FiAstronomy 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ultraviolet light
10-400nm
Milchstraße
Milky Way
Upper Left
Bright Hot
Geocentric
earth centered sustem
Venus pressure
90 times earth
Percession occurs every....
26,000 Years
Altitiude
how high an object is
Umbra
darkest part of the shadow
Solar Atmosphere
1. Photosphere
2. Chromosphere
3. Corona
Planetray Motion
Ps have elliptical orbits.
what planets are large size
jovian
tail
comets remain perpetually frozen in the outer solar system. Only a few enter the inner solar system, where they grow this.
In what wavelength range was interferometry first routinely used.
radio.
titan
moon of saturn with an atmosphere
mass
the amount of matter in something
Blackbody
a hypothetical object capable of absorbing all the electromagnetic radiation falling on it
solstices
the beginning of winter and summer
4 terrestrial planets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Parallax tells
how far away stars are
Mercury
Heavily cratered planet that is closest to the sun
capricorn
the Goat, a zodiacal constellation between Sagittarius and Aquarius.
young
most of Earth's surface is ____ because Earth is a dynamic, evolving planet
galaxy
collection of stars, dust, an gas bound together by gravity
meteoroids
chunks of rock or dust from space
Ultraviolet
20nm to 400nm. Causes sun burn. Supernova remnants, very hot stars. Mostly blocked by the atmosphere. Best studied from space.
mesopause
the upper boundary of the mesosphere layer of the atmosphere layer of the atmosphere of a planet
Which of the terrestrial planets is closest in size to the earth?
Venus
5 Light hours
Distance from Sun to Pluto
Nucleus
the location of a supermassive black hole
Galileo
The first to look through a telescope
Terrestrial
Planets inside the iceline. Smaller in size, small mass, bigger density, few to no moons, no rings, smaller magnetic fields
Photoperiod
the number of hours of daylight between sunrise an sunset
Fusion
Combining of particles to produce a new isotope and energy.
Red Spot
storm on Jupiter that moves counterclockwise
gravity
the unseen force exerted between any objects having mass
Mercury is the _______ planet, ______ to the sun
innermostclosest
pulsar
one of several hundred known celestial objects, generally believed to be rapidly rotating neutron stars, that emit pulses of radiation such as radio waves with a high degree of regularity
Accretion of Planetestimals
Many smaller objects collected into just a few large ones.
mercury's surface
covered in a fine dust, craters flatter than the moon, thinner rims due to higher gravity, formed by impacts of meteorites, plains about 4.2 b years old probably volcanic
Ground state
normal energy shell location of an atom's electron
nova
a star in a binary system that experiences a sudden outburst of radiant energy, temporarily increasing its luminosity by a factor of between 10^4 and 10^6.
Sun
1.3 million times the volume of Earth, 333,400 times mass of Earth, diameter 110 times that of Earth, surface temp about 5800K.
the composition of pluto most resembles
typical jovian satellites
MAIN SEQUENCE
a diagonal area H-R diagram that includes more than 90 percent of all stars
Revolution
One object moving around each other is called a _______.
hohmann transfer orbit
lowest-energy orbit to transfer a satellite from one orbit altitude to another.
light-year
The distance that light travels in one year.
wavelengths are measured in _________ or ___________
nanometers or angstroms
precession
gradual wobble of the axis of a rotating object around a vertical line.
Planet
orbits a star. may be rocky or gaseous
Flatness Problem
Any deviation from flatness early in the Big bang would have quickly increased.
parallax
the apparent change in position of an object when seen from different places
blueshift
if object is moving towards us, the light waves bunch up, so shorter wavlengths, appears blue
Major axis
The longest diameter of an ellipse; the line from one side of an ellipse to the other that passes through the foci. Also, the length of that line.
Larger stars are known as what?
Giants or Supergiants
supergranulation
one of a number of large convection cells in the photosphere and chromosphere of the sun, each having a diameter of 10,000–20,000 mi. (16,000–32,000 km) and lasting longer than a day.
black hole
an object whose gravity is so strong that the escape velocity from it exceeds the speed of light
mass is a measure of the amount of ________ in an object
matter
towards
the sun is most direct in new york when the axis leans _____ the sun
Solar wind
gases of ions that escape from the corona of the sun and move through space
heliocentric cosmology
A theory of the sun formation and emission is deflected from the galaxy.
Doppler Shift
In astronomy, the radial velocity of a distant star can be measured from the ___________ in the spectral lines.
First Principle
idea not necessary based on logic or data but accepted
red shift
the change in the wavelength of light due to an object moving away from the observer.
The correct term to use for an object that
impacts the surface of the Earth or some other
body is
meteorite
oort cloud
ring of left over debris, 50,000 AU all from sun
scientific method
the method of doing science based on observation, experimentation, and the formulation of hypotheses (theories) that can be tested.
planetesimal
in the outer parts of the disk, gas and dust formed small asteroid-like bodies called
orbit
The path followed by an object in its revolution around another body.
irregular galaxy
does not have a regular shape, usually smaller than other galaxies
Eclipse Path
The thin zone across the Earth w/in whcih the total solar eclipse is visible
Occur when the Sun is low in the sky.
Long shadows
radio, x-ray, ultraviolet telescopes
What telescopes would not be suitable for ground-based observations?
4 of Jupiter's main moons
- Callisto
- Ganymede
- Europa
- Io
One Convection Cycle takes how long on Earth?
100 Million Years
Planetary Nebula
gas cloud formed when a low mass star blows off its outer layers into space, glowing shell of gas
Space Shuttle
Is a spacecraft that can carry a crew into space, return to Earth, and then be reused for the same purpose.
Which two elements make 99 percent of the composition of the Sun?
Helium and Hydrogen
Explain how the Moon produces tides
direct result of the gravitational influence of the moon and sun on earth. because gravitational pull is stronger on the side nearest the moon we see higher tides then.
What are the cloud layers of uranus and neptune?
methane, and hydrogen sulfide
Gas Giants (Jovial Planets)
A planet that has a deep, massive atmosphere, such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune
Autumnal Equinox
What is the term for the first day of Fall?
What causes the seasons?
The tilt of the Earth's rotation axis. Sunlight is either concentrated or spread out along each hemisphere at different times of the year.
First Law of Planetary Motion
The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus
put the following in order from lowest energy to highest: x-rays, visible light, ultraviolet, gamma-rays, infrared radiation
infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma-rays
If the distance between the two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force they exert on each other will
C. be one fourth as great
If the distance between the two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force they exert on each other will
A. also be doubled.
B. be half as great.
C. be one fourth as great.
D. be four times greater
E. stay the same
What is a planetary nebula?
The expanding shell of gas that is no longer gravitationally held to the remnant of a low-mass star
3 main steps of scientific method, in order, are
Observe, form a hypothosis, collect data.
Our galaxy is suspected to be surrounded by a galactic corona because the disk of the galaxy
Rotates faster than expected in its outer region
it is closer to the earth
Why does the sun appear to be the largest star when it is actually an average sized star?
Temperature of the Surface and Core of the Sun
The temperature of the Sun's surface (photosphere) is just under 6000K. The temperature of the Sun's core is 15 million K.
The Ring Systems of the Jovian planets ________ .
all exist within the Roche Limit for their host planet, except Saturn's "E" ring
Which are you more likely to see, a solar eclipse or a lunar eclipse?
You are more likely to see a solar eclipse.
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