Exam One 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
External emotions
Norbert Weiner
developed cybernetics
"interpretation, not a record"
Major Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Serotonin, GABA, Endorphins
aggressiveness/resistance to the immune system
drugs used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder
a generalized (sometimes accurate) belief about a group of people
behaviors, thoughts, feelings, are largely controlled by unconscious forces
brief, unintended sleep episodes, ranging from a few seconds to minute, caused by chronic sleep deprivation
haptic sense
the sense of touch
implicit memory
memories dont deliberately remember
Reddish colors
-long wavelength, low frequency
Wason Task- cards
Wason & Johnson-Laird
13. _________ involves information gained from direct observation.
empirical evidence.
types of punishments (operant)
positive and negative
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
operant conditioning
Learning through consequences. Behavior that operates on the environment may be instrumental in producing certain outcomes, and those outcomes , in turn, determine the likelihood that the behavior will repeated on similar occasions.
The thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be easily brought to consciousness
the ability to speak two languages
studies that collect detailed information about specific situations, often using observations, surveys, interviews, recordings, ora combination of these methods
descriptive studies
slender tail-like extension of the neuron that sprouts into many branches each ending in an axon terminal
A psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior
a tone’s highness or lowness; depends on frequency
The deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes or behavior of another person in a situation which that person has some freedom of choice.
Actions we take to relieve anxiety
stem cells
primitive, undifferentiated cells or "precells," found in large numbers in the embryo
the process through which individuals select the environments in which they spend time
trace-decay theory
failure to store information permanently in memory; forgetting results when memory traces in the brain weaken and disappear with the passage in time. decay in long term memory has not been shown.
The thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given moment.
Salvador Minuchin
born and raised in argentina
-subdividing concepts from broad –> narrow helps encoding
Social Referencing
Seeking information about an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone else's expressions and reactions. That other person becomes a reference, consulted when the infant wants to know how to react.
famous men and women: familiarity bias: judgements about how common an event is confounded with how well we know it
authoritarian personality
Submissive toward figuresof authority but aggressive toward subordinates.
86. Humanistic theories emphasize
free will and self-determination
Myelinates the axons of the PNS (outside the brain), and each cell equals one myelinated sheath.
types of observational learning
vicarious reinforcement, vicarious punishment
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
the process by which stimulation of sensory receptors- the structures in our eyes, ears etc. produce neural impulses that represent experiences
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Continuous Reinforcement
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
nature of nothingness
a sense of negation. relationships
Scientific Thinking
kids tend to asking fundamental questions about reality, emphasis on causal mechanisms, influenced by chance events than by overall patterns; maintain old theories regardless of evidence
___________ are false beliefs that a person maintains in the face of a contrary evidence.
The school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior.
Laboratory Study
A research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant
conditioned stimulus
a neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response
In the Buddhist perspective of stress, they are conditions and expectations that are associated with goals. These with attachments cause stress.
altered staes of consciousness
unusual subjective experiences, diminished or enhanced levels of self-awareness, and distances in a person's sense of control over physical actions
Gender Stereotypes
broad categories that reflect general impressions and beliefs about males and females; children gender sterotyping increases from preschool through fifth grade, boys stereotypes tend to be more rigid than girls
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimuls (UCS), now causes a conditioned response (CR).
All of the following are negative symptoms of schizophrenia EXCEPT
list of psychodynamic thearpies
freudian analysits, neofrodian therapies
Negative attitude toward others due to gender, race, religion, etc.
perceptual constancy
people correctly perceive objects as constant in shape, size, color, and lightness, despite raw sensory data that could mislead perception
a form of malnutrition in which individuals are not receiving enough protein or enough calories
authoritarian parenting
parenting style characterized by low warmth and high control
the period of development from birth to about age 2
two heterozygotes cross
1/2 heterozygotes, 1/4 homozygous recessive, 1/4 homozygous dominant
motivational theory
forgetting based on needs and desires. Freud says that selective forgetting is a result of repression
vonRestorff effect
remembering unique things from a list
The process of keeping or maintaining information in memory.
John Bowlby
1949, psychiatrist at Tavistock Child Guidance Clinic
invites family into failing case with boy, adapted group therapy techniques
asks why?, linear cause and effect, subject/object dualism, either/or dichotomies, value free science, deterministic/reactive, laws of external reality, historical focus, individualistic
media violence effects
-Short-term: increase in hostile behavior, feelings, attitudes
-Long-term: repeated exposure leads to chronic hostility, desensitization to real-world violence
The name for the developing organism from about three through eight weeks.
A criterion is the standard against which the test is compared
Neural tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye which absorbs light, processes images, and sends information to the brain.
an unpleasant state of arousal in which people perceive the demands of an event as taxing or exceeding their ability to statisfy or alter those demands
55. A(n) _______ states the exact procedures used to represent a concept.
operational difinition
Medial lemniscal pathway
large fibers that carry proprioceptive and touch information
recency effect
better memory for information at end of series
What does slow wave sleep
resting and rebuilding, body
Put on the best face in any situation
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The hypothesis that differences among languages can cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers.
central executive
part of working memory that is responsible for monitoring and directing attention and other mental resources
Define Accommodation
The process by which existing schemes are modified and new schemes are created to incorporate new objects, events, experiences, or information
actualization tendency
only one motive inherent to human organization. basic, inherent motive toward a unified, coherent experience. goal is maintenance and enhancement of self.
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rears; includes the sensory cortex.
human mind's activity of taking in, storing, and using information
information processing
Holistic Medicine
A healing approach that honors the integration, balance, and harmony of mind, body, spirit, and emotions to promote inner peace. Every technique used in stress management is considered to support this concept.
correlation coefficient
a numerical value that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables (+1.00 to -1.00)
-Symptoms associated with Bipolar
Alternates between Depression & Mania
Mania- week or more inflated self-esteem
Constant talking, reckless, hyper activity
activation-synthesis hypothesis
a theory of dreaming that proposes that neural stimulation for the pons activates mechanisms that normally interpret sigual input
the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.
Actor-Observer Discrepancy
The tendency to attribute one’s own behavior to external, situational causes, while attributing behavior of others to internal, personal causes; especially likely to occur with regard to behaviors that lead to negative outcomes.
Dissociative Experience
A break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or divided.
simultaneous contrast
an optical illusion in which identical stimuli appear different when presented against different backgrounds
the support system that - via the umbilical cord - provides food and oxygen to the developing child and carries waste products away
semantic encoding
encoding in terms of meaning, greatest depth and best recall,
practical intelligence
the ability to solve real world problems
Integrity testing
Surveys designed to assess whether a person is generally honest or dishonest, replaced polygraph
sensory compensation
People who lose one channel of sensation seem to compensate with a slight enhancement of other sensory abilities
Ethnic Group
A collection of people who share certain attributes, almost always including ancestral heritage and often including national origin, religion, customs and language
Predictive Validity
The accuracy with which test scores predict a criterion obtained at a later time Ex. SAT is a predictor and college GPA is criterion
to look for relation between two variables
correlation method
Biopsychosocial Model
health and illness are affected by biological, psychological, and social factors. The mind and body interact to produce health and illness, both of which are emphasized
Angular size contrast theory
moon appears smaller when surrounded by larger objects
negative punishment (operant)
a pleasant stimulus is taken away: class absence means points deducted
Blind Spot (optic disk)
contains no receptor cells at all.
Lannie is an 18 month old child who has a dog at home. When he sees a horse for the first time, he says to his father, "look at doggie!" What term best decribes Lannie's comment?
organic (retardation)
a kind of mental retardation that is caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage; organic refers to the tissues or organs of the body, indicating physical damage; their IQs range from 0-50
The part of the personality that is in touch with reality & strives to meet the demands of the id & the superego in socially acceptable ways is called...
decay theory
if you don't use the information you lose it
-Symptoms of Dissociative Fugue
suddenly leaving & forgetting idenity lives in that idenity for weeks/months suddenly snaps back
Gender Role Classification
masculinity and femininity used to be described as a continuum
Dustin is a child who never seems to eat or sleep on a schedule. He is described as an "intense kid" by his parents and is often irritable. Based on this information, what type of temperament does Dustin likely have?
Appropriate Weight
The weight that is best for your body
emotional intelligence
the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and to use that information to guide thinking and action
What does ASAM stand for?
American Society for Addiction Medicine
stimulus generalization
when one associates a CS with a similar stimulus
jay haley
idea of struggle for power and control attributed to...
False memory syndrome
-people can recall a past traumatic event that is objectively false but that they believe is true
-Vivid memories acquired especially if another person, such as a therapist, suggests it
-Typically lack other objective findings to support claims
Referring to a gene that is located on the X chromosome.
Fixed ratio
(# of times) reward after a fixed number of responses.
Randomized, Controlled Trials
variables are manipulated like in the experimental method
attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
how does one engage freedom
1) rising above one's facticity 2)broaded horizons 3) desenglue 4) create lives ex nihilo
morality of contraint
Children before the ages of 9-10 years conform to societal rules that are viewed as unchanging and unchangeable
psychology is defined as the
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
primary visual cortex
in the occipital lobe were vision is sent
Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR)
Therapy technique in which the client holds a vivid mental image of a troubling event or situation while rapidly moving his or her eyes back and forth in response to the therapist’s waving finger
The "stepmother trap" is a simplified description of the stepmother image as
Both harsh and sentimental
Why do most children drop out of sports?
change of interest
what is excitation transfer?
our excitation fromm the actual source of arousal transfers to another source
what is the Availability Heuristic?
the tendency to estimate the likelihood of events based on the availability of the event in memory
Waston & Raynor's Little Albert Experiment
conditioned fear by pairing touching a rat (CS) with a loud noise (US) which led to the startle and crying (CR) the new response to the rat was called a conditioned emotional response (CER)
least restrictive environment (LRE)
the concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to settings of children who do not have disabilities; based on each individual
Test-Retest is appropritate when
it is assumed a trait being measured does not change over time... E.G intelligence
ways by which infection can occur
penetration of body tissue-- skin usually does a good job protecting so entry is usually through mucus membranes (eyes, nose, throat, genitals)
What's involved in the inpatient treatment modality?
Usually 28-day program - includes education, family work, group work
What are the three categories of sport enjoyment?
intrapersonal sources, situational sources, and social interactions/positive adult influences.
no cones or cones that are not working at all
monochrome color blindness
Opponent process theory of color vision
color vison is caused by opposing responses generated by blue and yellow and by red and green
-Systematic Desensitization: what and how
Breakdown step by step to get them over there fear
How- its not as scared as you were before can be unlearned your not born with phobia
What is the greatest challenge for children in blended families?
Residual conflict from the nuclear family
basically Selye is saying that:
your response is much higher at the first signs of stress, yet as the stress drags on it wears you out. (DUH)
states that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence it will tend to be repeated and if a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence it will tend not to be repeated
Thorndike formulated the Law of Effect
The key observational aspects of the Strange Situation are the following:
Exploration of the toys. Reaction to the caregiver's departure. Reaction to the caregiver's return.
what is the semantic distance effect? (CHECK BOOK)
not all birds are good examples, it takes longer to say an ostrich is a bird than canary.
what is the first schema ever to be developed in most people's lives?
the gender schema (girl = pink, boy = blue)
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