Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
p
_ace
thoraco
chest
cephalo
head
pl
_ _ace
channels
aquoporins
ion selective channels
lucrative
profitable; moneymaking; remunerative:
FRET
foluresence resonance energy transfer
 
measures cAMP production in real time
cells are genetically enginered so PAK is modified when so cAMP concentrations are low subunits dissociate and FRET ceases. the ratio of dissociated vs complexed offers cAMP
membrane phospholipids
phosphatadic acid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidalcholine, phosphatidalserine, phosphatidalglycerol, phosphatidalinositol, cardiolipin
anterior
a.k.a. ventral
toward the front
Ca2+ ATPase
primary active transport
 
pump Ca2+ into the ER
has a nucleotide fomain (Mg binding), phosphorlyation domain (Asp is phosphorlyated), and activator domain (communicates other domain actions to Ca2+ binding sites).
 
2Ca2+ costs 1 ATP
 
E1 Conformation: increased Ca2+ affinity. Binding open to cytosol. Not phosphorlyated
E2 Conformation: decreased Ca2+ affinity. Binding is open to lumen. Phosphorlyated
bordetella pertussis
g protein toxin
 
effects eipthelium of the respiratory tract
ADP ribosylates Gia preventing activation so adenylate cyclase can't be inhibited.
lung epithelium can't sweep away bacteria.
transfer ADP ribose from NAD to Arg of GS or cys of Gi
omega FA
archadonic acid (omega 6)
inflammation
IP3
secondary messenger that activates PKC
AKAP
A kinase anchoring protein
 
holds PKA's catalytic subunits through interaction with PKAs regulatory subunits
it can remove phosphate from the target protein
phosphodiesterase can remove PKA singal by converting cAMP to AMP
there are different anchoring proteins per cell
pristine
having its original purity; uncorrupted or unsullied.
regicide
the killing of a king.
phosphotidal inositol
secondary messenger
if flipped to outside it causes apoptosis
exposed in platlets for clotting
caretaker gene
genes involved in DNA repair
 
mutations lead to cancer
Vitamin D3
converted by sun
causes Ca2+ uptake
K+ channel
negitative residues draw K+.
inner helix forces K+ to give up its water.
carbonyl oxygen forms shells around K+.
Na+ is too small and collapses channel.
has inactivation gate
ionophore
mediated ion transport down gradient. can dissipate the gradient
example: cyclodextrin, valinomycin, monensin
Onomatopoeia
Words whose sound imitates their suggested meaning
companies that produce computer software
software publishers
affluent
having an abundance of wealth, property, or other material goods; prosperous; rich:
dearth
an inadequate supply; scarcity; lack as during famine
dorsal
top surface of feet hands
integral protein
released by detergents
can be B sheets and barrels
span accross membrane (7-9 AA)
 
proteins are attached to membrane by lipids. More attachments means stgronger. some are attached by ionic interactions with protein side chains and charged head groups fo lipids.
cyclin depending kinases
involved in cell cycle
 
1. phosphorlyation / dephosphorlyation controls CDK activity
2. controlled degration of cyclins controlls CDK activity
3. periodic synthesis of cyclins and CDKs controls CDK activity
4. inhibitors regulate them
 
when it phosphorlyates on lamin of the nuclear envelope triggering depolymerization of it. when it phosphorlyates myosin it stops cell splitting
mitochondria composition
more protein, less lipid
a little cholesterol
more cardiolipin on inner membrane
Persona
A voice or character representing a speaker or narrator of a literary work
the process by which programs and data are copied into a hard disk of a computer system and otherwise prepared for access and use.
install
frankincense
an aromatic gum resin from various Asian and African trees of the genus Boswellia, esp. B. carteri, used chiefly for burning as incense in religious or ceremonial practices, in perfumery, and in pharmaceutical and fumigating preparations.
mirage
an optical phenomenon, esp. in the desert or at sea, by which the image of some object appears displaced above, below, or to one side of its true position as a result of spatial variations of the index of refraction of air.
thoracic
chest between neck and abdomen regional term
Which two Presidents used joint resolutions as a work around for the 2/3 requirement to pass a treaty
Tyler, and McKinley
multidrug transporter
ABCT
 
pumps drugs out so it does not kill tumor or pathogen
Narrative
One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing that tells a story or gives an account of something, dealing with sequences of events and experiences, though not necessarily in strict order
Pace
The rate at which something moves; the rate at which a writer moves the action or information; the rate a speaker uses in delivery
an operating system that Is installed on more than 80% of the worlds personal computers. Also provides a GUI, was introduced in 1985 and has several versions.
Microsoft Windows
hierarchy
any system of persons or things ranked one above another.
metamorphosis
a profound change in form from one stage to the next in the life history of an organism, as from the caterpillar to the pupa and from the pupa to the adult butterfly.
cardiovascular system 40;circulatory41;
closed circuit system composed of heart, blood vessels and blood
together with respiratory system, heart blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to body's tissues while removing wast, such as carbon dioxide metabolic by-products
kinase autoinhibition
in src SH2 and SH3 domains position with the catalytic domain at tyr of a protein when SH2 is phosphorlyuated. when SH2 isn't phosphorlyated src binds to its own tyr inhibiting
a phosphorlyated ser domain on GSK3 can block itself too
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things
Parallel Structure
The phrasing of language so as to balance (grammatically) ideas of equal importance
grandiloquence
speech that is lofty in tone, often to the point of being pompous or bombastic.
Who said that " The execution of laws is more important than the making of them.
Thomas Jefferson
Literal Meaning  
The actual meaning of a word or a phrase
What is the nations "most loosely drawn chapter" in the nations fundamental law
Article II of the constitution
- main function of blood in cardio system, blood travels from
transportation
controls temp regualtion acid-base balance
heart to arteries to capillaries to veins and back
What is the common name for the second constitutional provision regarding the execution of federal law
The "take care" power
how to alpha and beta receptors regulate cAMP?
beta receptors increase cAMP and alpha receptors decrease cAMP by making / inhibiting adenylate cyclase through Gi
example of desistance
diversion
gumption
initiative; aggressiveness; resourcefulness:
DNA profiling is
highly reliable
sublimate
purified or exalted; sublimated.
genial
warmly and pleasantly cheerful; cordial:
Contemporary radical theory attributes much of the existing propensity toward criminality to differences in
Social Class
apodictic
incontestable because of having been demonstrated or proved to be demonstrable.
Attempts to teach positive values to juveniles through one-on-one mentoring with favorable adult role models?
JUMP
dire
causing or involving great fear or suffering; dreadful; terrible:
techniques of neutralization involves claiming the need to protect oneself from a rival group?
appealing to higher loyalties
According to Merton, what is the mode of adaptation that typifies most middle and upper class individuals?
Conformity
Same sex rape is most common
in correctional INSTITUTIONS
Who wrote THE RICH GET RICHER AND THEPOOR GET PRISON?
Jeffrey Reiman
The risk factor prevention paradigm was discussed by
DAVID P. Farrington
procure
to obtain or get by care, effort, or the use of special means:
not true about gangs?
many gangs allow females members to assume leadership roles
According to Merton, an individual who rejects both the socially approved goals and the legitimate means falls into ??
the retreatism more of adaptation
Has NOT been linked to delinquency and other problems?
THEY ALL HAVE BEEN LINKED
aer-
air
thromb
clot
melan/o
black
cephalic
head
Frontal
Forehead
neck
cervical
Chest
Thoraic
hamstrings
femoral
Fx
FRACTURE
protein
-globin
lith/o
stone
-phagia
eating
phob
fear
arthr
joint
bi-
two, double
ten/o/dynia
tendon pain
Turning Outward?
Eversion
sacr/o
means sacrum
belly button
umbilical
OA
OSTEO ARTHRITIS
Encephalo
Brain, Head
plexy
stroke, seizure
MRA
magnetic resonance angiogram(graphy)
clavicul/o
clavicle (collar bone)
-genesis
producing, forming, origin
osteocytes
true bone cells
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia
Chyme
Churned stomach contents
chronic
constant; habitual; inveterate:
sept
r - septum (partition)
plant/o
sole of the foot
para
beside; along side, near
-gram
The actual recorded record
BONE CELLS ARE CALLED
OSTEOCYTES
Medial
nearer to the midline
remission
the act of remitting.
palpitation
the act of palpitating.
abnormal, sudden, involuntary muscle contractions or series of alternating muscle contractions/relaxations
spasm
Testes
testicles, where sperm is made
ante
before, in front of, forward
responsible for flow
exocytosis and endocytosis
BRONCHI
BRANCHES OFF OF THE TRACHEA
BONES THAT PROTRUDE ARE CALLED
PROCESSES
the body's response to injury
inflammation
Rinne
A type of tuning fork.
inflammation
redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, heat, and disturbed function of an area of the body, esp. as a reaction of tissues to injurious agents.
- plasty
surgical correction, ex. rinoplasty (nose job)
physical examination involving insertion of a finger into rectum to feel the size/shape of prostate gland through wall of rectum;used to screen the patient for BPH and prostate cancer
Digital Rectal Examination
region between anus and external reproductive organs
perineal
Nerve Tissue
-consists of neurons and neuroglia
plasma membrane of a muscle fiber
sarcolemma
SEVERAL DIFF. TISSUES ACTING TOGTHER FOR A SPECIAL FUNCTION?
ORGAN
defiency of Vitamin C
black/blue (easily bruised)
Digitalis
Drug used to strengthen the heartbeat
LUNGS
LOBES INCLUDING ANTERIOR (TOP), MIDDLE AND POSTERIOR (BOTTOM)
chemical breakdown of proteins begins in the ___
stomach
electromyography
process of recording the electrical activities of a muscle
membrane that opens to the outside
mucous
Paralytic
Bowel does not propel contents forward
Function in protection, secrection, and absorbtion. Found in uterus, stomach, and intestines.
Simple Columnar
acute
sharp or severe in effect; intense:
diagnosis
the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition.
action of extensor carpi ulnaris
wrist extension, adduction
electrical charge to heart in effort to defibrillate (stop fibrillation) of heart.
defibrillation
Phagocytosis
the infected cell and the inhabiting virus are engulfed by a phagocyte
The major head flexor is the _______.
sternocleidomastoid
Composed of cells specialized to produce and secret substances into ducts or into body fluids. Unicellular/multicellular. Secretion. Salivary glands, sweat glands, endocrine glands.
Glandular Epithelium
separates the sacrcomeres from each other
Z disc
I am a small, elevated, circumscribed lesion of the skin filled with pus.
pustule
What Hormone(s) influence Milk production?
Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin
This part of the brain processes Memory
Cerebrum
The organ that produces sperm is the
testes
What is an increase in eosinophils called?
Eosinophilia
occipital
The lower posterior region of the head
Arterioles
smaller than muscular arteries. in the tunica media, smooth muscle cells donot complete a whole layer.
Foramen
opening on the bones were blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the bones.
Nucleoplasm
The protoplasm inside the nucleus of the cell.
atrophy
diminished size of muscle tissue or organ - usually from nonuse
structures of plasma membrane
phospholipid(fluid frame work), cholesterols(helps prvent breakage of the membrane by stabilizing the phospholipid),proteins(some serve as receptors for certain other molecules),carbohydrate chains(play a role in identification of cell types
What are chondroblasts?
immature cell types(secrete matrix) located under the perichondrium. Here they get alot of nourishment.
which muscle is the strongest elbow flexor
brachialis
extrinsic regulation
nervous or endocrine system causes change in activities
ilium
the broad, upper portion of either hipbone.
edema
effusion of serous fluid into the interstices of cells in tissue spaces or into body cavities.
what seperates the iliac body and ala?
arcuate line
action of Flexor carpi ulnaris
Wrist flexion and adduction
acute stoppage of urine formation by the kidneys
urinary suppression
Name the Nine Regions
Right and Left Hypochondriac, Epigastric, Right and Left Lumbar, Umbilical, Right and Left Iliac or Inguinal, Hypogastric.
T or F: Osteocytes respond to the parathyroid horomone
False
uln/a
ulna (lower arm bone on the little finger side)
farther from the attatchment of a limb to the trunk
distal
Inferior
Body part that is below another body part or is toward the feet
All the organs with related functions are studied together
Systemic Anatomy
diffusion
movement of substances from a high to low concentration
The more fragile of the lower leg bones.
fibula
MYLOHYOID
NECK MUSCLE UNDER THE CENTER OF THE CHIN
Descendants of a single cell. Pure antibody preparations that exhibit specificity for one antigen.
monoclonal antibodies
what is not part of the immune system
platelets
tissue surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
loose connective tissue
Atrium
Either of the two upper chambers of the heart
organelles
the small structure that make up most of the cytoplasm
what is loss of surface area or blockage of airways can lead to
hypoxia
when the brain becomes aware of a sensory impules it is known as
sensation
what are the functional units of the liver
lobules
phalanx
(in ancient Greece) a group of heavily armed infantry formed in ranks and files close and deep, with shields joined and long spears overlapping.
viral
of, pertaining to, or caused by a virus.
acronym
a word formed from the initial letters or groups of letters of words in a set phrase or series of words, as Wac from Women's Army Corps, OPEC from Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or loran from long-range navigation.
on the medial surface of teh greater trochanter just anterior to the trochanteric fossa; sometimes very ill-defined?
unnamed fossa
production of CSF
produced by ependymal cells in the ventricles of the brain
Chronic infection
an infection that lasts for a long period of time—from weeks to several years Ex: advanced tuberculosis, or AIDS
Q What is another name for the triqurtral?
A Triquetrum
what are Memory T cells
recognize the original invading antigen, initiate swifter reaction on 2nd exposure..<long Lived>
general health:
if the immune system is compromised by this, it cannot be fully effective
The space in the o.c which is located between the cheeks, lips and gum is called?
Vestibule
blockage of arteries in the lower extremities; etiology is atherosclerosis
peripheral vascular disease
INFERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY
DEEP, RIPPED, COMING OUT OF BROAD LIGAMENT
Right Lymphatic Duct
Large lymphatic vessel in the chest that receives lymph from the upper right part of the body.
Hydrogen Bonds
Weak attraction between + end of a polar molecule and - end of another polar molecule. Formed between water molecules.
The iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves are derived from the ______ramus of the ____ spinal nerve
ventral rami of the L1
forced expiration involves what?
internal intercostals -ribs move down sternum inward. abdominal muscles increase.
What muscle is the chief flexor of the thigh and the most powerful of the hip flexors?
iliopsoas
neurotomy
the cutting of a nerve, as to relieve neuralgia.
what is the articulation located between the symphyseal surfaces of teh pubic bodies?
symphysis pubis / pubic symphysis
Activated B cells
divided into memory B cells and plasma cells
When does blood flow into the coronary arteries?
during ventricular relaxation
sequence of events that generate an action potential
1.depolarizing phase 2.repolarizing phase
How many times does the heart beat everyday
about 100,000 times
bone neat the head of the femur
tro chan ter (runner)
two of the most important structures in nucleoplasm
nucleolus, chromatin and chromosomes
What is found in the medial compartment of the leg?
adductor compartment, obturator nerve
Describe and give an example of Bicondylar joint?
2 large rounded projections contacting 2 saucer-like areas
-allow movement primarily in one plane with a small amount of rotation
ex. knee joint
What is the small hole for the carotid artery in the temporal bone known as?
The carotid canal.
Body uses what to regulate its hormonal releases?
negative feedback, direct nervous stimulation, release of tropis hormones
The anatomical position is best described as a person
standing, facing forward, palms facing forward
The lips are also known as the...
Gateway of the oral region.
what type of enviroment within the tissue will cause the precapillary phinceters to open?close?
low oxygen- open; high oxygen-close
What bones are included in the upper limb?
pectoral girdle (scapula and clavicle), humerus, radius, ulna, carpus, metacarpus, and manual phalages
How do you count apical beat
by placing stethoscope in 5th intercostal space on line with left midclavicular point
what does the blood brain barrier do
protects brain cells from harmful substances and pathogens by serving as a selective barrier to prevent passage of many substances from the blood to the brain
These two structures form the shaft of the penis
left and right corpora cavernosum
Describe the anatomy of the subtrochanteric area.
it consists mainly of cortical bone, less vascularity, diminished potential for healing
what is the function of the acetabular rim?
for attachment of ligaments and muscle
Q What is the key to the SOT?
A The semispinalis cervicis. Following this m. to its sup attachment will lead you to the SP of C2, and allow you to hone in on the harder-to-sort-out SOT.
how many distinct layers do the walls of arteries and veins have?
three distinct layers. 1. Tunica Intima, turnica media, turnica externa
What does the deep cervical fascia do collectively as a unit?
it condenses around the carotid sheath, enclosing the common carotid arteries, internal jugular veins, and vagus nerves
Q On a typical cervical vertebrae, what is considered the would-be costal element?
A the anterior tubercle. This is where the anterior intertransversarii mm. attaches, and is similar to the lateral inter...rii in the lumbar region
How does the tibial nerve bisect the popliteal fossa?
from the superior to the inferior angle
Q Is there such thing as L. Lumborum m.?
A. No, Longissimus mm. only include thoracis, cervicis, and capitis.
Q Which pec m. forms the ant wall of the axilla?
A pec major, actually....maybe the minor in some parts. See drawing "D" in the notes. Check out the other boundries while your there.
Q Where is the "n. point" found on the neck?
A mid belly of SCM, pos. aspect. This is where you will find the cervical plexus prior to arborization
ICC
intrerstate commerce committee
capital recources
pleny of money.
Inflation...
...is a tax on money.
Modernization
theory of development explaining North-South gap. Northern prosperity due to successful traditional-modern transition in social, political, and economic life
labor
human effort directed toward producing goods and services; also known as human resources
Surplus
exists when quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded at the current price
automation
production with mechanical ot other processes that reduce the need for workers
any activity or organization that produces or exch
business
Multilateral Assistance
foreign economic assistance channeled through international organizations, such as the World Bank
Monopoly
When an individual person or company has control over the producing and selling of a certain product or service.
Has an overall negative impact for consumers (buyers)
-consumers have less choice
-consumers may have to pay high prices
-quality of the good or service may not be good.
consumer
an entity that uses, or consumes, available goods
authoritarian
describes a form of government that limits individual freedoms and requires strict obedience from its citizens
economic experiment
puts people in a decision-making situation and varies the influence of one factor at a time to discover how they respond
liquidity means to spread around and lower risk
false
THE HORIZONTAL AXIS IN A GRAPH.
X AXIS
Something people want that you can have or touch.
Goods
Oligopoly
A small # of participants selling similar or differentiated products. Large economies of scale and significant barriers to entry exist.
needs
something that is essential for our survival e.g. food, water
services
job one person does for another person
FICA Tax
any tax that funds a social insurance
scarcity
the condition in which there are not enough goods to satisfy all wants
Product Market
Market where goods and services are bought and sold
Labor Force
consists of everyone above a certain age (around 16) who are actively seeking employment, or gainfully employed.
Business Sphere 
firms that produce goods and services for profitable sale
Gold Certificates
paper currency backed by gold placed on deposit with the United States Treasury.
A SUSTAINED DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE OF ALL PRICES OF GOODS AND SERVICES IN AN ECONOMY.
DEFLATION
A barrier that prevent women and minorities from advancing in their jobs
Glass Ceiling
Marginal Cost Pricing
Regulation that forces monopolist to reduce price to where the firms MC intersects the market demand curve, which increases output and reduces cost but causes monopolist to incurr a loss because P<ATC. The government must subsidize the company so that it will remain in the industry.
consumption
the using up of goods and services having an exchangeable value
Competition
In a market, it refers to the number of buyers and/or sellers in the market.
Guns or Butter
Government must decide to make more goods for people or for military
What is a balanced budget?
Gov. Expenditures = Tax Revenues
Macroeconomic Equilibrium
*when the quanitity of real GDP demand equals the quanitiy of real GDP supplied at the point of intersection of the AD curve and the AS curve*short-run in nature*will determine actual GDP*actual GDP and the price level are determined at the point of intersection of the AS and AD curves*since the unemployment rate is inversely related to movements in real GDP movements in the unemployment rate are determined by implication*rise in GDP = lower unemployment rate*fall in GDP = higher unemployment rate
paradox of value
explains how some necessities, such as water, have little monetary value whereas some non-necessities, such as diamonds, have a much higher value. Water is in plentiful supply in most places and diamonds are much more rare.
base year
year used as a point of comparison for other years in a series of statistics
Checkable deposit are included in what money type?
M1 money supply
Articles of Incorporation
are the primary rules governing the management of a corporation in the United States and Canada, and are filed with a state or other regulatory agency.
Global interdependence
The world relies on each other. If bad things happen it affects everyone. If good things happen it benefits everyone.
economic system
the way in which a country uses its resources to satifsy its needs is called it's
substitution effect
a change in the quantity demanded of a consumer good that results from a change in its relative expensiveness caused by a change in the product's price
A STATISTICAL MEASURE OF AVERAGE PRICES THAT USES ANNUALLY UPDATED WEIGHTS BASED ON SURVEYS OF CONSUMER SPENDING.
PERSONAL CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE (PCE) INDEX
- A graph which shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available, land labor, capital technology.
Production Possibilities Frontier
Estate tax
A tax on the estate, or total value of the money and property, of a person who has died
which of the following could explain a different balance between your statement and account register
outstanding checks, unrecorded deposits, and manual error
Balance of Payments
a record of all the movements of money in and out of a country over a period of time usually each quarter.
Who selects the electors for each state?
The political parties in each state
In the long run, an economy's production of goods and services (real GDP) depends on what...
- supplies of labor, capital and natural resources and on available technology used to turn these factors of production into goods and services
Open Market OperationsIf the FED buys bonds?
There is an INCREASE in the money supply.The FED is buying bonds in exchange for cash$. Thus, the more cash present in the system, the larger the monetary base. (B-UYING=B-IGGER)
which of the following is/ are true about lawsuits under $10000
they are filed in small claims court and are informal proceedings, at any time during the process you may settle withe the creditor or their attorney, if the debt is valid you will lose the case
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