Exam 54 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to drink
indicates "the same"
spiral-staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule
Deuterostomes have indeterminate cleavage
The study of life
-include snails and slugs
reproductive organ of male plants
Glucose and fructose are Monosaccharides (T/F)
airborneCausative agent: Corynebacterium diphtheriaeMode of transmission:AirborneRespiratory dropletsSigns & Symptoms:Cold-like; fever, sore throat;Pseudomembrane in throatVirulence Factors:Exotoxin - encoded by lysogenized phageToxin inactivates EF-2; Blocks protein synthesisTreatment:Antibiotics + Anti-toxin antiseraPrevention:DPT vaccine (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus)
What is the hierarchical taxonomy?
theory of evolution in 1809 Transformism Need-based Inheritance of acquired characteristicsexample/if you lose 2 fingers accidently, your children will be born without those 2 fingers; Arnold bodybuilding example
(ganglion cells, bipolar neurons): conduct nerve impulses
cellular respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
How can humans fight viral infections?
measures surge of blood entering arteries
causes artery walls to stretch
how did eukaryotic features develop from prokaryotic cells?
– once it enters the collecting duct– only remaining change is water content
Certain white blood cells engulf microorganisms and bring them in to digest them. This process is best described is...
is the chemical and/or mechanical breakdown of food into particles that individual cells of animals can absorb
major limiting factors for aquatic plants
magnifies small objects not visible to the naked eye
In photosynthesis energy is capture where?
evolution involving a series of reciprocal changes in two or more noninterbreeding populations that have a close ecological relationship and act as agents of natural selection for each other, as the succession of adaptations of a predator for pursuing and
The main reason polar regions are cooler than the equator is because
A) there is more ice at the poles.
B) sunlight strikes the poles at an lower angle.
C) the poles are farther from the sun.
D) the poles have a thicker atmosphere.
E) the poles are perman
process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei
Specific immune mechanisms include...
Antimicrobial peptides called defensins, phagocytosis, and the complement system.
What is hydrophilic?
What is hydrophilic?
A substance that dissolves in water
Sponges are classified based on the ________
Non Disjunction
Failure of homologous pairs to separate during 1st meiotic division OR of chromatids to separate during 2nd meiotic division
flaccid (flas′-id)
Limp. Lacking in stiffness or firmness, as in a plant cell in surroundings where there is no tendency for water to enter the cell.
The complete genetic composition of a cell or a species.
A chemical agent released into the synaptic cleft by the synaptic bouton of a neuron. Binds to receptor sites on postynaptic neurons or effector membranes to alter activity.
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.
Who started Celera Genomics in 1998?
Craig Venter
Info aboutflexible cell surface
Flexible cell surface:-Prokaryotic cell wall was lost-cells can grow larger.-As cell size increases, surface area-to-volume ratio decreases-but with a flexible surface infolding can occur creating more surface area.-A flexible cell surface also allowed endocytosis to develop.
Specialized Connective Tissue
Adipose Tissue: loose, irregular arrangement of fibers. Fat cells, stores energy and cushions delicate organsCartilage: extensive, rigid extracellular matrix. Chondrocytes are cartilage producing cells.Function: flexible support structure, shock absorptionBone: intercellular matrix contains numerous fibers & water, and inorganic salts.Function: support structure & protection for vital organsBlood: transport gases, nutrients, waste; Four elements of blood: Erythrocytes Red cellsLeukocytes - white cells immune systemPlatelets: blood clotting, produced in bone morrowPlasma - 90% water.
Domain eukarya
Contains Kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia
O- C- H-N-other (calcium,phos, pot, sulfur, sodium,Cl, Mg)trace elements (less than .001%)
8; 16
the electrode or terminal by which current enters an electrolytic cell, voltaic cell, battery, etc.
general name for bacteria that live in exteme conditions
Double Helix
a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis
To avoid moving the objective into the slide, never lower the objective toward the stage while looking through the eyepiece
the frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene displays itself in individuals in a population
Descent with Modification
o Over long periods, natural selection produces organisms that have different structures, establish different niches, and occupy different habitatso So, species today look different from their ancestorso Each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over timeo Implies common descent: all species living and distinct are evolved from common ancestors  single tree of life• most populations are stable in size• individuals vary greatly in their characteristics (phenotypes)• gradualism• if this variation could be passed from parent to offspring (aka is heritable), then future generations would be better suited to the environment than the parental generation was (Darwin did not know about genetics – he was unaware of Mendel’s work)
Refractory period
The brief period that elapses after the response of a neuron or muscle fiber, during which it cannot respond to another stimulus.
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion that uses help but doesn't use energy
Continuous Variation
continuous range in a given trait among individuals; the more genes a trait is affected by, the more _____________
Spinal Nerve
Thirty-one pairs of nerves that emerge from the spinal cord.
A Basidiomycete, very tough and leathery or woody fruiting bodies, often plate-like and most grow out of tree trunks or rotting wood, some produce a new fruiting body every year, while others produce one which continues to grow year after year
Polypores (Bracket fungi)
articular cartilage
layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the facing surfaces of two bones; usually 2 or 3 mm thick
Hole in chest wall, causes lung to collapse
Ecosystem Ecology
Studies energy flow and cycling of chemicals among the various abiotic and biotic components
an ultramicroscopic (20 to 300 nm in diameter), metabolically inert, infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts, mainly bacteria, plants, and animals: composed of an RNA or DNA core, a protein coat, and, in more complex types,
DNA ligase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
b. What is the shape of a water molecule
chitin is also used to make what kind of thread?
thin stalk by which a leaf blade is attached to a stem
5. Nematoda - Roundworms
1st with tube type digestive system-pinworms and heart worms
Potential Energy
The energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure).
sex-limited traits
LIMITED to one sex ONLY. Alleles are located on the autosomes. Expressed in the presence of the sex hormones of one sex, but not the other sex. (Example: only female mammals can produce milk).
change in the DNA of a gene or chromosome
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases
are a group of progressive conditions that affect the brain and nervous system of many animals, including humans.
origin of replication
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
What kind of respiratory system do Arthropoda have?
Tranchaea or book lungs.
A right shift of the HbO2 curve means an increasing affinity for oxygen as blood enters systemic capillaries
A) True
B) False
B) False
What is the main one in replication, which synthesizes DNA in both the leading and lagging strand?
What happens in the Loop of Henle?
water and salt exit
What is a species?
A group of organisms that look alike and interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
___ can live with or without O2. Enzymes?
Facultative anaerobes. Catalase, superoxide dismutase to detoxify O2
describe the replica plating experiment used to screen for mutant who could not grow in lactose (lacked beta-galactosidase)
have master plate with glucose only and use velvet colored black to tranfer the mutants positions on the velvet then put block on lactose only, superimpositio the position of the masterplate mutants on the lactose only mutants...see which colony dies.
Th cells downregulate the immune system through ___.
cytokines -- they tell the immune system when to stop fighting the infection
Name the correct term of: Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve)
Afferent nerve. (Afferent comes from af- a formof ad- meaning toward and -ferent meaning carrying.
why are viruses not classified as living?
they cannot reproduce on their own, dont eat
what is the location and function of cytoplasm?
lacated between the nucleus and cytoplasm. it provides the support to suspend the organelles. it also is a soup in which the many vital molecules and enzymes are found. the pressre of the cytoplasm against the cell membrane also provides a type of support.
Which of these definitions of species most clearly matches the biological species concept?
a. member os the same species are all morphologically similar
b. members of the same species are all genetically identical
c. members of the same species loo
e. members of the same species can mate and produce firtile offspring
Why is the order of the amino acids that form the polypeptide important
because the sequence of the amino acids affects how the protein folds together
experiencing pain
directly observable characteristics
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 143)
athletic, enerjectic, direct mannerExample: rambo
our predisposition to things
the brain's sensory switchboard, located at the top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the corterx & transmits replies to the cerebellum & medulla.
Major suicide risk factors
depressionhopelessnesssubstance abuseschizophreniahomosexuality (social stigma)unemploymentchronic, painful, disfiguring illnessrecent loss of a loved one, being divorced, separated, widowedfamily history of suicidepersonality disordersanxiety disordersold age, especially menrecent discharge from hospital
social comparison
comparing self to others
6 universal fundamental emotionsHappy sad angry fear surprise disgust
Synaptic Gap
Tiny gap between synapse
-cells that receive mechanical disturbances (like pressure)-receive stimulation from mechanical pressure and convert it into a neural signal
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
Input fibers that carry electrical signals into a neuron from connected cells to the cell body.
intelligent quotentMA over CA times 100IQ = MA/CA X 100score:100=average
Creates stereotypes, can create false assumptions about people, affect how we percieve people, labels guide perceptions which guide interpretations.
responsible for dim light and peripheral vision
moving physical objects through mental effort
Keppel and Underwood’s forgetting study with three
there's interference!
reaction formation
Psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.atio
the dimension of visual experience related to the amount, or intensity, of the light an object emits or reflects
The young of certain species—ducks, for example—must be able to follow their parents almost from birth.
gestalt psychologists
-gestalists emphasized the importance of organization and patterning in enabling us to perceive the whole stimulus -law of organization: the tendency to distinguist between figure and ground-reversible figure: when the discrepancy between figure/ground is vague
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
variable-interval schedule
provides reinforcement after a variable amount of time has elapsed-produces steady rates of responding and is highly resistant to extinction
The theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes that inherent goodness of people , human poential, self-actualiztion, the self-concept, and helthy personality development
humanistic psychology
Is osteoporosis more common among women or men?
relative size
In three-dimensional vision, a monocular depth cue that results when we expect two objects to be the same size and they are not. In that case, the larger of the objects will appear closer, and the smaller will appear to be farther away.
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
Someone who assists people by listening to their problems and provides support and advice
Medulla Oblongata
Regulates blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing.
Assignment of objects or people to categories on the basis of shared characteristics.
Broca's area
left frontal lobe involved in speech
humanistic therapies
people are encouraged to understand themselves and to grow personally. The humanistic therapies are unique in their emphasis on the person's self-healing capacities
brain stem
regulates control of involuntary or unconscious functions such as breathing and heart rate
data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations & measurements
Self-Reference Effect
People seem to orient themselves toward stimuli that are associated with the self and show preferences for objects owned by and reflective of the self.
what is the active ingredient in THC?
Mental Age
MA/CA x 100
**Problem is that mental age doesnt always increase
a psychoactive drug derived from the hemp plant
Artifical vs. Natural
Artificial-formed by logical, specific rules (e.g., triangle)
Natural-formed by everyday life experiences (e.g., bird)
racial assimilation
process by which racial minority groups are absorbed through dominate group through marriage
myelin sheath
insulating cover around axons- ^ neuron's ability to transmit impulses quickly
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron
Reuptake refers to the
intrinsic motivation
desire to perform behavior because good internal feelings
basic research
seeks theoretical knowledge for its own sake, such as understanding the processes of learning and memory
how strongly one variable is related to another and direction of relationship (positive: variables move together, either up or down; negative: variables move in opposite directions)
Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits rather than temporary self-starvation.
Behavioral dieting
The single cell formed at conception from the union of the egg cell and sperm cell.
The tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept
What is the percent of lifetime prevalence of Major depressive disorder?
What is the body's natural inclination when stressed?
a perception, as of visual stimuli, that represents what is perceived in a way different from the way it is in reality
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking, in severe cases symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions, cause of mental retardation
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 482)
social-interactionist view
babies and adults have a mutual passion to communicate
Personal Fable
View him/herself as somehow unique or heroic
ways to see inside the brain without lesioning it
primary effect
the superior recall of the early portion of a list relative to the middle of the list in one-trail free recall task
social norm
a rule or expectation for appropriate social behavior
The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory
measure of range by which we hear something
The turning inward of the eyes, when an object comes near us
What is punishment?
Punishment is a cinsequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.
a mode of group thinking that impairs decision making because the desire for group harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of the possible decision alternatives
Schizophrenia subtype: Catatonic
marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
optimum arousal
often humans seek to increase arousal to some optimum level. i.e.: we don't always try to eliminate arousal
According to Karen Horney, one of two major environmental dangers to a child development: parents’ lack of respect for the child as a unique as a unique and worthwhile individual
Birth control pills (oral contraceptives):
contain estrogen and progesteronePrevent surge of FSH and LH to prevent releasing ovumMakes it harder for sperm to reach eggMakes it less likely that egg (if released, if fertilized) to be implanted
general symptoms of schizophrenia
delusions & irrational thought, deterioration of adaptive behavior(work, social relations, personal care), distorted perception(hallucinations), disturbed emotion(flattening of emotion, inappropriate emotional responses, emotionally volatile)
living will
a document that specidies what medical interventiona person whats if he or she becomes incapable of expressing those wishes
Observer effect
changes in behavior caused by an awareness of being observed
By the time people are in their mid-twenties, most people's sexual lifestyle is characterized by _____ either by marriage or cohabitation.
getting less than adequate sleep for days in a row
sleep restriction
sensorimotor stage (0-2)
experiencing the world thru senses && actions
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Robert Fantz
observed that babies as young as 4 months old preferred looking at objects with contours rather than those that were plain, complex ones rather than simple ones, and whole faces rather than faces with features in disarray. 
Freud's term for the part of the mind that monitors behavior and evaluates it in terms of right and wrong the conscience.
Pegword Method 
used to recall lists of words, after you memorize the peg word (one is a bun) you create an image that associates the word you want to remember with the peg word (ex. 3 is a tree...with a hippo camping under it.... Hippocampus)
spot on the back of the retina that has the highest concentration of photoreceptors, and therefore the clearest vision.
disadvanages to the DSM-IV-TR
  Possibility of Over diagnosing:
 Power of a diagnostic label:
Derived by a committee: 

Everyday problems listen in DSM:
Treatments of ODD and CD
-an absence of effective interventions
-if not treated early, prognosis is poor
-types of interventions
parent management training (PMT)
cognitive problem-solving skills training (PSST)
multisystemic treatment (MST)
Long term memory
Which of the following includes all the others?a. Episodic memoryb. Semantic memoryc. Procedural memoryd. Long-term memory
skinner box
skinner designed a chamber with a bar for the rat to access food, a food dispenser and a light that signalizes reward is to come. famous for recording and administering the rats conditioning while no one is watching or supervising
proximity (488)
How close two people live to each other. (488)
symptoms of major depressive disorder
negative emotions, giving up activities the person once enjoyed, reduced appetite, insomnia, lack of energy, anxiety, irritability, brooding, feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, dejection and boundless guilt
The recall of very specific images or details surrounding a vivid, rare, or significant personal event; details may or may not be accurate.
flashbulb memory
What does the Independence blueprint in the Cancian blueprint emphasize? Are traditional gender roles maintained? Is the relationship stable? Who develops personal interests?
emphasizes self-development over commitment and obligations. No. No. Both partners.
Type 2 error
Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually false.
In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants' willingness to hire the applicants revealed
D) greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men
The fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure
Sensor Communication Styles
Like facts, evidence presented first Rely on direct experience to provide information Use orderly, step-by-step approach in conversations Like suggestions to be straightforward & feasible In meetings, prefer to stick with the agenda
Piaget vs. Vygotskylanguage
P- gradual master of language as part of cognitive developmentV- language acquisition plays crucial role in development
Confidence Intervals
% sure that the means fall between 2 numbers (the confidence interval is the number and how likely it is to fall between those 2 other numbers)
the perception of another person is affected by..
the nature of preknowledge
Four common themes constitute a systematic series of processes to strengthen the human spirit
centering, emptying, grounding, and connecting
what are the 4 lobes of the brain?
frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Describe the Regressed type of pedophilia
Tends to have normal peer relationships. A lot of heterosexual experiences & at some point experience feelings of indecency. High rates of alcohol abuse. There tends to be a stressor (pregnant wife, lost job, money issues). Tend to choose female victims. Remorseful. Best prospect for treatment.
While walking down the street you step on something, which turns out to be a wallet. What sequence of components of the nervous system was involved as you realized ta ht you stepped on something and then picked it up?
afferent nerves, brain, efferent nerves
How is Amblyopia(lazy eye) treated?
putting patch over good eye to inhibit competition of input from other eye
5 components of later CBT sessions.
1. Review hmwk2. Review concepts, if necessary3. Teach new psychoed/rationale4. Teach/practice skills5. Assign hmwk
What are the 12 steps to overcoming procrastination?
1, Awareness
2. Break inertial/break the cycle
3. Cognitive Restructuring
4. Small chunks of time
5. Specific sub-goals
6. Don't compare to others
7. Work space
8. Lead-in tasks (turn off tv)
9. Make 2 lists.. why am I procrastinating, benefits of getting job done
10. Begin each day with 1 of the unpleasant things
11. Talk to people who don't procrastinate
12. Reward yourself
An individual is thought to have deterioration in his or her right hemisphere. If this is true, what might you notice about the individual?
He/She has experienced a decrease in emotional expression.
What are the 6 leading causes of death in the U.S.?
1. Coronary heart disease
2. Cancer
3. Suicide
4. Accidental injuries
5. Cirrhosis of liver
6. Lung problems
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