns of thinking
day dreaming
provide ourself a break from reality
Fluid Intelligence
ability to perceive and draw inferences about relationships among patterns of stimuli, to conceptualize abstract information, and to solve problems
Encoding
The process of putting thoughts into symbols, most commonly words.
Piaget's Formal Operational Stage
ABstract and Logical thought
Meta-Analysis
A stat. technique that averages that results of two or more studies to see if the effct of an independent variable is reliable
syntax
the internal structure of a sentence, determined by a set of rules (grammar) for combining different parts of speech into acceptable arrangementshow the structure of a sentence is made
• Pons
in the hindbrain involved with sleep and wakefulness
Spontaneous recovery
The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction.
Attachment
The emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers
What was Pavlov's UCS?
(Unconditioned Stimulus) Meat Powder
Intrinsic motivation
motivation that comes from within, that is based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity
behaviorism
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
imagination
the power of reproducing images stored in the memory by the suggestion of associated images, or recombining former experiences in the creation of new images
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 476)
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of the personal disposition
pegword system
a mnemonic device in which an individual links a familiar list of items with unfamiliar items on a new list via interactive images
Insight therapies
psychotherapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings
twin study
analysis of how traits differ in identical versus fraternal twins
Gender Identity
an image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
stimulus contiguity
stimulus are contiguous if they occur together in time and space
satiety
The feeling of being full or satisfied after eating which leads individuals to stop eating
size constancy
preceive objects as having a constant size.
Testosterone
What hormone is secreted for the male embryo to stimulate the development of a male reproductive system?
OPERANT CONDITIONING
LEARNING IN WHICH THE CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR LEAD TO CHANGES IN THE PROBABILITY OF ITS OCCURRENCE
1. Conformity
2. Dissonance
3.  Resistance and immersion
4. Introspection
5. Integrative Awareness
Sue & Sue's 5 stages of racial/cultural identity development
conditioned response (CR)
learned reaction to a conditional stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning
Nature vs. Nuture (cont.)
Originations- related to evolved characteristics that have survival value. (Nature aspect of behavior)
Present- Learned factor that determine whether or not behavior will occur
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living & in achieving a greater well-being
Biblical view of soul
A quality
2 uses:
unique human capacities
what survives after death
Visual Capture
The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses, as when we perceive voices in films as coming from the screen we see rather than from the projector behind us.
He contributed much to research in self-efficacy and social cognitive theory
Albert Bandura
REFERENTIAL
referent: the thing that a word or phrase denotes or stands for - refers to somethinglanguage is referential
hypothalamus
structure in the center of the brain that controls the pituitary gland
Personality Trait
Durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations
information overload
an excess of incoming information that forces one to be selective in the information received and retained
Reptilian brain
Lower, interior parts of brain, mostly of the brain stem
Principle of Family Resemblance
while group members share features, there is no one defining feature.
Negative Correlation
A way to measure how associated or related two variables are but is based on the negative affects such as babies that are held more tend to cry less and vice versa.
internal working model
a mental model that children construct as a result of their experiences with their caregivers and that they use to guide their interactions with their caregivers and others
Activation-syntesis theory of dreams
dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain. At the same time, brain regions that handle logical thought and sensation from the external world are shut down.
Amygdala in Classical Conditioning
Allows you to experience fear/anxiety and form emotional memories.
The Embryonic Period
All major organs initially develop in some fashion during what period?
disturbance of thought: delusions
deeply entrenched false beliefs and most common disturbance of thought content associated with schizo
Introverts response to external stimuli
*Hedonic tone (negative and postive)*preferred stim. level lower for introverts*decrease performance in reading while listening to music*avoid external stimulus while studying
What are antecedents? Consequences?
ANTECEDENTS: events that precede a responseCONSEQUENCES: Events that follow a response
Sleep Apnea(p 160)
A disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke and gasp and momentarily waken.
Mary was bitten by a dog. Now she fears the dog that bit her as well as other dogs. What aspect of classical conditioning is illustrated in what happened to Mary?
generalization
Intimacy vs. isolation
young adults struggle to from close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love or they feel socially isolated
Naturalistic Observation
When researchers need to know what is happening to a group of people or animals they watch them behave in their normal environment.
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
preperational stage
the stage that extends from 2 to 7 years of age.
Law of Effect
The principle that if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
Work and Career Issues
 
Parent's Work and Child's Development
Although parents worry about what effect juggling careers and family responsibilities will have on a childs development...
 
There is little evidence that both parents having jobs has a large impact on a childs development.
 
Also, there is little evidence that a mother having a job is harmful to her child. Actually makes the child more self-dependent and less reliable.
Social Facilitation
We perform at our best when people are present.
Rational Emotive Therapy
A form of cognitive therapy devised by Alber Ellis, designed to challenge the client's unrealistic or irrational thoughts
What are algorithms?
a rule that guarantees a solution to a problem
Social Loafing
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Unusual ESP subjects who defy chance when first tested nearly always lose their "psychic powers" when retested. This decline is best explained in terms of
C) regression towards the mean
cross-sectional study – cross-sectional study –
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
what must be done to detect sensory
 
transduction
be vonverted to electrochemical nerves...for the nervous system
Correlation is calculated by the...
Covariance, which is the product of two deviation scores.
2 types of depth perception cues
monocular-cues that appear in image in either right/left eyebinocular-cues taht involve comparing left eye and rigt eye
what is the sticky floor?
refers to women who are trapped in low-wage, low mobility jobs in state and local government
Which of the following statements concerning vaccinations is true? (a) there is no reason to immunize one's own child if all of the other children in school are immunized; (b) vaccines are one of the most effective ways to prevent the transmission of the
(b) vaccines are one of the most effective ways to prevent the transmission of the diseases they treat
What are the symptoms of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder?
an abnormally low level of interest in sexual activity.
individual neither seeks out actual sexual relationships, imagines having them, nor has the wish for a more active sex life.
It is likely that this disorder is the result of other psychological difficulties such as depression, prior sexual trauma, poor body image, etc.
I-O Psychology ψ  Chapter 9 Frankenburger 1954 Burnout  
Burnout
A syndrome resulting from prolonged exposure to work stress that leads to withdrawal from an organization.
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