Exam Review 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
skinner
behavioral
20th Century
Anxiety
pragma
practical, satisfactory love
Treatment of PTSD
-cognitive/behavioral-increase positive coping skills-increased social support-limited medical treatments
Sleep and insight
eureka moments
Oral:
Birth to 18 months
Endocrine
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
norepinephrine
a neurotransmitter affecting eating, alertness, and sleep
3 stages of parental development
ZygoteEmbryoFetus
Retrieval
reactiviation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores
Operant Conditioning
Conditioning through Re-enforcement and punishment
stress
involves physical, cognitive and emotional responses
Hypothalamus
Regulates the "Four Fs": fighting, feeding, fleeing, and mating
masking
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
Lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
Triadic Reciprocal Determinism
interactive relationship between: behavioural, cognitive, environmental
Aggresion
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
pons
translates information going to and from the brain stem
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotion.
Cognitive Perspective
perception, mental processes, memory, language...most researched
Nature
argues that biology influences human behavior.
somatic
inappropriate concerns about one's own body, typically related to disease
Limbic System
collection of structures located around the central core of the brain that play a critical role in emotional expression, learning, and memory. Key structures of the limbic system include the amygdala, the hippocampus, the septal area, and parts of the hypothalamus.
Sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciouness-- as distinct from unsciouness resulting form a coma, general anesthesia , or hibernation.
Menopause
 
the sensation of ovulation and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s reproductive capability.
Homeostasis
-Model of drive reduction
-Ex: body temp, fluid level
-If lacking, creates drive
-Trigger hormones/behavior to bring level to optimal
-Ex: Thermometer - If room is too cold - heat turns on. Compares to thermostat
Comparitors
People, objects, events, and other standards that are used as a baseline for comparisons in making judgements.
Organizational Encoding
Categorizing information by noticing the relationships among a series of items
correlation
a statistical relationship between two variables (+/-). *Not to be confused with causation.
personality
the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual; the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual
Psychoanalytic Perspective
emotions, unconscious, and early experiences
Toddlerhood
Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt (Erikson) toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
suggestibility
problem with memory that occurs when memories are implanted in our minds based on leading questions, comments, or suggestions by someone else or some other source
sociocultural approach
Behavior viewed as strongly influenced by the rules and expectations of specific social groups or cultures
hypothalmus
a neural structure lying below the thalmus; it directs several maintenence activies, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
One of your mother's siblings is always known for putting together awful-looking colors when getting dressed. Who is this person more likely to be?
Uncle
endocrine system
consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning
Imprinting
The process in which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Obsessive-Compilsive Disorder
Symptoms: Obessions - Person has unwanted repeptitive thoughts. Compulsions - behavior rituals performed in repsonse to the obsessions.Causes: increased activity in the caudate nucleus and children stre-throat infections.Treatment: Behavioral techniques & Cognitive techniques
Denial
A defense mechanism in which the individual redefines the stressor so as to make it less stressful.
recognition
a test of long-term memory that involves identifying correct information out of several possible choices
identity crisis
erickson's theory, a stressul period of serious sould searching and self examinatoin of issues relating to personal values and ones direction in life
Projection
Project your own acceptable urges onto others
(a person who insists everyone else is selfish)
 
 
ratio schedules
require the organism to make designated response a certain number of times to gain each reinforcer
kinesthesia
sensory systme for body posture and orientation
Self-efficacy
An person's personal judgment of their own ability
Outgroups
Groups with which an individual does not feel a sense of membership, belonging, or identity.
Cerebral Cortex
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
Big 5: Openness to Experience
curious vs. dull
Well Being Therapy
WBT, a short-term, problem-focused, directive therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive.
- Clients are asked to note even small pleasures in their life and then identify thoughts and feelings that are related to premature ending of these moments.
-learning to notice and savor positive experiences and coming up with ways to promote and celebrate lifes good moments
generalizing results
applying research findings to entire populationfactors to consider: geographic location, gender, socioeconoic background education levels
Somatoform disorders
physical ailments that cannot be explained and are due to psychological factors
Teratogens
agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses
imagination
the power of reproducing images stored in the memory by the suggestion of associated images, or recombining former experiences in the creation of new images
survey
a questionnaire or another method of asking people to report their behavior or opinions
Theory
A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations. In science not just speculation or a guess.
target population
the group defined by the researcher's specific interests. individuals typically share one characteristic.
Sociocultural Accounts
Emphasize the social context and the ways in which interactions with caretakers and other children guide children's understanding of the world
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
Fetus
- the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
convergence
the 2 eyes converge together to see something close (binocular cue)
Fetus Period=
@ 38 mos
 
baby sex determined by 12th week
 
17-20 mos movement can be felt
 
survival age= 22-26 weeks
Sexual masochism
An intense and recurrent desire to obtain or increase sexual gratification through subjecting oneself to pain or humiliation.
Romantic Love
 
Why Relationships End

Premature commitment (getting married too early)
Poor conflict/resolution management
Boredom
A more attractive relationship becomes available
ADHD & Medication
-stimulant medications are the most effective treatment
-most common are Dextromphetamine and Methylphenidate
-alter activity in the frontostriatal brain region by affecting neurotransmitters
flynn effect
in past 60 years, Intelligence scores have steadily risen by 27 points
Mental Disorder
any behavior or emotional state that causes an individual gret suffering or worry, is self-defeating of self- destruction, or is maladaptive and disrupts the person's relationship or the large community
critical thinking
set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion
The fertilized egg cell is called a _____.
zygote
Replication
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results and duplicated
nerves are tiny individual calls. t or f?
false
power test
give the test taker almost unlimited time.       i. The important question is whether s/he can successfully complete the test task(s). (i.e., the concern is with the quality of performance).       2. Speed tests have a strict time limit.
Psychological Dependence
The condition that exists when a person must continue to take a drug in order to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug.
NEOLOGISM
NEW WORDS CREATED OUT OF ELEMENTS OF OLD WORDS
long-term memory (LTM)
unlimited capacity storage area that holds info over long periods of time
agoraphobia
an anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
achievement test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 444)
Conditioned response
a learned pattern of behavior that is typically similar or identical to an automatic, unlearned response
Association areas
One of the major regions of the cerebral cortex: the site of the higher mental processes, such as thought, language, memory, and speech.
absolute threshold
the weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect1/2 the time
Stage Model of Memory
a model describing memory as consisting of three distinct stages: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Binge
Eating a large amount at one time pg 396
Concrete Reasoning
7-11 Can reason like an adultBlack and White, abstract missingDifficult with justice, meaning of life, death
Which of the following is a mood disorder
 
Fugue
Bipolar disorder
panic disorder
conversion disorder
Bipolar Disorder
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body
Alpha rhythm
A pattern of regular pulses between 8 and 12 per second, visible in the EEG of a person who is relaxed by awake and typically has her eyes closed
REM Sleep in dreams
80-85% of the time, dreams are reported if the person is awakened from REM sleep
About 15% of the time from non-REM sleep
 
Horoscopes’ apparent accuracy is an illusion based on
fallacy of positive instances.
Rational Choice Theory
We make decisions by determining how likely someting is to happen, judging that value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two
Description of Cross-Sectional Method and the Advantages and Disadvantages.
Description: comapring differences & similarities among people in different age groups at given timeAdvantages: Less time consuming than longitudinal method for studying changes over time.Disadvantages: differences between members of the sample cannot necessarily be attributed to age or development
backward chaining
training begins with the last step of a sequence and is reinforced while moving backwards in the process
What are 2 main problems with prolonged computer usage? What are some solutions for each?
BOOK REFERENCE PG 335
Behaviorist theory of language acquisition
(skinner) kids babbling, learning of specific verbal behaviors; "mom!"--reinforced and shaped into language.
structuralism and psychologist associated with it
study of the most basic elements, primarily sensations and perceptions, that make up our conscious mental experiences --- WILLIAM WUNDT
Major purpose of ethics
to protect the rights of individuals who receive psychological services
Frontal Lobes(p 129)
Lobes at the front of the brain's cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in short-term memory, higher order thinking, initiative, social judgement, and (in the left lobe, typically) speech production.
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
figure and ground
the figure stands out from the rest of the environment, lower part of a scene tends to be seen as figure, the upper part as background
law of effect
if a response made in the presence of a stimulus is rewarded, it is likely to happen again when the stimulus is presented
Stages of Psychosexual Development: Anal
- 1-3 years- anus- toilet training, gratification from expelling/withholding feces- cleanliness, orderlineess, stinginess, messiness, rebelliousness, destructiveness
Defense Mechanism - Denial
The refusal to admit the truth. Ex. An alcoholic will refuse to admit they have a problem.
What is the activation-synthesis hypothesis?
brain is active, will take extra from the day and conduct a dream from that
Capacities of New borns Vision colors, but rather bright, vivid colors
intact, functional can focus 7-9 inches they have a preference for human faces they don't like soft pastel
Behavior that is not followed by a reinforcer will do what?
will decress or not reoccur (extinquish)
More common than thought, 20% due to sports related injury.
TBI's are EIGHT times more frequent than (breast cancer, AIDS, spinal cord injury, and MS combined)
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