Final Exam - Oceanography Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nematoda
roundworms
atmosphere
air circulation
Bacterioplankton
Water borne bacteria.
Uranium is...
heaviest element
oceanology
study of the ocean
Deepflight
was an underwater airplane
Berm
dry portion of the beach
echinoderms
water-vascular system (starfish, sea cucumbers), tube feet! calcareous skeleton
starboard:
right side of a boat
Sirenia
Manatees, dugongs. Only herbavores. Slow and often killed by boat motors.
Age of universe
14.3 billion years
True
The North Atlantic Current circle (Gulf Stream, Canary Current) flows in a clockwise direction.
Glacial valley flooded with sea water
Fjord
book gills
in horseshoe crab, overlapping membranes used for breathing and locomotion
Nodule
Solid mass of hydrogenous sediment, most commonly manganese or ferrimanganese and phosphorite
Meroplankton
planktonic organisms that spend part of their life in planktonic form and the rest as either benthos or nekton
marine biologists
study distribution of organisms, impact of pollution, and yields of fisheries
magnesium
third most abundant element in seawater
Dihydrogen Oxide
Chemical name for water (H2O)
What percentage of earths surface constitutes the true ocean basins?
43%
Oceans contain ____% of surface water
97.2
Diatom
they have properties of both plants and animals; they are made of silica and contain photosynthetic pigments and contribute significantly to primary production. They are in the Kingdom Protista!
Stenothermal organisms are likely to be found in what kind of water?
Deep Ocean
core
composed of iron and nickel, liquid outer layer, and solid inner layer
Advection
Movement of air parallel to Earth's surface
wave-cut platform
the smooth level terrace sometimes found on erosional coasts, that marks the submerged limit of rapid marine erosion, and often indicated the history of ancient coastline.
sudden change in salinity with depth in the water column
halocline
hydrothermal vents
hot springs deep in the ocean
dinoflagelates
singe celled protists that have two flagella
hot spot
a stationary area of valcanic activity
Algal Blooms
Red tides, toxic, causes fish kills.
countershading
The color pattern in which marine organisms are light on the bottom and dark on the top of their bodies camouflaging them against the water-air interface is:
The dominant source of deep siliceous deep sea sediment is:
Diatoms
an indentation of a shoreline larger than a cove but smaller than a gulf
indentation
who/when - idea of continental drift
Alfred Wegener
1912
The low water position corresponding to a tidal trough
low tide
hydrogenous sediment
What type of sediment forms from minerals that crystallize from seawater?
sea snakes, saltwater crocodile, seven species of marine turtles, one species of marine lizards
Marine reptiles include
the remains of other organisms.
what do decomposers eat?
Turbidity currents
bottom currents that carry lots of sediments
What is the Jellyfish a member of?
Phylum Chidaria
what is the coastline morphology?
1 eroding-going backwards
2 accreting-building outwards
3 stable
Orbit
in water waves, the path followed by the water particles affected by the wave motion; also, the path of a body subjected to the gravitational force of another body, such as earth's orbit around the sun
what way do currents travel in the Northern Hemisphere
clockwise
shore
the place where ocean meets land. on nautical charts, the limit of high tides.
frequency
the number of waves that pass a specific point in a given amount of time
solar tide
tide caused by the gravitational and intertial interaction of the sun and earth
Cold Blooded
Having a body temperature that changes along with the temperature of surroundings
Due to the different heat capacities of land and sea, during the day in summer the land generally heats up quicker than the water. This leads to a wind phenomenon known as:
Sea breeze
Polynesian colonizations
the peopling of the central and eastern Pacific islands
# major ions making up 99.9% dissolved constituents of sea h2o
11
A wave moving through water deeper than 1/20 but shallower than 1/2 its wavelength
transitional wave
Organisms hide in the deep, dark water during the day then move to the surface at night to eat
vertical migration
North Atlantic Deep Water
sinks and moves north to south
deltas can be from three types:
1.) river-dominated (Mississippi)
2.) wave-dominated (Nile)
3.) tide-dominated (Ganges)
Barrier Island
Deposit of san, parallel to shore and raised above sea level; may support vegetation and animal life.
the sun has a raising force of what percent when compared to the moon
46%
Why not 3%?
-rest of fresh water (2.7%)
-held up in glaciers
-ice caps
-groundwater or atmosphere
Plastics cause significant biological damage in oceans when
netting strangles seals and birds
Drinks
Salt
Excerted
Conserve water
A fish in seawater ___ the seawater, ___ is___ by gills, and a small amount of urine is produced by kidneys to _________.
devil fish
Whalers used to call gray whales this name because of their aggressive response to being hunted
a white compact icy solid made of water and methane. The most common type of gas hydrate.
methane hydrate
Describe upwelling.
-the upward flow of deep ocean water toward the surface

1. occurs principally along the west coast of africa, s. america, and the u.s.
2. principal cause: the surface flow along these shorelines are "deflected" offshore allowing deep water to rise
The abrupt increase in slope at the junction between continental shelf and continental slope.
shelf break
Equilibrium theory of tides
Gravitational pull of the moon pulls the water
Common mistake about Greenhouse Effect
It is actually a natural effect
The first color to be absorbed by the seawater is (blank), and the last is (blank).
Red, Blue
Geostrophic circulation is within a gyre driven by
gravity and the coriolis effect
What are the dip angles at the poles and the equator?
90, 0
Ocean - Ocean Convergent Boundary
Older, cooler, denser crust slips beneath less dense crust. Strong quakes. Deep trench forms in arch shape. Subducted plate heats in upper mantle; magma rises to form curving chains of volcanic islands.
What are the four main groups of photosynthetic organisms?
-seed-bearing plants (phylum: anthophyta): found only in shallow coastal waters, ex. grass, mangroves. found in salt marshes or estuaries
-macroscopic algae: "seaweeds", found in shallow waters along the ocean margins. usually attached to the ocean floor but sometimes floats at the surface. types of algae: brown, green (freshwater), red (most abundant).
-microscopic algae: *produce food for 99% of marine animals, most are phytoplankton that live in the upper surface and drift with currents, *golden algae- phylum chrysophyta, contain carotin, consist of diatoms which are tests made of silica, coccolithophores: plates of calcium carbonate.
The arrangement of water masses in the southern atlantic ocean from the surface to the bottom is
-Atlantic intermediate water
-North atlantic deep water
-Antarctic bottom water
What two things are plate tectonics based on?
continental drift and seafloor spreading
what can we do to prevent pollution?
1 halt production
2 recycle
3 safe disposal
4 dilusion
5 land disposal
28. How do barrier islands form?
a. Extremely long offshore deposits of sand that are parallel to the coast are called barrier islands.
plants lived near the poles, but continents have drifted to current locations
Fossils of ancient polar plants are currently found near the equator because the:
What is a constructive wave interference?
When the crest of one wave passes through, or is superpositioned upon, the crest of another wave, we say that the waves constructively interfere.
How does a storm generate deep water waves?
by winds; since storm winds have circular motion pattern around a L-pressure system, the waves are sent out in all directions
shallower than 1/20 of the waves length soo....10m?
a wave with a 200m wave length becomes a shallow water wave in waters shallower than ___________.
/ 79
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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