Chem Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions

sulfuric acid
crO4 2-
Chromate ion
Combined State
reactive metals
makes apples sour
malic acid
Symbol: Yb; atomic weight: 173.04; atomic number: 70
1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr
pertaining to, containing, or resembling ethyl ether
gold foil, positive center, mostly empty space
monatonic cations:
Cuprous ion; Copper (I) ion
Density of water...
increases as it freezes.
of or pertaining to the body:
Saytzeff rule
rule that the most substitituted alkene is the major product
a material that has uniform and definite composition
ionic bond
results from attraction between cation and anion
situations with double messages are referred to as:
double bind
a chemical that consumes or renders inactive the impurities in a mixture
a completely vegetarian diet will contain all the essential amino acids if it includes
rice and beans
What periods may have extra atoms around the centre?
3rd period
the process where a reactant in a chemical reaction loses one or more electrons.
diatomic molecules
a molecule made up of two atoms
a unit of exposure dose that measures x-rays or gamma rays in terms of the ions or electrons produced in dry air at 0° C and one atmosphere, equal to the amount of radiation producing one electrostatic unit of positive or negative charge per cubic centim
eclipsed conformation
conformation in which the bonds on the atom are directly in line with the bonds on the adjacent atom when a newman projection is viewed.
amount of heat absorbed when a chemical reaction occurs depends on the amounts of reactants that actually react
stiochiometry of Hrxn
Helium nucleus =??
has no electrons, just protons and neutrons b/c we r in the nucleus
in the case of acid rain, this scientist would study ways to protect crop yields
agricultural chemists
inversion of configuration
the stereochemical result of a rxn in which the product has the opposite relative configuration to the reactant.
What are teh 4 colligative properties?
vapor pressure loweringboiling point elevationfreezing point depressionosmotic pressure
What are histones?
The protein spools around which DNA is wound to form chromatin
How did the first atmopshere form?
exploding gas and rock from stars
Give examples of the higher levels of organization that spontaneously form in amphipathic lipids
1) micelles 2) unilamellar/multilamellar liposomes 3) Lipid bilayer of biologicla membranes
in 1906 the fda
made a model for many countries of of procedures by which drugs needed to be put through before being presented to the general public
is a period of 2 to 3 yrs wherein one begins to rebuild self-image and self-sesteem.
middle recovery
How many pairs of electrons are transfered in each krebs cycle?
4 pairs (3 NADH and 1 FADH)
Net result of Beta + decay & E- Capture
turn a proton to a neutron

Tertiary halide
NO3 ^2-
ethane (ethyl, Et)
Discovers electron levels.
Na2O (I or C?)
band gap [increases/decreases] with increasing distance in period columns between the two participating atoms
What do you call C10H22?
Length (SI base unit)
meter (m)
Molecules and atoms can _____ light
chemical reaction
chemical change; reactants converted into products
Has definate shape and definate volume.
step 3 citric acid cycle
isocitrate dehydrogenase
Two molecules with same formula and connectivity but are non-identical and are not mirror images.
Existing naturally with two atoms ex. O2
Factor Label Method
when multiplying/dividing numbers we also multiply/divide units
The ________ child has a unique position in the family.
Symbol: Cm; atomic weight: 247; atomic number: 96
able to pulled into thin wire w/out shattering
Theoretical Yield
amount of product that can be made
The reaction of the conjugate base of a weak acid with water
Covalent Bond
Bond that results when atoms share electrons.
a compound usually having a sour taste and capable of neutralizing alkalis and reddening blue litmus paper, containing hydrogen that can be replaced by a metal or an electropositive group to form a salt, or containing an atom that can accept a pair of ele
transition state
bonds are being broken and others are being formed; a high-energy intermediate state of the reactants in a chemical rxn that must be achieved for the rxn to proceed
the number one cause of death for women is?
lung cancer
What kinds of bonds are required for the formation of stable molecules for life?
Covalent bonds.
double replacement reaction
a chemical change where ions are exchanged between compounds
Electron Sea Model
all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "Sea" of electrons
Endothermic Chemical Reaction
is a chemical reaction in which a continuous input of energy is needed for the reaction to occur.
At STP a mole of gas occupies _____ liters.
22.4 liters
What is CaCl2 most commonly used for
removing ice from the sidewalks
What is the partition coefficient (K)?
The equilibrium constant for the parition b/t oil and water -> higher K = higher lipid colubility
What hybridization does the central atom of the ion AB_6^-3 have (its octahedral geometry)?
The hybridization of the central atom in a molecule or ion is easily determined by counting the number of bonds and electron pairs of the central atom and then counting orbitals, in s-p-d-f order. sp^3d^2.
All common fluorides (F-) are soluble except
those of Pb2+ and group 2A(2)
Really scientist were called philosophers why?
Because to be a scientist you have to be able to preform and experiment to prove your hypothesis
How does S relate to the energy level of the system?
Increasing S lowers the energy level of the system and vise versa.
Methyl Groups
Phosphoric Acid
pi bond (∏)
hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)
potassium hydroxide (strong base)
carboxylic acids are [weak/strong] acids
What do you call C9H20?
Time (SI base unit)
second (s)
an amorphous solid obtained when silica is mixed with other compounds, heated above its melting point, and then cooled rapidly
monatonic cations:
Stannic ion; Tin (ii) ion
quantity of matter in an object
the greater the stability of the conjugate base, the [stronger/weaker] the acid
A species formed during a reaction that is not the final product of the reaction (Transition states have partially formed bonds while intermediates have fully formed bonds)
Boiling off a liquid to separate it
solutions of 1 or more metals dissolved in another metal
At this stage, intimacy btwn the marital partners and the children can begin to be restored.
Symbol: Ra; atomic weight: 226; atomic number: 88
reactive intermediate
a short-lived species that is never present in high concentrations because it reacts as quickly as it is formed
Electron Domain
the region which the electrons are most likely to be found
-His cathode ray tube showed that a negative particle was part of all elements
Phase Diagram
graph showing phases of a substance exist at various temperatures and pressure
1st Order
if the initial rate of reaction is double upon doubling the concetration of one reactant and keepingthe other reactant concentration constant
spanish flies allows for the druf
cantharidine, is an irrtant
What are atoms?
the smallest particle of an element still having the properties of the element
Belt of stability
the shaded area where all stable nuceli are
If you have an alkane reacted with HBr and light what do you get?
no reaction
Thermal Expansion
is a measure of the change in volume of a sample of matter resulting from a temperature change.
whats a heterogenous mixture
has uneven texture of the material that can be seen with the naked eye
people get hooked on these products frequently because of the
addictive substances, heroin, codeine and alcohol
Describe uniporters in glycemic regulation
1) In beta cells, glucose transported by GLUT2 w/ a high Km -> insulin released only w/ high glucose 2) Normally glucose pulled in at 77% vmax 3) GLUT4 in fat/muscle cells 4) GLUT4 transporters are normally intracellular -> increased glucose causes them to move to the membrane, bind and pump glucose in. 4) GLUT5 transports fructose
Theoretical yield of ammonia in the reaction of 25.0 g N2 and 6.00 g H2?
Theoretical Yield = 30.4 g NH3
synthesis of amides 3
The reaction to form an amide is very similar to esterification. In both reactions a carboxylic acid undergoes substitution with dehydration between the carboxylic acid and the other reagent.
Amide formation is reversible
Angular Quantum Number (l)
s, p, d, f... = 0, 1, 2, 3... Also known as the subshell.
What is the chemical structure of a phosphoglyceride?
2 fatty acids and (a phosphate group esterified to a polar group = hydrophilic head group) esterified to a glycerol backbone
O2 -2
Hg +2
Monatomic anions:
sodium bicarbonate
baking soda
5f, np-lr artificial radioactive
Amino pKa of Isoleucine
Amino pKa of Isoleucine
Amino group pKa = ~ 9.5 +/- 0.6
kernel "shields"valence shell from attraction to nucleus (when kernals grows so does shielding)
goes down
chance observations leading to discoveries
searches the FBI's fingerprint collection. It contains over 40,000,000 ten print cards.
amount of space a substance occupies
How can isoenzymes be seperated?
By electrophoresis
isopropyl alcohol
a colorless, flammable, water-soluble liquid, C3H8O, produced from propylene by the action of sulfuric acid and hydrolysis: used chiefly in the manufacture of antifreeze and rubbing alcohol and as a solvent.
electromagnetic force
force that pushes electrons through the external circuit
electron poor species that seeks an electron rich site. similar to a Lewis acid.
theoretical yield
max. possible yield of products, predicted by the balanced equation and reactant quantities
Whats the result of alpha decay?
Reduce Mass
shiny solids, malleable and are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Stoichiometric Amounts
the proportions indicated by the balanced equation
Ranking Resonance Structures
Least charge. Least separation of charge. Most possible resonance structures
Molecular Equation
Shows all reactants and products as if they were intact, undissolved compounds
provided the first explanation of the line
emission spectra for atoms.
Neils Bohr
name of symbol that precedes a basic unit measure to form a decimal multiple
the force that gravity exerts on an object
the alcohol in this list that would be most soluble in water is: 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-hexanol, ethanol
Bragg equation: n (lamda) = 2dsin (theta) what does everythign mean
lamda=wavelengthd=distance between adjacent planes in the crystaltheta=angle between x rays and plane of crystal
Is the allosteric site the same as the active site?
0'c + 273.15K and 1atm or 760 Torr
equilibrium arrows
2 arrows that are used to represent an equilibrium rxn where the reactants and products are interconverting
Distribution of electrons in Shells
shell 1
can hold 2 electrons, subshell f
What is special about liquids?
liquids have a fixed volume(container) but no fixed shape.
Change of State
is a process in wich a substance is transformed from one physical state to another physical state.
what is the kinetic-molecular theory
all matter consists of extremely tiny particles that are in constant motion
Factores of reactions rates
amount of reaction gone or used up per unit of time
The mass number of an atom is
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
to treat baldness the egyptians did what?
used the fats of lions, snakes and hippotanimi
Explain the difference between a cis and trans isomer
Cis: groups are on the same side of a double bond.

Trans: groups are on the opposite side of a double bond.
ClO -1
CrO7 2-
reactants favored
Reduction occurs
at Cathode
Amino pKa of Cysteine
Amino pKa of Cysteine
Amino group pKa = ~ 9.5 +/- 0.6
ROH with h3po4 and heat
Primary component of cell membranes/consist of C, H & O/are nonpolar and insoluble.
R=universal constant
.082057L x atm/k x mol
H; At constant pressure, this eliminates the need to consider PB work. E + PV
Mediated transport includes...
everything except simple diffusion
the act or process of evaporating.
Physical Changes
Solid, liquid, gas
SOLID --> GAS: sublimation
GAS --> SOLID: Deposition
SOLID --> LIQUID: Melting
LIQUID --> SOLID: Solidification (freezing)
LIQUID --> GAS: Vaporization (Boiling)
GAS --> LIQUID: Condensation
vinyl group
CH2=CH-; The smallest possible group containing a vinylic carbon
A + BC ---> AC + B
Gamma Decay/ Emission
on product side; change nothing
tentative explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law
Bases characteristics
OH- anion, bitter, soapy texture, red litmus paper---> blue
Isomers that differ in the way the atoms are arranged in space
100 basic substances that make up all matter. Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
Chemical Bond Classification:
Ionic; a metal and a nonmetal
Valence electrons
electrons that are in the outermost energy shells or that are available for bonding.
Empirical Formula
tells us which elements are present and the simplest whole number ratio of their atoms (but not necessarily the exact number of atoms)
protic solvent
A solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen as in a hydroxyl group or a nitrogen as in an amine group.
what is cohesion and adhesion?
cohesion is attraction between similary moleculesadhesion is attraction between a liquid and a solidthis is what causes water to rise in a tube.
Describe vectoral synthesis of lipids
Sphingomyelin is synthesized in exoplasmic leaflet of golgi body (thus, as the vesicles merge, it must be exoplasmic). Phosphoglycerides are synthesized in the cytosolic leaf of the ER.
radioactive dating
any method of determining the age of earth materials or objects of organic origin based on measurement of either short-lived radioactive elements or the amount of a long-lived radioactive element plus its decay product.
What did JJ use to discover the Electron
Cathode Ray Tube
Arrhehius Defn of ACID/BASE
Arrhenius acids form hydrogen ions in aqueous solution; Arrhenius bases forming hydroxide ions.
Atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
What is the distinguishing feature of alkynes?
Triple bonds between carbon atoms
Azimuthal Quantum number/ Angular momentum (l)
this quantum number refers to subshell or sublevels that occurs within each principle energy level/there are 4 subshells of l=0,1,2,3 that equal respectfully l=s,p,d,f/
Brownsted Lowry Defn of ACID/BASE
Acid= proton donor; Base= proton acceptor
In which of the following does inelastic collisions occur between molcules:a. real gasesb. ideal gasesc. fusion reactions
Inelastic collisions do occur in real gases and a nuclear fusion reaction is a reaction in which two nuclei collide to form a new, heavier nucleus.Ideal gasses are elastic.
One 1-L flask (Flask A) contains carbon monoxide gas and another identical flask (Flask B) contains carbon dioxide gas, both at STP. Flask A has...
less mass but the same number of particles as Flask B
How many calories do fats have per gram?
9 cal (carbs and protein only have 4 cal/g)
Pb +4
Cr +2
Chromium (II)
positively charged ion
-- disorder with decomposition
kinetic energy
energy in motion
Trigonal pyramidal
3 bonding, 1 non-bonding
spontaneous disintegration of an unstable @ nuclus w/ accompanying emission of radiation
Configurational isomers
Stereoisomers that cannot interconvert unless a covalent bond is broken. Cis-isomers and optical isomers are configurational isomers ( are stereoisomers that can cannot be converted into one another by rotation around a single bond. )
reverse osmosis
purification technique. sufficient pressure is applied to the salt water side forcing the water molecules to go through the membrane, leaving the ions behind.
Functionin after treatment of the chem. dep will show _________, but unless the other family members participate in a ___________ program problems will continue.

Symbol: V; atomic weight: 50.942; atomic number: 23
the substitution of a halogen atom, usually Br or Cl, for one of the ring H. The reaction occurs when benzene reacts with BR2 or Cl2 in the presence of iron catalyst
metallic bonding...
metal atoms; overall sharing of electrons (all atoms share all electrons collectively)
different forms of a lewis structure that differ only in the placement of elctrons
VSEPR stands for...
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
the electrode or terminal by which current enters an electrolytic cell, voltaic cell, battery, etc.
Pure substance
A substance that cannot be separated into other types of matter.
3 Basic Parts of an Atom
Proton Neutron Electron
What volume of 0.246 AgNO3 is required to completely precipitate all of the Cl- in 0.250 L of 0.153 M BaCl2?
0.311 L
What does Kd reflect?
The stability of noncovalent/weak binding of the interacting molecules -> a quantitative measure of binding affinity.
notation that uses chemical symbols w/ numerical subscripts to convey relative proportions of @ of the diff. elem in a sub.
chemical formula
Positional probability
a type of probability that depends on the number of arrangements in space that yield a particular state
Formal Charge
Charge and atom would have if the electrons in a bond are shared equally between the two atoms
a planar molecule as all of its atoms lie in the same plane. There are pi electron cloud above and below the plae of the ring, making it a rigid molecule with the formula C6H6. Each carbon atom lies at an angle of a regular six-sided figure, or hexagon. The bond angle is therefore 120 degrees not 105 degrees.
the use of heat to alter or reduce a mineral (important for the reduction of iron)
molar solubility
= no. moles tha tdissolve to give 1 ltier of saturated solution
Where does feedback inhibition normally occur?
The last molecule before a macromolecule; the earliest functionally irreversible step (large negative delta G) unique to a particular sequence.
Plane of Symmetry
a mirror plane that cuts a molecule in half, so that one half of the molecule is a reflection of the other half.
Achiral molecules usually contain a plane of symmetry but chiral do not.
How does water's viscosity relate to its temperature?
As temperature increases, viscosity decreases
If you have an alkene reacting with Hg(oac), H2O, and NaBH4 what do you get?
oxymercuration and demurcuration where you break the double bond and add OH trans to each end
Describe the surfaces (3) of epithelial cells
1) apical surface = unattached surface 2) basolaeral surface = attached to surrounding cells 3) basal surface = attached to underlying extracellular matrix
Exceptions of Electron Affinity
are slightly + b/c they do not want to loose an e- and require input of energy to accept an electron
What re the three types of membrane transport proteins?
1) pumps 2) ion channels 3) transporters
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