Final Exam 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
caries
cavaties
Upper Paleolithic
...
i.
Neolithic (agriculture) revolution
BCE (Before Common Era)
BC
Late Prehistoric
1500 BP -Contact
Post-Processualism
Roots in postmodernism
Backlash against processualism
Positivism too objective
Archaeological excavation not replicable
Ethical issue of archaeology
grave robbing
marxism
competition over power, power struggles-- crucial to causing everything in society
East has violent deaths
6000 ya
Moquegua Valley
SA Chin Chin (capital)
Megalith
a large prehistoric stone monument
curation
the process of preparing archaeological materials for permanent storage, and the storage of that material.
matrix
physical medium that surrounds and encompassses archaeological specimens
Thermoluminescence uses ____ to release ___
heat, e-
faunal analysis
Identification and interpretation of animal remains from an archaeological site.
What is Processualism___________
Lewis Binford
interconnectiveness to anthropology
scientific method to get past limits of archaeological record
learn about how the people lived
material culture may change but many parts of cultural bahavior do not
culture as non biological
GENERAL principles
Culture as adaptation to external environment
Culture Area
Classification of North American regions based upon the cultural norms shared across each area. This is not the same as environmental conditions since regions are shaped by culture and not environment.
Exposure
Occurs occasionally on accident and during/due to archeological study.
macrobotanical remains
Nonmicroscopic plant remains recovered from an archaeological site
Ideology
Belief system which includes values, ethics, and religion with supernatural justification for social and political power
Yangshao
a widespread early cereal farming culture centered around the Hanghe River in northern China, c. 4800 to 3200 BC
Stylistic seriation
arranges artifacts into sequences based on changes in shape and size ex: sunglass, Petrie's Naqada Seriation
Symbols
Studying ancient modes of thought requires the interpretation of symbols, objects, or acts (verbal and nonverbal) that by cultural convention stand for something else with which they have no necessary connection. This means that, without some ethnographic context, there is no obvious way to connect a symbol to its meaning.
pastoralism
focus on domesticated animals- used for primary and secondary resources, trade for resources, partly sedentary, partly nomadic, huge amount of one species of animal, low-intensity farming
Sphynx
At entranceway to middle pyramid

Face modeled after guy who built the thing

In middle of a quarry

King uncovered sphynx from sand and became king!
Artifact
an object found and studied by archaeologists
Soil
Sediments that have undergone in situ chemical and mechanical alteration.
Agency theory
theory which stresses the centrality of individuals living in society as the basic unit of archaeology
artifacts
the objects and materials that people have made and used
________study of groups as a whole/the entire society & total range of human activity
Holistic
Food Storage meant________
food stored/dried for extended periods
backup for crop failure
source of accumulation of goods/wealth
Annual Flooding
the Nile and the Euphrates/Tigris would flood annually and the farmers would use this flooding to hydrate the fields. The Nile flooded at predictable times, while the Euphrates and Tigris did not.
ground penetrating radar
show anomolies below the ground
Ethnographic analogy
studying modern day hunter gatherers to understand what was happening in archaeological sites in past hg societies
probs: environmental changes
pottery seriation
invented by Sir William Flinders Petrie in 1880s. Use styles of pottery to date them as relative to one another.
history
1. the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings NOUN
EX. "he teaches Medieval history"; "history takes the long view"
achieved status
rights, duties and obligations that accrue to individuals by virtue of what they accomplished in their life
Relative Chronology: Seriation
stylistic change. common in archaeology
Ciudadela
A very large compound in Teotihuacan that includes a large courtyard where the Temple of the Feathered Serpent is located
#Social structure
“the pattern of repeated contacts between people,” therefore social organization and exchange are simply different aspects of the same process.
Cultural historical questions
Who, what, when and where
Consists of physically removing small soil samples in order to identify archeological sites or the nature of archaeological deposits
subsurface testing
Hypotheses for megafaunal extinction
blitzkrieg hypothesis - overhunting

environmetal changes
intensity
can be full time specialist, or part time. full time makes surplus to sell, there's more trash.
Oasis Theory
Gordon Childe: about Near East glacier melting cause rainfall differences and drying up leading to deserts and people moving to oasis (areas around water)
Isocrates
Failed to mention a great battle of ancient Athens
Archaeological site
A place or location that contains evidence of past human activity. This evidence consists of artifacts and/or features. The type of artifacts and features found vary depending on the kind of site. The size of archaeological sites also varies.
XRF
a method used in the analysis of artifact composition, in which the sample is irradiated with a beam of X-rays which excite electrons associated with the atoms on the surface.
social organization
The rules and structures that govern relations within a group of interacting people. Societies are divided into social units (groups) within which are recognized social positions (statuses), with appropriate behavior patterns prescribed for these positions (roles).
Collapse
Collapse is not a catastrophe but a rational process that occurs when increasing stress requires some organizational change. Collapses are cyclical. When complex societies collapse they become smaller, simpler, and much more egalitarian. Population densities fall; trade and economic activity dries up; information flow declines; and the known world shrink for the survivors. To correct this, society employs costly investments to attend to needs of the moment. They become exhausted so other strategies with less yields are employed.
Neolithic
final stage of the Stone Age, ground stone tools added, period after ~12k when food production replaces foraging as dominant mode of subsistence
Tomb of Menkheperseneb
wall paintings depicting Minoans in the Egyptian rulers' tomb.
T or F: According to Mark Cohen, ethnographic, archaeological and skeletal biological evidence all suggest that the introduction of agriculture increased the health and quality of life of early farmers, relative to big game hunter gatherers.
false
assemblage
a collection of artifacts of one or several classes of materials (stone tools, ceramic, bones) that comes from a defined context such as a site, feature, or stratum
Middle Range Societies
societies in which people are dependant on agriculture and farming
Coyolxauhqui
A goddess killed by the Aztec patron god Huitzilopochtli
Mimbres
-centered on the Rio Mimbres and its tributaries in southwestern New Mexico, is most well known for its iconic black-on-white pottery.-pottery reflects the sudden appearance of an unprecedented, representational design style in ceramic decoration, including stylized renderings of animals, people, and mythical creatures, primarily on the interiors of bowls-large villages 50-200 rooms were constructed
ingot
Talent. 60 lbs of raw copper. Bun ingot attached to oxhide ingot.

Name "oxhide ingot" named for shape which looks like an ox hide

Can do lead-isotope analysis to see where they came from. They all came from Cyprus
A set of counts, measurements, or characteristics about which relevant inquiries are to be made
statistical population
acheulean
of, pertaining to, or typical of a Lower Paleolithic culture of the middle Pleistocene Epoch, characterized by large hand axes and cleavers made by the soft hammer technique.
Homo sapiens sapiens
Date of Appearance: 100,000 years ago. Cranial capacity - 1400cc. Skull - Chin, high vertical forehead and face, no brow ridge. Jaws and teeth - unspecialized small teeth. Culture: Visual art - cave paintings, bone carvings and clay statues, advanced stone tool cultures as well as tools made from bone, antler etc. (e.g. bone needles, harpoons, etc.)
punctuated equilibrium
abrupt and sudden changes in the pace of evolution
chiefdom
a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief (who is the head of the ranked social hierarchy). Unlike autonomous bands and villages, chiefdoms consist of several more or less permanently aligned communities or settlements
vision quest
a ritual in which an individual seeks visions through starvation, dehydration, and exposure; considered in some cultures to be a way to communicate with the supernatural world
principle of superposition
deeper deposit is old, shallow deposit is young
half-life
the amount of time that it takes for half of the organic sample to decay
East African Rift Valley
A geological feature stretching from East Africa to the Middle East that ist he richest context for the recovery of early hominin archaeological sites
(Theories of State Formation)
Warfare:
-Carneiro's (1970) coercive theory of state formation.
-Societies are circumscribed by their environments or other societies (valleys surrounded by mountains, river valleys surrounded by deserts, a group surrounded by other groups, etc.)
-Population growth resulted in conflict for land.
-Defeated villages became incorportated in larger multi-valley polities (e.g., Peruvian Andes).
-Circumscribed areas are easier than other areas to unify politically.
survey units of a standard size and shape, determined by the research question and practical considerations, used to obtain the sample
sample units
ethnographic analogy v. scientific method
ethnographic analogy should only be taken as hypothesis and not fact
Jaques Boucher de Perth
discovered flint tools in the Somme valley in 1830. Established the existence of man in the pleiostene or quaternary era.
Ara Pacis Autastae
Large "alter of peace" built by order of Augustus/Senate
earliest tools are dated to?
3.5 - 2.5 million years ago
The Sumerians [3000-2300B.C.]:
-Uruk was one of the primary cities just before & during early stages of Sumerian civilization.
-The ruler of the city & keeper of the temple was the En, a sacred & secular ruler ( a "priest-king" of a theocratic state) - the temple served as a religious center, central storehouse, & center of commerce (e.g., story of Jesus & the money changers.)
-Kings used writing to record their deeds & as a form of political propaganda.
-Writing also recorded religous texts, legal transactions, land disputes (courttrials, early maps, sacred & erotic stories, & even doctor's prescriptions!!!
-Bronze weapons are associateed with the rise of warfare in Mesopotamia.
-City states were competitors & rivals for resources, population & territory.
-Walled cities were common to ward off attacks from invading marauders
-Cylinder seals bear scenes of warfare, prisoners & decapitation, indicating the prevalence of combat in real life & in mythology.
-Sumerians expanded their influence into the Sinai, Egypt and into southern Asia.
Opportunistic Sampling strategy
look @ areas that were most likely to inhabit ppl--tends to be BIAS
number of identifies specimens
the raw numer of identified bones per species
(Megafauna Massacre???)
Climate Change Hypothesis-
Changing climate at the end of the Pleistocene & shrinking habitats for cold-adapted megafauna may have reduced the mammalian population.
Which of the following characteristics of animal bone assemblages from sites can help us determine the age of the animals at death?
Patterns of bone fusion and tooth wear.
The greatest challenge facing the world today:
we live in a world partitioned by walls of our own social construction
What is/are the key morphological marker(s) of domestication that investigators look for in seed remains recovered from ancient archaeological sites?
a larger seed size and a thinner seed coat
Archaea
sfgsdfgsdfg
Regional Metamorphism
Mantle
2,900 kilometers
transform fault
plates grind
sedimentary
75% of rocks
Coal
Metamorphic form of Peat
COBE
Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment: great theory about black haze beyond which we can't look- absorbs all light; measured "black body" spec perfectely
Tectonic Diagram F
Continental Crust
glass
a solid;atoms are disorganized
pegmatite
extremely course grained
magma cools very slowly at depth
paleomagnetism
uses mineral magnetic alignment direction and dip angle to determine the direction and distance to the magnetic north pole when rocks formed
Halides
Halite (NaCl), precipitates from seawater; an "evaporite" mineral. Used in de-icer, in food, and industry. Lite salt includes potassium chloride.
Common Chemical Sedimentary rocks?
Limestone, Calcite
asthenosphere
soft layer below the lithosphere
Archean
birth of continents
appearance of earliest life forms
point source pollution
in discrete locations
Jurassic Period what years?
205-145 my
Terminal Moraine
Both Continental and Mountain Glaciation- Ridge of till that formed along the leading edge of the farthest advance of a glacier.
Iron
Nickle
Coppper
Can get ________, _________, and ________ from the Canadian Shield.
backwash
water flowing back down the beach.
Igneous
Formed by crystalization of molton rock material
mountain stream
sedimentary environment where water moves sediment, conglomerate
cross cutting relationships
the principle of ___________________________ states that a disrupted pattern is older than the cause of the dispruption
phaneritic texture
Slow cooling
- Large, visible crystals
Chert
Made of microcrystalline quartz. Very fine-grained, hard, dense, and durable, breaks like glass to form a sharp edge. Sometimes bioclastic, typically occurs as nodule in carbonate rocks, but can also be in layers, forms in the ocean, shallow to deep sea.
Springs
The water table intersects the surface.
-Fractures.
-Faults.
Concretion
Local concentration of the mineral cement
cross-bedding
cross beds are internal laminations within rocks that show different layers of sediment deposited over time
Bed load
Grains roll on the bottom
Volcanic neck
An isolated, steep-sided, erosional remnant consisting of lava that once occupied the vent of a volcano.
Kast connection to groundwater
1. Dissolution (chemical weathering)
2. H2O picks up CO2 from atmosphere and soil becomes acidic (carbonic acid)
3. Acid dissolves limestone, creating a network of caves and sinks called Karst
what causes and earthquake?
plates are always moving
unconfined aquifer
water open to atmosphere, not impermeable, cone of depression
sediment
lose soil particles that can originate by weathering & erosion chemical precipitation from solution usally in water & secretion by organisms
Urbanization
has caused more flooding than before. All graphs in book show more flooding and runoff with more urbanization.
Side/Side Movement
Left, Right lateral = Strike-Slip faults.
Biodegradation
The breaking down of dead organic matter by living organisms such as bacteria
Ruby Prices
10,000s of dollars
more valuable than diamonds
Fossil succession
The scientific law stating that specific groups of animals have followed, or succeeded, one another in a definite sequence through Earth history.
Intrusion
molton rock from the Earth's interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools
Crust
the thin outermost layer above the mantle! :)
strain is
change in shape caused by stress
amplify, stabilize
In the Earth's climate, positive feedback tend to ____________ changes in the system and negative feedback tend to ____________ the system against change. (Separate words with a comma.)
radiometric dating
the procedure of calculating the absolute ages of rocks and minerals containing certain radioactive isotopes
Strike Slip Faults
-Opposite moving faults
-Left lateral when move is counter clockwise
-Right lateral when move is clockwise
cooksonia
oldest fossil plant about 420 million years old.
strain
an irreversible change in the shape and size of a rock body caused by stress
What major group of arthropods went extinct at the end of the Permian?
Trilobites
strike-slip fault
fault where movement is predominantly horizontal and parallel to strike of fault.
STREAKphysical property
color of mineral in powdered form-helpful in determining different forms of same mineral
Joints
fractures in rock caused by regional stress or by the cooling and contraction of the rocks; there is no displacement of the two sides up and down, back or forth, simply opens up
can be caused by all three types of forces (compressive, tensional, shear)
arroyo
(chiefly in southwest U.S.) a small steep-sided watercourse or gulch with a nearly flat floor: usually dry except after heavy rains.
Metamorphic Rocks
formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface
seismic discontinuities
boundaries in the earth where seismic waves change speed and or direction velocity as they cross it
Meandering stream
develops on gradual slope, has a sinuous shape
Types of volcanoes: Rhyolitic (Felsic)
-super volcanoes
-big pyroclastic flows and big ash falls
-lava domes and large calderas
-high SiO2
-high viscosity
-large gas content
-large tuff deposits
-changes things globally
Ex)Yellowstone
Superposition
The principle that in a group of stratified sedimentary rocks, the lowest were the earliest to be deposited.
has occurred in North America, Europe and Africa and exists where a large part of a continent is covered by glacial ice sheets
Continental glaciation
H and He
Earth's 1st atmosphere consisted of __________
ductile
a rock that behaves in a ___________ or plastic manner will bend under stress and not returen to its orginal shape-deformed by folding or bending
lower mantle
the deepest section of the mantle, stretching from 670 km down to the core mantle boundary
Change in the ground elevation of the Earth's surface is called
topography
surface wave
Travel along the surface, Rayleigh and love waves
anticyclone
the clockwise flow of air around a high-pressure mass
metamorphism
Alignment of mineral grains is a good example of mechanical deformation during ___.
a glacier that covers the lowlands in front of mountains is what kind of glacier
piedmont
love waves
S waves that intersect the surface, move back and forth, are slow
evaporite
the sediment that is left after the evaporation of seawater
Biopersistence
A measure of how long a particular material will remain in the biosphere
In the geologic time scale, the Precambrian period constitute about ____ percentage of the scalea. 82 c. 87b. 86 d. 85
c.    87
Dissolved load, suspended load, bed load
ways of transportation
What is a batholith
large, irregularly-shaped pluton that cuts across layering of rock
examples of precipitates chemical rock
travertine , chert
metamorphic P-T path
The history of the changing conditions of (P) and (T) that occurred during metamorphism. The P-T path can be a sensitive recorder of many important factors that influence metamorphism and thus may provide tectonic settings responsible for metamorphism.
true
t or f: the rock cycle explains how rocks are formed, weathered, eroded, and changed
Storm Surge
Local rise in sea level that results when hurricane winds vigorously push water toward the coast.
usually naturally occurring, sudden release of energy, causes damage to humans
what constitutes a natural disaster?
Clean water act (1977)
address point and non-point source pollution
divergent plate boundaries
plates are moving away from one another
Alluvial channels (5)
Deposition of sediment due to decrease in velocity
Gentle gradient - stream near base level
Little downcutting, erosion mostly side to side
1. Meandering channels - forms sweeping bends (meanders)
2. Braided channels - stream choked with sandbars, no clear main channel
aquifers that have a lid and are not open to the surface are
confined
Permian Basin
made up of horsts & gravens= eastern shelf, midland basin, northwest shelf, central basin platform, delaware basin, diablo platform, marfa basin
Absolute Dating Measures What?
• Absolute dating can only measure rocks that cool. Cannot measure sedimentary rocks. To measure sedimentary rocks, set upper and lower limits with crosscutting relationships.
mass movement
a downhill movement of masses of soil or rock under the force of gravity
Monocline(type of fold)
large, step like folds in otherwise horizontal strata-ONLY ONE INCLINED LIMB (the other horizontal)-result from movement along buried faults
The most universal feature of Sedimentary rocks is?
Stratification (layering of rocks)
Temperatures in the solar system generally:
decrease away from the Sun
Continuity Equation
Q=W times D times V
Q= Discharge (the volume of water moving by a particular location in a river)
What are some typical products made from crude oil?
plastic, asphalt, rubber, lubricants
pluvial lades existed during the las ice age in what is now a very arid region( basin and range province) whats the evidence
shorelines in the mountains
Pro-drilling in ANWR
30 billion barrels is enough to last the US for about 60 years. There is a tiny area affected and will free us from foreign oil. It will also lower gas prices.
Colorado Plateau was deformed less than
other areas of the Cordillera
what kind of explosiveness is Hawaii?
hawaii is the mildest explosion
South Pole expedition strategy differences between the British and the Norwegians
Norwegians used eskimo clothing, and traveled by dog sleds. British dressed in heavy wool and walked.
80 20
____ % covalent and ____ % ionic is an example of quartz
The solar nebular hypothesis
Earth and the other planets formed at the same time from the same material
After the Big Bang, the nebula condensed into a flat rotating disk of dust and gas
Cooling resulted in the rocky planets being close to the Sun and the gaseous planets being further away from the Sun
Specific Advantages: Wind
Cost down 80% in the last 20 years. Energy payback is only a year. Safe for wildlife
What is an Earthquake?
It is the vibration of the Earth produced by the rapid release of energy
-energy released radiates in all directions from its source, the focus
-energy is in the form of waves
-sensitive instruments around the world record the event
-the point on the earth's surface above the focus is called the  epicentre
 
Earthquakes and Faults
-movements that produce earthquakes are usually associated with large fractures in Earth's crust called faults
-most of the motion along faults can be explained by plate tectonics theory
-on faults rocks begin to slip; slip doesn't go on forever due to friction
-stick-slip behavior - move in sudden increments
-the moment a fault slips the rock around the fault feels a sudden push or pull
-movement sends a sudden pulse of energy ~"shock"
-vibration generated by the sudden slip on the fault radiates through the surrounding rock and creates the shaking - earthquake
-bigger the amount of slip = greater the vibrations =larger the earthquake
 
Elastic Rebound
-machanism for earthquakes was first explained by H.F. Reid
-rocks on both sides of an existing fault are deformed by tectonic forces
-rocks bend and store elastic energy
-Frictional resistance holding the rocks together is overcome
-earthquakes most often occur along existing faults whenever the frictional forces on the fault surfaces are overcome
 
Foreshocks and Aftershocks
-adjustments that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called aftershocks
-amall earthquakes, called foreshocks, often precede a major earthquake by days or, in some cases by as much as several years
 
 
-most earthquaks occur in seismic belts of zones
-majority lie along plte boundaries
-intraplate earthquakes do occur but relatively infrequent
 
The initial break that creates a fault, along with these sudden, intense shifts along already formed faults, are the main sources of earthquakes
-most earthquakes occur around plate boundaries, because this is where the strain from the plate movements is felt most intensely, creating fault zones, groups of interconnected faults
-in a fault ozne, the release of kinetic energy at one fault may increase the stress -- the potential energy --- in a nearby fault, leading to other earthquakes
-this is one of the reasons that several earthquakes may occur in an area in a short period of time
 
Different kinds of earthquakes occur at different types of plate boundaries
-shallow-focus earthquakes ~normal faults~ diverent plate boundaires and rifts
-intermediate and deep-focus earthquakes ~ thrust and reverse faults ~ convergent plate boundaries - Wadati-Benioff zone
-shallow-focus strike slip earthquakes ~ transform boundaries (shear)
Stream terraces form in alluvial valleys when
The stream erodes through previously deposited alluvium.
Why are S waves called shear waves?
because they displace material at right angles to their path of travel.
Does the diameter of the circular path followed by particles above wave base increase or
decrease with depth?
The diameter decreases with depth.
Which of the following statements concerning the formation of coal is NOT true?
Coal is composed primarily of the remains of microorganisms
What does the Concept of Stability state?
Most minerals are stable within a range of temperature and pressure and react to form different minerals if conditions change. Metamorphism may involve the crystallization of new minerals at the expense of preexisting minerals because mineral stability changes.
WHat are deep water currents and why do they form?
Deepwater currents are currents that move along the ocean basins by density driven forces and gravity (thermohaline circulation). During thermohaline circulation, denser water sinkds, whereas water that is less dense rises which causes the water in polar regions to sink and flow back along the bottom of the ocean toward the equator.
what are and what leads to positive and negative magnetic anomalies?
+:field is a little stronger than normal
-:field is a little weaker than normal
caused by the mineral magnetite crystallizes early from lava as it cools
How does coal combustion cause air pollution?
-bc it produces more CO2 than any other fossil fuel; also has high nitrogen and sulfur content which produces acid rain; and mercury (which can poison food chain)-can creat soot, which is uncombusted particles in the air
After a hot spot passes, what happens to the crust?
a 300-mile-wide and 1700 food bulge in crust
aur-
ear
oma
tumor
macro-
large
litho
stone
-megaly
enlargement
-metry
measurement
gyneco
female
pro
before
radi/o
radiation
Helio-
sun
CIB/O
MEALS
L
Liter
-somes
bodies
metr/o
womb
tel/o
complete
lymphaden/o
lymph/node
-oid
resembling
Gyn/Gyno-
woman
Vermi-
worm
-ologist
specialist
disch.
discharge
CHALAZ/IO-
hailstone
iso-
Equal
meso-
middle
-ule
small
metr-
uterus
neur/o
nerveneurologist
pulmon/o
lung
PER
THROUGHOUT
mEq
milliequivalent
diplo-
double
ren/o
kidney
amni/o
amnion
uni-
one
-ptosis
prolapse
cerebr/o;encephal/o
brain
neo
new
Hydro
water
orchi
testis
chondr/o
cartilage
lacto
milk
Ped/o
child
PROSTATE
PROSTAT
de-
down, from
menisc/o
meniscus (crescent)
-ism
state of
-paresis
slight paralysis
retro
behind, backward
myel-
spinal cord
CORON/O
"CORONARY, CROWN"
-phoria
feeling, carrying
CP
Cerebral Palsy
ab-
from/away from/absent
multi
 
poly 
many, much
CHRONIC
LONG STANDING
Ment-
Mint
Mine, Mine
Mind
vertebr/o
root: vertebrae
enter/o
small intestine
neopathy
new disease
MICR-
(abnormally) small
encephal/o
entire brain
trop-
combining formturning
rect (o)
rectum
-physis
to grow
furc/o
forking, branching
viscer/o
internal organs
Sect/o
to cut
-logist
one who studies
hypo-
below or deficient
"HYPOthermia"
-plasia
Development, formation, growth
Analgesia
condition without pain
126: peri-
around; about
-ectasia
dialate or stretch
arrhythmia
loss of rhythm
Excise
to take out
hypotension
low blood pressure
Lateral
lying on side
-gram
record or image
genous, genic
produced by
hepatitis
inflammation of liver
andr
CF; man, male
-rrhage
-rrhagia
to burst forth
/ior (adjective)
relating to
inception
the beginning of
sym-, syn-
joined, together
Alveol/o
Alveolus; small hollow cavity
-genic
pertaining to, formation, producing
cardiac
Pertaining to the heart
RDMS
registered diagnostic medical Sonographer
erythropoiesis
red blood cell development
tax-
taxis - muscle coordination
femor/o
femur (upper leg bone)
HHS
health and human service
gastrectomy
excision of the stomach
quadr-
latin combinining form/prefix; four
No-
mind, mental activity, comprehension
myringitis
tympanitis
inflammation of the eardrum
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver
pre-
before, in front of
NIMH
National Institute for Mental Health
dermatodysplasia
faulty defelopment of the skin
mammoplasty, mastoplasty
surgical breast reconstruction (augmented & reduced)
Prenatal
occurring, existing, performed, or used before birth
-ostomy
 to create a surgical opening
albinism
hereditary condition characterized by lack of melanin pigment
-genic, -genous,
compound suffix formcausing, producing, caused by, produced by or in
gigantism
hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of the body
ab-/duc/-tion
process of moving away from
col/o-
colon (big or large intestine)
ostectomy (oss-TECK-toh-mee)
the surgical removal of bone
what category is the right kidney?
RUQ RLQ LUQ
RUQ
Pelvis
the bony structure including the ilium, ischium, pubis, sacrum, and coccyx
-rrhage, -rrhagia
bleeding, abnormal excessive fluid discharge
thoracoplasty
thorac/o = chest-plasty = surgical repairsurgical repair of the chest
rhag
combining form; burst forth, flow profusely, hemorrhage
Contusion
injury resulting in hemorrhage beneath unbroken skin
vascular lesions
lesions of a blood vessel
breath
air inhaled and exhaled during respiration
clavicle
a bone of the pectoral arch.
urethr/o
urethra (tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the body)
acrohypothermy
abnormal coldness of the hands and feet
sickle cell anemia
a hereditary condition sharacterized by abnormal sickle -shaped erythrocytes & by hemolysis
supracostal
above a rib or outside the ribs
Dacryolithiasis
the formation and presence of a lacrimal calculus
puerpera
a woman who has just given birth
light thearpy
specialized light boxes to treat seasonal affect
eu-
normal, good (ex. eupnea = normal breathing)
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease using radiation, usually from a cobalt source, to stop the proliferation of malignant cells
What is another name for coccidiodoycosis
valley fever
a liquid suspension that is rubbed onto the skin
liniment
lipemia
excessive amounts of fat and fatty substances in the blood
nadh
an abbreviation for the reduced form of NAD in electron transport reactions.
virus
an infectious agent to small to be seen by an ordinary microscope
Diabetes mellitus
is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
Cytoscopy
: A procedure in which the doctor inserts a lighted instrument called a cystoscope into the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) in order to look inside the urethra and bladder
crani(o)
a combining form denoting the skull or cranium
Passing horizontally through the body, divides the body into upper and lower portions.
transverse or axial
nasolacrimal duct
passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose
cranium
the portion of the skull that encloses brain
tertiary care
the aspect of care dealing for illnesses requiring specialized techniques, such as coronary artery bypass surgery or treating severe burns
Cervical cancer
affects women usu. bw ages 40-49. Statistics indicate that infection associated with sexual activity has some relationship to the incidence of cerical cancer. First coits at a young age, large number of sex partners, infection of STviruses, and frequent intercourse with men whose previous partners had cervical cancer are all associated with increased risk of developing cervical cancer. Pap test detects cervical cancer before the disease becomes clinically evident. Abnormal cervial cytology routinely calls for coposcopy, which can detect the presence and extent of preclinical lesions requireing biopsy and hsitological examination. Tx of cervical cancer consists of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
coronary occlusion
obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardinal infarction.
rheumatoid arthritisElevated Sedimentation Rate
feet can also be involved. Ages 40-60, juvinile also. Insidious (don't see it coming) aspirin,rheumatoid factor ESR
A weakness in an arterial wall is called:
An Aneurysm
transurethral resection of prostate (TURP)
removal of prostatic tissue via cauterization or cryosurgery
occipital bone
forms the back and base of the skull & joins the parietal & temporal bones, forming a suture
What are common side effects of Cervidil or Prepidil?
Side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, headache, chills/shivering. May increase uterine pain and cause fetal passage of meconium.
CSF>Blood
Mg2+Creatinine
ADH
antidiurtic hormone/vassopressin
Amines
Dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine.
Auditory tube?
Eustachian tube
Osmosis
What moves? Solvent
 
Membrane needed? Yes
 
What direction? Water is moving to a higher concentration
Carrier needed? No
Active or passive? Active
alpha adrenergic
eye dilation
cardiovascular constriction
constrict GI sphincter
decrease smooth muscle contraction
increase blood glucose
decrease insuline release
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
Circulating insulin levels ______________ in the transition from rest to endurance exercise.
decrease
adrenal medulla
 
 
Modified sympathetic ganglion, the inner portion of the adrenal gland that produces catecholamines
Potential
voltage difference between 2 parts
 

•Perception
 

–The process of creating meaningful patterns from raw sensory information
Negative feedback loop
-Promotes stability-Contains: Regulated variable, sensor (detector), controller (comparator), and effector-Variable is sensed and sent to a controller to be compared to a set point. If there is a difference an error is sent causing the effector to bring to normal.
Oligodendrocytes
Produce the myelin around axons
Pons?
Motor relay, respiration, reflexes, movement, pupils
myofibril structure
thick and thin filaments
the neurotransmitter that will always be released from postganglionic parasympathetic is?
acetylcholine
vasocontriction
lumen of blood vessel smaller; decrease blood flow
Anxiety
Anxiety is an unpleasant, high-arousal emotional state associated with perceived threat. In the psychoanalytic tradition, anxiety is seen as a signal that the control of the ego is being threatened by reality, by impulses from the id, or by harsh controls exerted by the superego. Freud identified three different types of anxiety: neurotic anxiety, moral anxiety, and objective anxiety. According to Rogers, the unpleasant emotional state of anxiety is the result of having an experience that does not fit with one's self-conception.
convergence
A number of presynaptic neurons provide input to a smaller number of postsynaptic neurons
Interfusion
movement of solute particles w/ respect to its surrounding solvent molecules. Defined by driving force. (ex: electrophoresis)
Micturition Reflex
Stimulus - Urine into bladder (stretching)Receptor - stretching of walls of the bladder, stretch receptorsControl centre - spinal cord reflex (PSNS)Effector - detrusor muscle, internal sphincter relaxes, external sphincter relaxes voluntarily
endopeptidase that breaks down vesicular fusion proteins...cant release NT b/c docking and fusion is dysfunctional= flacid paralysis
Botulinum toxin
limbic system
doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at border of brainstem and cerebral hemispheres. associated with emotions such as fear and aggression, drives such as those for food and sex. (hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus)
diencephalon
central core of forebrain, contains thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
GERD complications
- esophagitis- esophageal strictures- ulceration, bleeding, perforation- barrett's esophagus
sympathetic system
sympathetic system, increased: heart rate and contraction strength, blood pressure, blood glucose; pupil dilation, bronchiole dilation; digestion shuts down, blood shunted to muscles.
Carotid Sinus baroreceptor transmits via what nerve to the medulla?
glossopharyngeal (IX)
Depolarization of the _________, which are invaginations of the sarcolemma, results in release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells.
t-tubules
isotonic
same concentration on inside and outside of cell; cells will maintain usual size and shape.
movement of molecule with carrier protein against energy gradient is called?
active transport
Describe an action potential in a contractile cardiac cell
Valves
Blood should only flow in one direction through the heart
Valves prevent backflow
Atrioventricular (AV) valves separate atria and ventricles
Semilunar valves separate ventricles and arteries
General Inflammatory Response
Fever
Hemostasis
Histamine release - local edema
phagocytic cells
interferons
activation of complement proteins in blood
Nativists (Sociobiologists Believe):
Sociobiologists believe that genes explain all behaviors
Location of auditory cortex
Temporal lobe of brain.
MABP
what is responsible for the movement of blood through the vascular system?
Information is transmitted from cell to cell across the chemical synapse via a(n) ________. 200) _____ A) action potential B) collateral potential C) neurosecretory hormone D) graded potential E) neurotransmitter
E) neurotransmitter
40 mmHg
what is the normal pulse pressure?
High eosinophils and basophils could present as
allergic reaction
Metabolism
the chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes and activities and new material is assimilated
the sum of the processes by which a particular substance is handled (as by assimilation and incorporation or by detoxification and excretion) in the living body
during expiration, describe pressures in patients with obstructive lung disease
intrapleural: very elevatedintra-alveolar: elevated (higher than intrapleural)--looks the same as if were doing exercise
respiratory system
keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
end plate potential
action potential on neuromuscular junctions
secretion
- transfer of digestive juices (made by multiple exocrine glands) into digestive tract; water and electrolytes are picked up from blood which req. energy
Which leukocyte serves as the first defensive?
neutrophil
fascicle
A muscle contains many groupings of hundreds of cells, each group called a _________.
Substances with lowest TF/P?
glucose and amino acids
In an electrocardiogram (ECG), the ___________ is indicative of ventricular repolarization (recovery).
T wave
responsive
acting as a result to some stimulus
presynaptic
being or occurring on the transmitting end of a discharge across a synapse
the specialized cells of mesoderm that form skeletal muscle cells are called?
fetal myoblasts
Tonic receptors
are activated by parameters that must be continuously monitored by the body; are slowly adapting receptors; are proprioreceptors, for example
Define prohormone:
A precursor molecule that affects the metabolism of target cells; in the case of polypeptide hormones, it may be a longer chained prohormone cut and spliced together to make a hormone. ex. proinsulin.
Surface Tension
Water has a high surface tention because of hydrogen bonding ( cohesion)
   Herbert Spencer:
1870: Social Darwinism, then applied to human activity
Portal System
when two capillary beds occure in series, without a trip to the heart in between
In a neuron, which is more membrane permeable: K+ or Na+?
K+
The α1 adrenergic receptor has the greatest affinity for ________. 123) _____ A) serotonin B) dopamine C) norepinephrine D) epinephrine E) epinephrine and norepinephrine equally
C) norepinephrine
open ductus arteriosus
in this condition blood circulates between the lung and the left ventricle
what kind of blood cell carries O2, some CO2 and regulates bl pressure?
RBC
describe blue bloaters
cyanosis with hyperinflated chest bc expiration is more difficult
A modulatory neuron synapses and one collateral of the neuron and selectively inhibits one targe.
Presynaptic inhibition
What is this. Follicular phase - Ovulation - Luteal Phase?
Menstrual cycle
oral cavity
- mouth- entrance to digestive tract- opening formed by muscular lips- palate separates mouth from nasal passages- tongue consists of voluntarily controlled skeletal muscles
What classification of disease is serum sickness
immune system disease
Where does gas exchange take place?
In the alveoli
thyroid amines
T3 T4 , lipophlic bound to protein
Theory where 3-retinal elements and three different pigments are responsible for vision?
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic Theory
sensitive
having a low threshold of sensation or feeling
what type of smooth muscle operates independently and is innervated by a single nerve ending-much like skeltal muscle?
multiunit smooth muscle
Alveolar sacs
300 million per person (about 37 per temminal bronchiole)
Need for Achievement
The need for achievement, according to McClelland, is the desire to do better, to be successful, and to feel competent. A person with a high need for achievement obtains satisfaction from accomplishing a task or from the anticipation of accomplishing a task. They cherish the process of being engaged in a challenging task.
Up to __% of ages 21-25 are substance abusers
20
What does LH do
stimulates ovulation in females, and itstimulates the secretion of sex hormones (estrogens and progesterone in females and androgens in males)
continuous flow
if you smomoth out blood flow through the vasculature system, you change the pulsatile flow into??
What hormone is decreased in Addison's disease?
cortisol AND aldosterone
Carries signal from CNS to Organ (muscle; gland)
Motor (efferent) Neurons
Shock can result in the following:
• SNS activated• Adrenal medulla (secreting NE and E)• Angiotensin II released)
what causes alveolus compliance?
 
what accounts for more?
parenchymal cells produce elastin and water line the alveolus
 
water accounts to 75%
Cation
The atom that loses e- attains a net (+) charge
what makes bones hard?
- precipitation of calcium within matrix- cartilage is like bone, but it is not calcified (lacks precipitate)
causes of acute pancreatitis
- usually develops from gallstones (stones in common duct ) or OH abuse- hyperlipidemia- hyperparathyroidism- infections- drug-induced- abdominal and surgical trauma
Vestibular placing reflex
Limb is extended when it encounters solid object
What happens to glucose and lipid balance under T3's effect?
Increased glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis
The movement of gases in and out of the lungs
ventilation
what is the result of atropine?
supresses salivary and respitory secrections
Define cardiac output
The rate at which a ventricle pumps blood is called the cardiac output (CO), and it is usually expressed in liters per minute--Cardiac output=HRxSV
Transcription
a gene in DNA copied into the form of an mRNA chain
What triggers secretion of glucocorticoids
ACTH secretion by the pituitary gland
TOPIC 16


 
Veins:
 
Venous Return...

-General-
1. At a constant blood volume, as venous capacity increases, venous return decreases, and lowers effective circulating volume
 
2. Likewise, at constant blood volume, as venous capacity decreases, effective circulating volume increases (i.e., less blood is being held in veins)
Which of the following cells is NOT classified as a glial cell? 209) _____ A) Schwann cell B) oligodendrocyte C) ventricular cell D) ependymal cell E) astrocyte
C) ventricular cell
ACh to Nicotinic Receptors -- NE to Adrenergic receptors OR ACh to Adrenal Medulla -- releases NE and Epi into bloodstream
pathway of SNS
define active and passive tension
active: tension that results from crossbridge activity
 
passive: tension that results from muscle ealsticity (due to collagen) this involves the SEEs
Ovaries promote _________ and _____ and ____ release
follicle development; estradiol and progesterone
What removes Ca from Cardiac muscle?
Ca2+ ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulumCa2+ ATPase in plasma membraneNa+-Ca2+ exchanger in plasma membrane
What is the function of Serotonin?
mood, arousal, modulation of pain
(monoamine)
What are the androgens? Where are there sources?
Testosterone , dyhydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione: testis, testis/adrenal, adrenal
The blood brain barrier is composed of...
tightly packed endothelial cells.
what are the 7 steps of scientific method?
1. observation2. hypothesis3. predict4. experiment5. result6. conclusion7. theory
How does urine production regulate plasma osmolarity
by regulating the total solute concentraiton of plasma
What does thinking refer to?
Thinking, or cognition, refers to all the mental activities associated with processing, understanding, remembering, and communicating
TOPIC 14
 
Structure of Heart:
 
Location in body...
 
-CD: Anatomy Review 3,4,5,7-
1. Size of clenched fist, located in chest cavity, midway between sternum and backbone
 
2. Broad base at top of heart, tapers to an apex at bottom
 
3. Top lies to the right of sternum, apex is to the left of sternum
You are at a conference and make a comment about blood cortisol levels.  Suddenly, no one thinks you know what you are talking about.  What type of conference are you most likely to be at?small animal veterinarians
large animal veterinarians
lab animal
lab animal veterinarians
vasodilation of bl vsls allows for ____; 2 fx
emigration -brings supplies, removes debris
The Na+ channels ____ spontaneously. The current model is a _______. ONe is for _____ and one is for _______.
close, two-gate channel, activation, inactivation.
what four factors regulate digestive motility and secretion?
- autonomous smooth muscle fx- intrinsic nerve plexuses- extrinsic nerves- GI hormones- all of these have regulatory effects and work together in a synergistic fashion
Name 3 types of transport mechanisms
VESICULAR - membrane mediated - endocytosis and exocytosisMOLECULAR - protein mediated - channels and carriersSIMPLE DIFFUSION - lipid soluble solutes and water
7 types of Receptors in body
mechanoreceptor : Chemo Receptor : Photo Receptor : Thermal Receptor : Pain Receptor : Electro Receptor : Magneto Receptor
ATP powered pump, ion channel, transporter
List from fastest to slowest:- ion channel- ATP powered pump- transporter
Describe the different types of hormone interactions (permissive):
Permissive: When the action of a second hormone enhances the responsiveness of a target organ to the second hormone, or when it increases the activity of the second hormone. ex. prior exposure of the uterus to estrogen induces the receptor hormones for progesterone, which improves the response of the uterus when it is subsequently exposed to progesterone. Estrogen thus has a permissive effect on the uterus to progesterone.
What is an example of an Inhibitory transmitter?
gamma-amino butryic acid (GABA; hyperpolarization)
mammalian uses for vit D?
 
vit E?
 
vit K?
D: needed in calcium and phosphorous metabolism
 
E: protects integrity of molecules
 
K: blood clotting
 
Fate of absorbed Monosaccharides (Glucose)
• Move from the blood into the body cells by facilitated diffusion. Insulin is required except for the brain.• Glucose in the cell of the body is used for the following: a) Anabolism – produce glycogen (storage carbohydrate) 80% stored in skeletal and cardiac muscles 20% stored in the liver b) Catabolism – production of ATP by cellular respirationGlycogen is only 1% of the body’s stored energy (not a lot stored)
What is an exaple of Negative Feedback that includes a regulated variable, sensor, controller, set point, feedback signal, and an effector?
Thermostatic control of room temperature. the room temp=regulated variable, which is subject to disturbances. The thermometer=sensor, in the thermostat=controller, which detects room temp.  The thermostat is set to a specific term=set point.  The controller then compares actual temp with the set point=feedback signal and activates the furnace/AC=effector to correct the temperature.
extrinsic pathway of the clotting cascade
- shortcut of 4 steps; factors external to blood; tissue damage- meets intrinsic pathway at factor x
5. The atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. Both P waves and QRS complexes are present, although the P waves bear no relation to the QRS complexes. The atrial rate is faster than the ventricular rate.
D. 3rd Degree, complete AV block
Where is bile produced? How does bile help in the digestion of fats?
liver:contains bile salts that emulsify
How can cells obtain the energy from the combustion of glucose?
The breakdown of food molecules (glucose) converts into CO2 and H2O.  This is an exergonic reation, releasing energy-- which is coupled to an endergonic reaction to form ATP.  The breakdown of ATP into ADP and Pi releases energy, and this released energy powers all the energy-requiring processes of the cell.
What are the two reasons for the absolute refractory period
During the rapid depolarization phase of an action potential, the regenerative opening of sodium channels that have been set into motion will proceed to its conclusion and will not be affected by a second stimulus
During the beginning of the repolarization phase, most of the sodium inactivation gates are closed and cannot be opened by a second stimulus
Which of the following changes in plasma levels would be observed in a primary hyposecretion of cortisol? 190) _____ A) decreased CRH, decreased ACTH, and increased cortisol B) decreased CRH, decreased ACTH, and decreased cortisol C) increased CRH, increa
E) increased CRH, increased ACTH, and decreased cortisol
why does the affinity for oxygen on hemoglobin change?
PO2>>tissue due to partial pressure differencespartial pressure of oxygen in plasma dropsOxygen leaves Hb and goes into plasma
what covers the surface of alveolus?
a thin layer of H2O.
tends to prevent the alveolus from expanding (surface tension)
Pulmonary surfactant (type 2 alveolar cells)
2 sources of fat delivered to the mitochondria
from within skeletal muscle, from outside the skeletal muscle (adipose tissue)
Explain how ADH acts to promote H2O reabsorbtion:
ADH is secreted by the posterior pituitary in response to dehydration. It stimulates insertion of aquaporins (water channels) into the plasma membrane of the collecting duct. When ADH is high, H2O is drawn out of the collecting duct by high osmolality of the interstitial fluid. It is then reabsorbed by the vasa recta.
The magnitude of an action potential will never reach sodium's equilibrium potential because ________. 257) _____ A) the inward movement of sodium is countered by the outward movement of potassium B) the sodium channel only opens for a short time C) the o
A) the inward movement of sodium is countered by the outward movement of potassium
what are the 5 hepatotropic viruses
- hep A virus (HAV)- hep B virus (HBV)- hep b assoc. delta virus (HDV)- hep c virus (HCV)- hep e virus (HEV)
Use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to explain why the chemical bonds in glucose represent  a source of potential energy:
The combustion of glucose to CO2 and H2O releases chemical bond energy.  The energy is not created nor destroyed, the molecules are just rearranged and energy is released.  Since the transformation reaction caused an increase in entropy, there was a decrease in useable energy, which is lost as heat.
what stimulates an increased rate of erythrocyte production
- low level of O2 delivery to tissues (including kidney)- hypoxia
what must a glob of tissue have to be considered an organ?
variance - 2 types of general tissue types minimum
/ 463
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online