Exam 291 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-Increased efficiency
-Ease, less cost, saves time, make more money
-High turnover / decreased loyalty
-Increased bureaucracy
relationship between variables.
Those of similar status
Something that’s socially constructed, violation of a law, our idea of crime changes over time with change in deviance
Lara Croft,
 an adventure-seeking archeologist and star of Tomb Raider and its many sequels, is the essence of the new gender image. Lara is smart, strong, and able to utterly vanquish foes. With both guns blazing, she is the cowboy of the twenty- first century, the term cowboy being purpose-fully chosen, as Lara breaks stereotypical gender roles and dominates what previously was the domain of men. She was the first female protagonist in a field of muscle- rippling, gun- toting macho caricatures 
structured inequality
people boss others around
serious rules with great significance
-Asch Line Test-Milgrom's Obedience Studies
favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom:
Action taken beyond prejudice. Easier to control
latent functions 
unintended beneficial consequences of people’s actions
Cultural turn→
Cultural turn→ sociology’s recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in daily life
established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
A relatively large collection of people (or other unit) that a researcher studies and about which generalizations are made
Expected behaviors
Three types:Folkways - expected behaviors, but not enforced - failure to follow may be considered \"social awkwardness\"Mores (more-ays) - enforced, usually are laws, consequences if not followed.Taboos - adhered to even more than mores - ie, incest
social stratification
-study of inequality.
-societies are organized
-organized in hierarchy.
-found in every society.
achieve harmony through making others feel good
Herbert Spencer
Darwin's evolution applied to behavior, explained poverty, don't change status qou b/c people naturally evolve
entering an institution and being asked to change behavior and adapt to new environments
collective conceptions of what is good, desireable, and proper (or the opposite) in a culture
system of symbols, universal, basis of all cultures
2 forms of pop culture
subculture and counterculture
Freud’s term for a balanc-ing force between the id and the demands of society
the process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.
role conflict
occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time
the knowledge and tools that people use to manipulate their enviroment
In which orientation of research are we likely to precisely measure the factors that vary?
Karl Marx
class conflict drives human history and change in society. divided between owners and laborers.roof of all conflict and change.capitalism breeds inequality, result in revolution
Symbolic interactionism
A theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with on another.
class owning the means for producing wealth
gender roles
the expected behaviors attitudes and activities socially defined as appropriate for each sex.
2 Types of Deterence
A) Special/Specific/Individual -> directed at the offender

B) General ---> deter the public
Scientific Management
Frederick Taylor's term for the application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization
Sociologica Imagination
making a connection between personal experiences and larger social influences/institutions
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
bilateral descent
trace lineage through both parents equally (hyphenated last name)
periodic and non-periodic assemblies
Periodic- recurring assembly/meeting (soc class, chapter, white sox season tickets) Non- very infrequent, nontraditional, less formal (ANTM casting call, protest, Obama celebration)
the movement of people in a population, as from place to place, from job to job, or from one social class or level to another
a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
form of solidarity in modern society, where there is a division of labor and diverse and conflicting interests, and common values are less obvious
organic solidarity
non material culture 
consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people's behavior 
Middle Class
People who earn stable incomes at primarily white-collar jobs.
Range of discriminatory actions
1. avoidance
2. rejection
3. Verbal attacks
4. Physical threats
5. physical threats and attacks by other whites
industrialism hypothesis
societies become more open to movement between classes as they become more technologically advanced
--> workers increasingy get jobs because of skill not ascription 
when one variable has an influence on another
idiosyncrasy credit
the privelege that allows leaders to deviate from their groups' norms or, by extension, their society's norms
colorblind ideology
seeks to refute the importance of color and urges individuals to ignore racial dissimilarities
Postindustrial society
A society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information.
-Erik Olin Wright

positions in the class structure, that share characteristics of the class positions both above and below them
a group that shares values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the rest of society, yet they peacefully co-exist in society. Such as the Amish
The process of social change begun by industrialization
a religious group that professes a new religious belief, totally rejects society, and consists of members with extreme devotion to their leader
the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society
types of crime
1- victimless- willing exchange of illegal goods, 2- professional- occupational, 3- organized- network institutions, 4- white collar- business activity, 5- transitional- occurs and crosses national borders
Social Science
studies the features of human society and behavior interaction, change, etc (soc, poli sci, psych)
cultural relativity
a concept that cultural norms and values derive their meaning within a specific social context; cultural relativism
Cultural relativism example
1) You should not judge another person's customs especially until you understand them. 2) You can't do business with members of a difference culture if you unknowingly behave in ways that offend them.
Applied Sociology
The use of sociology to solve problems from the micro level of family relationships to the macro level of global pollution
a society or group in which men have power over women.
Control Theory
looks at bonds you have with other people*read →strong social bonds help prevent deviance, while weak social bonds may lead to deviance.
Subordination of women that is part of the everyday workings of economics, law, politics, and other social institutions; Second Shift for women
Institutional Sexism
Correlation Coefficient
being closet to the highest number. Ex .51 or .71. the highest is always biggest
What people own and can draw on in times of need and can pass on to future generations.
Central cities
U.S. is the 4th largest nation in the world in term of land area & population
¾ of the population are concentrated on 15% of the land area
(2000) 236+ million people (79% of pop.) lived in metropolitan areas
Urban areas influence both suburbs and rural areas
Diverse population in urban areas
Immigrants have left their mark on ethnic areas
assembling perspective
What motivates people to move to a common space? (Tailgating) Now, we are looking at this through virtual space too (internet)
DuBois and the Conflict Perspective
Understanding power and inequality must be supported by understanding of race w/in a society.
The belief that one sex is superior to another. (conflict theorists often look into this)
value added model
Looks at social conditions that lead to collective behavior, social conditions that lead to a willingness to act collectively
a person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place.
Liberation of The Netherlands
Once the allies reached the Rhine River, the Canadians were tasked with liberating the netherlands.
Jimmy and Alex are doing a survey on the opinion undergraduate student have regarding academic services at their university. There are 12,000 undergraduate students at their university, but they plan to only survey 2,000 of them. In view of this, the 12,0
population; sample
Formal social control
Social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers.
Reference Group
A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
new social movements
prior to 1970's= material gains now = new identity change...society to be more compassionate (go Green)
feminist perspective on deviance
Law tends to favor men, domestic violence not punished for very long; women favored in custody battles
sociologists known for their work on the “socialconstruction of reality”
Thomas Berger and Peter Luckmann
Who was Zygmunt Bauman
He was a social theorist who thought that there or no clear standards of how, with whom, or when sex is acceptable. There are less rules.
patrilineal vs matrilineal descent
pat- trace through father- last name , mat- trace through mother- religion
significant other
a person, as a parent or peer, who has great influence on one's behavior and self-esteem
What did local authority decide?
Decided to build a center to hire illegal immigrants and then it was vetoed because they are illegal immigrants.
factors that impact mobility in the US
1- occupational mobility- ppl strive to do better than parents, 2- education- more educated = more class increase, 3- race/ethnicity, 4- gender
what is strain theory? how does it accoutn for deviance?
developed by Robert Merton, strain theory states that every society has socially approved goals that members are encouraged to strive for through socially approved means. inthe united states the approved goal is material succes and the approved way to achieve it is through education and hard work. Strain is experieenced when the approved goals cannot be achieved through the approvved means. deviance is the result of blocked or rejected means; those labeled deviant do not follow the culturally acceptable norms. the most common form of deviance is what Merton labeled "innovation"; the goals are accepted, but the means to attain them are blocked. people then use illegal or illegititmate means, such as crim, to attain the goal of material success.
Test of the effect of implicit attitudes show us that
We are more accurate and faster at processing information that fits our implicit stereotype
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