Final Review 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
vena cava
increases metabolism
Glutues Medius
endocrine system
secretes hormones
Orbicularis Oris
Mouth muscle
Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
origin f.c.r.
common flexor tendon
Refers to the hearing
Saddle Joint
Biaxial, e.g. Thumb
erector spinae group
back muscles
Isotonic contraction
decreasing muscle length
Structures composed of specialized tissues, perform specific functions.
cylinders, parallel to long axis
What is this called?
Median crest
outermost layer of the heart
Three regions of large intestine
Posterior Cavities
Cranial-formed by skull bones
Vertebral-formed by bones of teh vertebral column
thoracic cavity
also called the chest cavity
Cartilage- Elastic
Description: Similar to hyaline cartialge, but more elastic
Common extensor origin
Lateral epicondyle
Posterior forearm except for brachioradialis (which is a flexor, so no worries) and extensor carpi radialis longus
Injury = tennis elbow
Where does the spinal cord end?
CNIX- parasympathetic
Otic ganglion (to parotid gland)
DO endergonic or exergonic reactions lose the most energy in their products?
mixing, chewing, moving food around
synthesized by the urinary system, hormone derivative of vitamin D3 that stimulates calcium ion absorption in the intestine
Mucous membranes
Line cavities open to exterior
pectoralis major
flex arm
sternum and clavicle
greater tubercle of humerus
immovable articulation; a fixed or immovable joint; suture.
conus medularis
Enter your back text here.
How many layers of meninges are there?
the more movable attachment of a muscle, usually more distal
A major group of carbohydrates which contains tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis reactions.
What bone forms the posterior potion of the hard palate?
cross section (c.s x.s)
transverse section (t.s)
cut perpendicular to l.s
concerns the funcitons of body parts (what they do and how they do it)
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein
TURP diagnosis
when urination is interfered by hypertrophic prostate
fibrous joint,big sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighboring long bones
interosseous membane
muscle runs from lower jaw to neck
The adrenal cortex produces 3 major groups of steroids collectively called:
During hypoventilation...
carbonic acid is formed, decreasing blood pH = acidosis
3 functional areas in the cerebral cortex
pertaining to any of certain large veins of the neck collecting blood from the superficial parts of the head or collecting blood from within the skull
tunica media
smooth muscle tissue (changes shape- vasodilation, vasoconstriction, vasospasm), elastic fibers, collagen, external elastic lamina
atrial septum
Which of the following structures is associated with the fossa ovalis?
glial cells of the CNS that regulate the chemical environment around neurons and exchange between neurons and capillaries
A kind of steroid which is an important cell membrane component and a starting material for synthesizing other steroids.
external occipital protuberance
prominence typically located on the midline of the caudal portion of skill; triangular
Semispinalis Cervicis : Origin
Transverse process of C7-T12 (vertebrae)
In the islets of langerhans, alpha cells produce ___, beta cells produce ___ and delta cells produce ____.
- somatostatin 
What does a sturcures function depend on?
its form
The trapping of food (Amphioxus) occurs in a _ - _ direction.
ventral - dorsal
alveolar capillaries
provide a mechanism for gas exchange and are primary source of ACE, which converts circulating angiotensin I to angiotensin II
Lungs & air passageways such as, pharynx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), & bronchial tubes leading into & out of the lungs
Organ System Level
Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
Types of Bone
Membrane Bone: encased in a membrane
2.Cartilage Bone: Begins as cartilage and ossifies over time
1. Fibrous Pericardium
2. Serous Pericardium
1.)  Outer lining of the cavity of the heart (not a sereus membrane) very strong connective tissue membrane, very stiff, doesn't flex or expand (if this fills with fluid, it will put pressure and damage the heart)
2.)1. parietal- linning the inside of the cavity that the heart is in (fused together w/ the fiberous pericardium, lining the fiberous pericardium)
2. visceral- surface of the heart
closer to the axis of the bodyex elbow is proximal to the wrist
How are spinal nerves broken up?
What is how many total spinal nerves do we have vs vertebrae?
Cervical (light blue)=8
Thoracic (orange) = 12
Lumbar (green) = 5
Sacral (purple) = 5

Coccygeal (purple) = 1

31 nerves vs 33 vertebrae



Compact Bone
C- contains few spaces in the bone matrix = hard bone, forms external layer of all bones, provides protection and support, the structural unit of compact bone = osteon--> structural units:
- concentric lamellae:rings (minerals/ collagen)
-central canal: contain blood/ lymph vessels
-perforating canal: contain central canal to periostium/ endosteum via blood/ lymph vessels
-lacunae: osteocytes/ cavity b/t lamellae
-canaliculi: ECF (extracellular fluid) + cytoplasmic processes of osteocytes
Cutaneous innervation of:
lateral thigh
anterior thigh
posterior thigh
lateral leg
medial leg
posterior leg
dorsal foot
ventral foot
skin b/w great and adjacent toe on anterior aspect of foot
Lateral thigh - lateral femoral cutaneous (L2,L3 of lumbar plexus)
Anterior thigh - anterior femoral cutaneous (branch of femoral nerve)
Posterior thigh - posterior femoral cutaneous (S2,S3 of sacral plexus)
Lateral leg - common fibular nerve and lateral sural cutaneous nerve
Medial leg - saphenous nerve
Dorsal foot - superficial fibular nerve
Ventral foot - medial and lateral cutaneous plantar nerves
Anterior skin b/w great and adjacent toe - deep fibular nerve
What is the major energy fuel for the body?
P.S. transcription
genetic info contained in DNA used to specify a complimentary sequence of base on RNA mole.
Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
myelencephalon - pons
The posterior funiculus-medial lemniscal pathway
~projects through the spinal cord, brainstem and diencephalon before terminating within the cerebral cortex
~conducts sensory stimuli concerned with proprioceptive information about limb position, discriminative touch, precise pressure, and vibration
a group of cells or organ producing a secretion or selectively removing, altering or concentrating materials from blood for elimination from the body
What innervates the subboccipital muscles?
Posterior ramus of C1 (subboccipital nerve)
metabolic needs of the tissue
richness of capillary network (beds) determined by..
3 Types of Skin Cancer
Basal cell carcinoma: least malignant and most common
Squamous cell carcinoma: arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
Melanoma: cancer of the melanocytes; most dangerous
Cells from the primitive streak give rise to
intraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm
Submandibular Salivary Glands
in floor of oral cavity beneath base of tongue near angle of jaw. each secretes into \"Wharton's\" (submandibular) duct
three types of receptors based on distribution:
1.Somatic receptors
2.Visceral receptors
3.special senses
Posterior Aspect imaginary lines

1. posterior median (midvertebral) line
2. Scapuar lines
1. vertical line, use the spinous process of C7
2. through the inferior angle of the scapula 
Medial brachial and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves
From medial cord
Supply skin on medial arm and forearm
Muscle activity during gait:
gluteus maximus and hamstrings
gluteus medius
hip flexors
at the knee
ankle dorsiflexors
ankle plantarflexors
Gluteus maximus and hamstrings put the breaks on (extend the hip)
Gluteus medius contracts just before heel strinke and through most of stand to provide hip stability.
Hip flexors contract at toe off and continue into early swing phase.
At the knee, hamstrings and quadriceps co-contract from heel strike to midstance...during swing phase, no muscle activity at the knee joint.
Ankle dorsiflexors active during swing phase and when heel strikes to control descent of foot to the ground.
Ankle plantarflexors gradually increase activity from heal strike throughout stance, and burst of activity at heel off and toe off.
ulnar collateral ligament, wrist it connects the styloid process of the ulna to the pisiform and triquetrum
it reinforces the articular capsule on the medial side of the wrist
ligament of head/radiate ligament
passes from the head of the rib to intervertebral discs or vertebral bodies; reduced in last few ribs
The hard and soft palate forms what part of the mouth?
The roof of the mouth
What is lumbar lordosis?
This is the fancy pants name for the curviture of the lumbar region
Joint Articulation (define and give the 4 classes)
Where two bones meet1) Bony Joints- no movement2) Fibrous joints - little/no movement3) Cartilaginous Joints - slightly movable4) synovial joints- freely movable
Is the VENTRAL body cavity open or closed?
C L O S E D!!!

   What is a function of a synapse?
To convert an electrical signal into a chemical signal  then back into an electrical signal         
Where do you put the stethoscope to hear the tricuspid valve?
5th rib just to the left of the sternum.
a nosebleed
pore, passage
unequal, dissimilar
both sides
Plasma protein.
big toe
out, away from
polyps - r
development, formation, growth
heel of foot
to hang something.
Eye_Ciliary Muscle- Contraction
a token; indication.
Blood/body fluids—isolation that requires the use of gloves, other barriers, and proper disposal of body fluids and contaminated materials
coverings of the brain
Abbr THR
Total hip replacement
GH target cells
all cells
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Adrenal Cortex
an injury; hurt; wound.
_________________ syndrome is often referred to as a less severe type of autism.
s - to cough up
a widely distributed unicellular organism that may or may not cause disease.
this organ stores urine
urinary bladder
spinal column
AKA the vertebral column
micro vesicles containing digestive, hydrolytic enzymes, which perform cleanup and recycling functions inside or outside the cell
end of a long bone
An involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball that can be horizontal, vertical, rotatory, or mixed.
any phenomenon or circumstance accompanying something and serving as evidence of it.
insertion of the teres minor
greater tubercle
S one who studies and treats
the tissue anatomic and physiologic level involves study of...
Cell with cytoplasmic extensions. found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves. basic cell called neurons. function: sensory reception and conduction of nerve impulses.
Nervous Tissue
serous membrane (outside), smooth muscle tissue layers (under serous), epithelial tissue. -stomach
organ level
A series of connective tissue membranes
Zygomatic can describe either a process, a bone, or an
Pelvic Cavity
distal portion of large intestine,urinary bladder, various reporductive organs
Plasma minus clotting protein and cells. Clear yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot.
hereditary bleeding disorder in which a blood clotting factor is missing
external manipulation
monuver outside of the skin
junction of coronal and sagittal sutures
another term for ulnar diviation is...
pertaining to, consisting of, or resembling mucus.
T/F twisting occurs in the extremities with growth?
What are the chroionic villi called that become vascularized?
Rising blood Ca2+ levels trigger the thyroid to release _______, which stimulates calcium salt deposits in bone.
what is another name for hypothyrodism in infant of thyroid gland is
incomplete fracture or crack of bone (common in children)
ilium (upper part of the pelvic bone)
roles of CSF
mechanical and chemical protection, circulation
immune system
defends the body against harmful substances, such as pathogenic microorganisms, allergens, toxins, & malignant cells
Blood vessels transport blood that carries O2 & CO2, nutrients & wastes, and the heart pumps the blood
Cardiovascular System
drug to increase force of contractions and decrease heart rate; cardiotonic drug
thin muscle that separates the the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Mechanical energy
Energy used to physically move objects
What substance in the blood is primarily responsible for blood clotting?
specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population growth
epi found is serous membrane lining ventral body cavity and its organs
Scarpa's fascia fuses with what infterior to the inguinal ligament
fascia lata
The annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus are components of what?
Inter-vertebral disc
vital capacity is what
total exchangable air ErV+TV+IRv
(simplest) lie between epithelial cells; responsible for the sensation of itching (temperature & pain)
free nerve endings
of or pertaining to the prostate gland.
the result of lacerating; a rough, jagged tear.
the broad, upper portion of either hipbone.
the inferior pubic ramus joins the ?
ischial ramus
hypothalamus function #2
endocrine control (pituitary gland is an anterior extension of the hypothalamus); regulates growth, maturity of sexual organs, metabolic rate, and reproduction
farther from the origin of the body part
turning the thumb or big toe outwards is called
an organism that does not have an internal skeleton and specifically, a spinal column.
primary region of food and water absorption
small intestine
What does sympathetic innervation of the lungs do?
Bronchodilation, vasoconstrictor, inhibits secretions
the opening of the rectum to the exterior.
Hyoid muscles that are inferior to the hyoid bone?
holds a Doctor of Podiatry (DP) or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM) degree & specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of the foot
zone of hypertrophic cartilage
chondrocytes mature; large cells; matrix starts to calcify; these cells will die
Microscopic Anatomy
structures that cannot be seen without magnification
The two important intrinsic nerve plexuses, or networks of nerve fibers, that help regulate mobility and secretory activity of the GI tract.
submucosal and myenteric
osteo genic sarcoma
malignmant turmor orignating in bone producing cells
3 layers meninges
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
XII. Hypoglossal, M
on medulla, med. to CNX; instrinsic/extrinsic tongue musc., salivary glands
Swelling or edema of the optic disc, usually as a result of intracranial pressure, malignant hypertension, or thrombosis of a retinal vein.
quadratus plantae: action
assists flexor digitorum longus in flexing lateral 4 digits
the process of sorting victims, as of a battle or disaster, to determine medical priority in order to increase the number of survivors.
a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident.
(in ancient Greece) a group of heavily armed infantry formed in ranks and files close and deep, with shields joined and long spears overlapping.
what ligament of the pubic symphysis provides stability at the inferior end of the joint, blends with the interpubic disc inferiorly and runs from inferior pubic ramus to inferior pubic ramus?
arcuate pubic ligament
A malignant neoplasm of bone marrow is called _______________________.
multiple myeloma
olfaction function (r. system)
smell occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into the nasal cavity and sensed by specialized epithelial cells there
Q The iliocostalis mm. are most bulky in the sacral region. Where are the Longissimus mm. most bulky?
A Thoracic.
projection tract
ties cortex with the rest of nervous system
5 P's of compartment syndrome
Pain, Pallor, Paresthesia, Paralysis, and Pulselessness
Which opening connects the orbit with intracranial fossa?
superior orbital fissure
The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the PECTORAL and PELVIC and the __________ and ________ ________
hinge joint
type of synovial joint like the knee or elbow.
desmosomes/macula adherens
proteins bw 2 cells that ANCHOR cells to basement membrane or reinforce stress points (button or snap, each cell contributes half)
A grid used in testing the visual field.
Amsler grid
A winged scapula involves damage to what aspect of the brachial plexus?
long thoracic nerve
an act or fact of infecting; state of being infected.
From which embryonic tissues are skeletal tissues derived?
paraxial mesoderm: sclerotome cells form the vertebrae
lateral mesoderm: appendicular skeleton
neural crest ectoderm: neurocranium
The skeleton of the foot includes the _______, _______, and _______.
tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges
what does skin do
wards off entrance of # of pathogens
Tetosterone secreted from where and by what cell?
Gonads by interstitial cells
Categories of monoseccharides
Triose =3 carbon sugar, pentose = 5 carbon sugar, hexose = 6 carbon sugar
lip - lip(fat)
lipoma(fat tumor)
What is life span of a sickle cell anemia cell
10-20 days
What is the mechanism of action behind the snowboarders talus
dorsiflexion and inversion
what is the angle formed by the long axis of the head and neck with the long axis of the shaft of the femur called?
angle of inclination
how does parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium
bone breakdown which releases calcium & phosphate into blood from bone, acclerating calcium absorption from kidneys tubules
passes thru the body of an organ at an angle
oblique plane
What are changes in blood volume?
mechanisms that change total blood volume most quickly are those that cause water to quickly move into or out of the plasma
L4, L5 and S1 ventral rami form what nerve that is superior to piriformis
superior gluteal n.
What is trigger finger?
A snapping condition of any of the digits of the hand when opened or closed
when does the secondary ossification center of the greater trochanter appear?
appears between the 4th and 5th years
Q What structure does the axillary n. pass through on it's way to innervate the teres minor and deltoid mm.? ***
A The Quadrangular space ***
Dorsal cavity can be divided into what 2 cavity's?
Cranial cavity and vertebral canal
what does the soft palate separate
it separates the mouth from the nasopharynx
which pericardial layer is also the epicardium of the heart wall
visceral layer of the serous pericardium
Describe the path of the Inferior Vena Cava?
usually travels superiorly at the right of the abdominal aorta and the spinal column
Q Just before entering the alveolar foramen with the inf alveolar a., what n. branches off, and what does it innervate?
A The mylohyoid n., which innervates the mylohyoid, and the ant. belly ofthe digastric m. [G885]
the bladder lies b/n what two structures in the male and female
rectum and pubis (male), uterus and pubic (female)
Where is the anterior tibial lymph node located?
lie near the proximal end of the anterior tibial artery near the interosseous membrane, deep to the muscles here. 
What seems to be the cause of juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)?
immune cells attack the pancreas that can then no longer produce insulin
The anterior compartment of the forearm is involved in what motions?
first of all, it is referred to as anteromedial and contains the flexor and pronator muscles
Q What is unique about the suture that form the pterion?
A the bones overlap instead of interlocking
Q Where do the phrenic nn. pass in relation to the subclavian a./v.?
A ant to a. and pos to v.
Urban Rebellions
Suburbanization (or suburbanisation) is a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities
Joseph McCarthy
"Second Red Scare/"McCarthyism"; claims to have large list of communists in US; loses pop. in Army hearing(accues American Hero's of being communist)
Society of Friends;pacificts; believed salvation was available to all people
bull run
a.Commandersi.Union - Irwin McDowellii.Confederate – P.G.T. Beauregard and Joseph E. Johnston
mainly white upper class; Woodstock Music Festival= highlight of hippie era
Albany Movement
The Albany Movement mobilized thousands of citizens and attracted nationwide attention but failed to accomplish its goals because of a determined opposition. However, it was credited as a key lesson in strategy and tactics for the national civil rights movement
Joseph McCarthy:
Senator from Wisconsin, gained notoriety for leading repressive activities that targeted “communists”
When:all throughout US and always existed
What: Northerners focused on fast-paced business and industry, spending their days manufacturing, shipping, and trading goods. the Southern economy relied on slow and steady agricultural growth. Planting and picking crops was the work of slaves who supported plantation owners' with their labor.
Significance: caused division between S AND N, North's economy didnt need slavery 
International Monetary Fund
The international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked.
William Penn
formed a colony for Quakers
found mountain that was essentially pure silver, stamped into coins and sent a massive amount to Spain, inflation occurs
Andrew Johnson
president after Lincoln, from tenn, loyal to Union, grew up poor & laughed at by slave owners, very racist, wanted to make south life HELL.
24th amendment
prevents states from issuing poll taxes on fed. elections
Watergate hotel
5 men from CRP(Nixon's election commitee); place wire taps on democrats phones; Nixon particapted in cover-up
Nixon Doctrine
U.S. would continue to provide military aid and supplies, but that it expected its allies to assume responsibility for providing the manpower for their own defense.
Executive Order 11246:
Banning discrimination in housing and jury selection and authorized federal intervention when states failed to protect civil rights workers from violence
Negro Defense Committee:
Coordinates black communities of home front security, ran by John Robert Edward Lee
Martin Luther
German priest who believed the Catholic church was corrupt with its sale of indulgences and the power of the pope. He posts his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg church in Germany. He is excommunicated but gains a huge following in Germany that spreads through Europe. He taught that God's love extended to all men.
organization set up to help farmers. puts out newsletters; equipment sales; social gathering; eventually becomes political organization
America First Committee
Foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War, and was established 4 September 1940
Triangular Trade
trading network of North America, Europe, and Africa
Francisco Pizarro
Invades Incan Empire, takes Incan emperor hostage, Incans pay ransom worth 50 years of gold production in Europe, takes money and kills emperor and much of court, empire collapses
born in New Spain to Spanish parents
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson was primary writer, others helped, signal to Europeans, Americans mean business, adopted by Congress July 4, 1776, signed August 2nd.
Narciso Lopez
cuban exile, wanted to establish an independent government in cuba, asked southerners to help and hed give them slavery. 1. almost to cuba & british chased him back to the keys. 2. land in cuba, burn some towns. wanted LEE to lead and he said no, had senator's sons crittenton, with him & 1 of every 10 were beheaded then he was strangeled in havana.
Stephan Douglas
Broke apart clay compromise to get consensus on each part and seperate bills
Spanish texas was a buffer colony to protect mexico from french invasion. American _________ or land pirates used force to try and seize mexico
Title IX
part of General Election Act; Univ. must accept/intergrate women; equal # of male/female sports
1945 Pan-African
The Pan-African Congress was a series of five meetings in 1919, 1921, 1923, 1927, and 1945 that were intended to address the issues facing Africa due to European colonization of much of the continent.
Carter Doctrine
policy proclaimed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on January 23, 1980, which stated that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf region.
Women’s Political Council (WPC):
Composed of black professional women; led by Jo Ann Robinson. Such types of organizations laid critical foundations for the black freedom struggle throughout the South
Bobby Seale:
Started the Black Panther Party with Huey Newton.
Virgil Hawkins:
A famous desegregation case; he had tried to get into UF’s Law School, was rejected. Was told it would cause “grave problems with his presence”
Abdul Nasser:
Egypt’s leader, sought arms from a communist country, formed military alliance with other Arab nations, and recognized the Peoples Republic of China
Ming China
A powerful dynasty that ruled China from the mid 1300s to the mid 1600s that supplied many of the spices desired in Europe. The trade routes were profitable for both continents, and when the Ottomans blocked off the passage, navigators tried to find ways around the world by taking a route across the Atlantic Ocean.
freedman's bureau
set up to help newly freed slaves
Atlantic Charter
Established a vision for a post-World War II world, despite the fact the United States had yet to enter the War. The participants hoped in vain that the Soviet Union, since June invaded by her previous ally Nazi Germany, would adhere as well.
Viet Cong
The general name used by South Vietnamese and allied soldiers in Vietnam, as well as by much of the English language media to refer to the armed insurgents fighting against the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Ann Hutchinson
claimed people could talk directly to God without ministers;challenged Puritan leaders; banished
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630, seeking religious freedom, made up of Puritans, believed church of England was corrupt  
Time when inventions came out to help with farming, etc., Important invention in 1455 was the printing press, which led to the mass production of books. Much of Europe was illiterate.
Saratoga Sept-Oct 1777
Turning point of the war (American Revolution)
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln was sick of slaves helping the south, he was getting desperate of losing, uses a battle to announce this. He said if the south lost, they lose their slaves & the north UNION only took it not border so lincoln didnt upset them.
franklin pearce
called the free gov of kansas rebels and agreed with the pro-slavery in kansas
Little Rock
The Little Rock 9; gov. calls national guard to stop intergration of school; Forces Eisenhower to send 101 airborne to segregrate school; public schools close and begins large creation of private school
Arsenal of Democracy
President FDR promised to help British and Russians fight Germans bu giving them military supplies while staying out of the actual fight.
John Robert Edward Lee:
Leader of the Negro Defense Committee
Rosie the Riveter
This icon which symbolized the women who worked on the Homefront in WWII
Smith Act:
Made it an offense for anyone to knowingly or willfully advocate, advise, or teach the duty/desire of overthrowing the Government of the US by force/violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises, or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association.
Triangular Trade Route
A complex trade system between Europe, Africa, and America that can be simplified as textiles and guns sent to Africa from New England or Europe that were used to buy slaves who were sent to the Caribbean or southern plantations where sugar was exported to New England or Europe where the process was repeated.
homestead act
opens up the west, promising 160 acres of land to move west
Nikita Khrushchev
the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. He was First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964 and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964.
John Cabot
Made voyage to New World in 1497, discovered Eastern Canada and Mass. area
Agriculture Revolution
1500 BC, beginning to plant food --> villages and small towns start to develop
John Rolfe
As he was hooking up with Pocahantes, he notices the Indians smoking tobacco, becomes a major cash crop of Virginia
Problems with the Articles
Under the Articles, nothing can be ratified unless every state agrees, Maryland screws that one up; Articles don't have the power to tax and so they can't pay off the national debt; cut out off trade with West Indies
Florida under British
state divided in 2 colonies, east & west, Eastern were superior. West side became involved in fur trade. East more agricultural.
leader of SLCL; able to work w/ whites unlike Malcolm X; killed by James Earl Ray; death= end of civil rights era
3-Mile Island
was a partial core meltdown in Unit 2 (a pressurized water reactor manufactured by Babcock & Wilcox) of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania near Harrisburg.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution:
Johnson ordered air strikes on North Vietnamese torpedo bases and oil storage facilities, and wanted Congress to take all necessary measures
Great Fire of London
After an already devastating plague in London, in 1666 a fire breaks out and destroys 13,000 homes. Jobs open up in England that were unavailable before the reduction of the population so there is less of a hurry to go to America. Since no indentured servants are arriving, the planters turn to the African slave trade.
Operation Overlordaka Battle of Normandy
Remains the largest seaborne invasion in history, involving almost three million troops crossing the English Channel from England to Normandy in occupied France.
slavery protected in any territories south of 36/30 in future... B
The U.S. Senate’s plan of compromise in 1861 included all of the following except:
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC):
The main objective of the HUAC was the investigation of un-American and subversive activities.
What were Reagan's foreign & domestic policies? Where did he cut spedning?
Cut spending: social security, unemployment compensation, medicare, welfare, & food stams. Increased spending: defense. Boost Production (Supply-Side) & Recovery Tax Act (reduced income taxes)
Cash and Carry
Form of trade in which goods are sold from a wholesale warehouse operated either on a self-service basis, or on the basis of samples.
•Compromise Passed , Summer 1850
made by Henry Clay, helped by stephen douglaso California admittedo Texas gives up western boundaryo New Mexico and Utah organized into territories but slavery question not answeredo Fugitive Slave Law strengthened
What did the term "Silent Majority" mean?
these people weren't protesting or doing violent acts, they were the key to electing Nixon as president.
Battle of Antietam - sept 1862
McClellan caught Lee on the banks of the river, waited too long and Lee backed his troops up. Creek ran through Fed lines. 1. northern side of battlefield around small church. 12oclock noone could win. 12000 dead2. Lees troops were in sunken road & Union shot down at them, feds stacked 2/3 bodies dead. 3. McClellen didnt send all troops at once, Lee held him off & beat him. Lee did not get anything though.
What caused the Persian Gulf War during the Bush Administration? What did the UN Security Council vote to authorize?
US gave Hussein money/weapons which he used on his people & the US. He invaded Kuwait which led to Persian Gulf War. US decided to use force if he didn't withdraw from Kuwait. UN wanted to remove Hussein from Kuwait. Resolution 687-imposed economic sanctions on Iraq & told them they had to do weapon inspections, destroy weapons, & agree to no develop nuclear capabilities.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, 1954:
-1st major challenge to Jim Crow -Proved that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal
Border states, didnt want to fight fellow south
VA, NC, ARK, TENN. did not join when lincoln asked for 75,000 volunteers.
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States:
Part of opposition to The New Deal;  -Ended NIRA because of fair competition act since the Federal Government had no jurisdiction on intrastate affairs...("states' rights")
special revelation
huston smith:3 perspectives
knowledge from God
Section 75
Duties of Missionaries
writings of Hindu sages
container of blessed sacrament
What is anatta?
no self
Key PeopleMelchizedek
priest, king of Salem
signifying absolute reson or mind
mystics in 18th cent Europe
everything in the collective unconscious. myths, symbols, stories. also god, religion. common ideas.
holy thursday
thursday before easter church celebrates the institution of the eacharist at the last supper of jesus
Sacred Scripture/Bible
The written word of God.
Key PassageGenesis 1:24-27
6th day of creation
When god took human flesh(Jesus christ)
deutreopauline letter
letters paul did not write
a 'superior' man, motivated by ren
navigates between ID and superego. trying to find a way to work out negotiation.
world, suggests an environment of order (opposite = chaos, disorder)
structuralist theory
myths are cognitive structures by which people think (allow people to organize their experiences and their world into a meaningful whole
a marriage that has been declared invalid
Key PeopleRachel
Jacob's beloved wife, mother of Joseph
the catclysmic end of the present world in judaism
reflections on the meaning and value of human life
period of preparation that could take three years
Inner Alchemy
In Religious Taoism, prayers, moral conduct, and observances of commandment
a way of describing god without reference to humans
Synoptic Gospels:
Synoptic Gospels: The first three Gospels, so named caused they share a large quantity of materiel in common allowing their texts to be viewed together “with one eye”
religious scholar that found the core of religion to be feelings of amazement and awe
ange who told mary she was carrying gods child
deny that humans have thew power to choose
"true word" or "word of truth" title refers to use of sacred chants "mantras". behind shingon ritual is a focus on experiencing union with cosmic buddha nature
12) One of the most famous early martyrs _____ __________ was a member of a very important Roman family who survived an attempt by a Roman soldier to behead her. (51)
a. Saint Cecila
Civil Laws
The laws that govern society. Civil laws should reflect the natural law that God has placed in every human heart.
The Four Commentaries
In Hinduism, four commentaries written for the four Vedas of the Shruti, 1. Samhita, 2. Brahmana, 3. Aranyuaka, 4. Upanishad
body christ
which image of the church emphasizes that it is a mystical comminion with christ as its head and we as its members?
genetic fallacy
-logical error of judging the nature, value, or truth of a religion based on a description or analysis of its origin or earliest expression
What is Digambara?
sect of jainists. must renounce everything, including clothes. no women.
Campbell/Heros Journey
Sacred myths of a group serve basic social purposes- Hero’s journey are stories of separation initiation and return bearing truth to the people- is a form of psychological instruction for individuals
"hinduism" problems with terminology
labels can have negative connotations that obstruct our understanding. no better term has gained wide acceptance. outsiders term, gained currency under British rule. catch-all term for census taking for those religions not christian, muslim, buddhist. wrongly implies unity where there is none, no one identifiable founder, no strong organizational structure, no creed
The Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
greatest Christian missionaries of all time; group intended to be loyal to Rome, celebate monks, missionary zeal, emphasis on renewal and the counter Reformation (tried to keep people away from Protestant movement)
Movement of center of Christianity
capital was moved to Jerusalem
big bang
theory of creation - that the universe was caused by a random "event"
The culture of the Israelites:
raised domesticated animals, raised crops, gradually deforested the area, farmed terraces below hilltop villages that were small and based on extended family relations; based on nonstate or prestate chieftain who kept power by the sword and brute force of manpower
Who was the hero in the story of the fall of Jericho?
1) _________ alone is the head of the body of the church; the ________is the chief is his chief representative on earth. Amongst those in leadership roles include: _______________, ______________ and ___________.
a. Christb. Popec. Bishops, priests, deacons
Totems in Animism
In Animism, things you have to gain access to special power or knowledge. Fetish related
Christian attitudes to enviroment
Earth belongs to god
made by god needs to be respected
Gift from god-needs appreciating
Christians have a duty to care for that enviroment-judged
Southern Europe remained .... and Northern Europe remained ... what did this cause?
South: Catholic (South France, Italy, South Germany) North: turned protestant
*this lead to horrific wars  and then sewed the seeds of secularization.
What is the Bhagavad Gita?
"The Song of the Lord." one of the most sacred texts. dialouge between krishna and arjuna. part of the mahabharata.
first three comandments
1. i the lord and your god you shall not have strange gods before me2. you shall not take the name of the your god in bain3. remeber to keep holy the lords day
6 main events associated with the revelation of gods loving plan to humans
god created everything in the world, and everything that he creates is good, covenent of love with humans even though they were not always faithful to himgod chose abram to explain his covenant fully,god entered into a covenant with moses and the israelites at mount sinaithe prophets continually reminded the people to be faithul to their covenant with godduring jesus' lifetime he chose 12 apostles and entrusted them with continuing his teaching with the help of the holy spirit the were to form his church
Wht dies the gospel of matthew contains
More of Jesus'S sayings than the other gospels, that is why sone people have compared it a type of cateism Useful for teaching, for this reason this gospel has called the churchs gospel
What were the 3 steps in Sir James Frazer's theory of religion?
1) Magic: trying to control nature
2) Religion: pleading with nature
3) Science: actually controlling nature
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