Fallacies 5 Flashcards

Ad hominem
Terms Definitions
Oversimplification
"Pay farmers decent income."
Argumentum Ad Ignorantium
Arguing from ignorance
begging the question
implied premise (murder-abortion)
Hasty Generalization
drawing conclusions based on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence
self-organization
self generated development of a pattern of structure
Straw Man
The distorting, weakening, or oversimplifying of someone's position so it can be more easily attacked or refuted.
Circular reasoning
it directly presumes the conclusion which is at question in the first place. This can also be known as a "Circular Argument" - because the conclusion essentially appears both at the beginning and the end of the argument,
Equivocation
Vague or ambiguous language used to confuse; change the meaning of words (it must be intential)
i.e. a pun
Ad Hoc
Using an off-the-cuff explanation with no evidence
confirmation bias
look for information supporting your side and ignore disconfirming evidence for the other side
The New York Times reported that one-third of the Republican senators have been guilty of Senate ethics violations. But you know that's false - the Times is a notorious liberal rag.
Straw-Man
Poisoning the well
Smear Tactics, Smear Campaign involves trying to discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information (be it true or false) about the person.
Ad Hominen
Attacking the person more so than attacking the persons ideas
Seletive preception
Looking only for things that support our current ideas, and ignoring evidence that does not
  Straw man:
People take the opponent’s argument and distorts it, then uses it against them. Example: Senator Palin says that we should not fund the attack submarine program. I disagree entirely. I can't understand why she wants to leave us defenseless like that
Ad Miseracordium
instead of answering the question, you appeal to the other person's sympathy
Limited Choice
p is false; therefore.....
only q can be true
non sequitur
conclusion is not a logical result of the facts
Argumentum Ad Nauseam
The belief that something becomes true if repeated often
Appeal to Authority
This fallacy is committed when the person in question is not a legitimate authority on the subject. More formally, if person A is not qualified to make reliable claims in subject S, then the argument will be fallacious.
      Appeal to emotion:
Used to manipulate others into agreeing with a point of view by playing their feelings rather than using logic or reason. Example: Maria is getting surgery tomorrow and asked us to help her out, we cannot say no because she has done so much in the past for us.
Composition
Every player on the team is the best in the league. So the team itself is the best in the league.
Argument structured in a way that the premise makes the conclusion impossible.
Contradicory Premises
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
"After this, therefore because of this." False Cause, Questionable Cause This fallacy is committed when it is concluded that one event causes another simply because the proposed cause occurred before the proposed effect.
Argument Ad Hominem
place the focus on the person arguing an issue rather than on the issue itself
   Ambiguity (equivocation)
instead of using words to clarify a point, language is used to make things more confusing. A term is used in more than one way. Example: I can’t tell you how much I enjoyed meeting your husband.
Appeal to Ignorance
Arguing that a lack of evidence proves something.
Saying something false about your opponent before they can respond.
ex. "He's a liar!"
Poisoning the Well (Ad Auditorem)
Argument from dubious authority
Pat Sajak say this insurance policy is the oldest priced...
False appeal fallacies: appealing to an outside source to make an argument sound stronger.
False appeal to authority: reasoning is flawed because the fact that an unqualified person makes a claim does not provide any justification for the claim. Example: Sam the golfer said that the golf course will be slammed tomorrow because it will be sunny out, we should call an make a reservation.
 
False appeal to popularity: a claim is accepted as being true simply because most people are favorably inclined towards the claim. Example: Everyone at college thinks Facebook is the best way to communicate, therefore I will join.
What is a Hasty Generalization?
Generalizing an attribute to a large group because it is true of one case.
Poisoning the Well EX
two men are having a debate and the first one gets up and says \"my opponent is a notorius liar. you can't believe a word he is going to say.\"
What is Appeal to Popular Attitudes and Emotions?
Instead of actually addressing the issues, trying to get people to accept them as true because of the popular attitudes and emotions that are associated with some part of the argument.
Gremlins exist, that's for sure. No scientist has ever proved that they don't exist.
The most blatant occurrence of recent years is all these knuckleheads running around protesting nuclear power - all these stupid people who do no research at all and who go out and march, pretending they care about the human race, and then go off in their automobiles and kill one another.
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