Chem Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions

ClO (-)
dihydrogen phosphate
nonsuperimposable mirror-image stereoisomers

+1 AND +3
Any group 1 element
containing negative electricity; tending to migrate to the positive pole in electrolysis.
compound whose crystals contain discrete water molecules (water of hydration)
a highly concentrated, aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide, or any solution resulting from leaching or percolation
l =
angular momentum quantum number, determines orbital shape, range 0 to n-1
monatonic cations:
Cupric ion; copper (II) ion
consist of only carbon and hydrogen
any of the electronegative elements, fluorine, chlorine, iodine, bromine, and astatine, that form binary salts by direct union with metals.
Monatomic Ion
ion formed from only one atom
Substance that can be separated into simpler substances only by chemical reactions
carbon dioxide & acetylene
linear and 180 degrees
For many yrs alcoholism and drug addiction were usually treated _________.
of, pertaining to, or tending to develop into icelike crystals: glacial phosphoric acid
the active site of an enzyme
catalyzes the reaction
Free energy
a thermodynamic function equal to the enthalpy (H) minus the product of the entropy (S) and the Kelvin temperature (T); G = H - TS. Under certain conditions the change in free energy for a process is equal to the maximum useful work
Volatile Substance
is a substance that readily evaporates at room temperature because of a high vapor pressure.
Describe the nuclear envelope
1) double-membrane, outer layer contiguous w/ ER 2) Nuclear pore = massive pore complex through which materials travel
the time required for one half the atoms of a given amount of a radioactive substance to disintegrate.
Flagpole Positions
At tips of boat pointing inward; too much overlap, causing steric strain (to close).
equatorial bond
a bond that is on the x axis
Are simple sugars with 3 to 7 carbon atoms.
Who founded the first child guidance clinics (and when)and believed the best way to treat mental illness was to treat the problems of children:
Alfred Adler

Asymmetric center (stereogenic center)
A tetrahedral atom bonded to four different groups.
They are the cause of chirality in molecules.
What does polarizability mean?
The ease with which the electron distribution in the species can be distorted. Generaly increases with # of electrons
Describe mitochondrial division
Divides at least once per cell cyle [but not synthronized to eucharyotic S-phase]
what is the equation for charles's law?
V1/t1 = v2/t2 OR V1T2=V2T1
How are proteins targeted to bind lipids?
Via lipid-binding motifs (e.g. Pleckstrin homology, C2 domain [kinases],
in extreme cases , asa can cause diseases or even death depending on how many pills you take. Parcelcsus- the dose makes the poison
salicuylism- 12-25 tablets per daytinnitus- this dieases is the ringing of the years and can drive people crazydeath is close to 20-30 tabets per day.
Horne and Ohlsen: types of social changes(4):
women working outside of home
esc. cost of living
sexual freedom
increase of single-parent, step-parent, and interacial families
Where do electrons come from in the electron transport chain? Where do they go?
They come from NADH/FADH2 (each delivers 2), and go to oxygen (w/ 2 hydrogens = H2O)
How are the positive/negative sides of a polar covalent bond indicated?
Greek letter delta with - and + sign (δ+ or δ-) on appropriate sides, OR +----> sign pointing to the side with the negative charge
CrO4 -2
positively charged
Potential Energy
Stored Energy
Weak Acids
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
a proton donor
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Quality Assurance
Distance between crests.
Length units (m, cm, nm).
This is known as...
spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation
Nonpolar Covalent
difference in electronegativity = 0
ionic solid seperating into seperate ions ( dissociating)
Strong or weak? Hydrofluric acid HF
describes any molecule that can gain or lose an electron
double bonded oxygon off a middle carbon (-one)
molecular level
intermolecular forces b/w solvent and solute must be great enough to compete w/ intermolecular forces w/i solute and solvent independently
covalent bond
results from attraction between 2 atoms that share on or more pairs of electrons
mole ratio
conversion factor derived from the coefficeients of a balanced equation in terms of moles
Symbol: Np; atomic weight: 237; atomic number: 93
conformational analysis
analysis of the energies of the various conformations of a compound.
(def)show only the species that actually participate in the reaction
net ionic equations
Limiting Reactant
The reactant of an equation that determined the amount of product that can be formed
what is decomposition
process by which substances seperated from mixtures can be converted to 2 or more simpler substances by chem. reactions
reactant favored reaction
A system in which reactants predominate over products
Alkyl Substituents
Alkanes - 1H = Alkyl
R = Alkyl Substituent
Define Mole Fraction
Moles of one component per total moles present.
describe dehydration synthesis
Two monomers are converted into a dimer and one water molecule. Eventually this forms long polymers
same # of protons but different # of neutrons
Rate-Determining Step
The step in a reaction that has the transition state with the highest energy
Aufbau Principle
for an atom in its ground state (the lowest energy configuration) you fill the lowest energy orbital first and then go up in energy until all of the electrons are used
what is dimensional analysis
method of using units in calculations to check for correctness
Define triple point:
All 3 states of matter can exist at the same time in equilibrium.
Describe the sugar backbones of DNA/RNA
1) D-Pentoses 2) Ribose, and 2-Deoxyribose [deoxy=no -OH on C2]
V.S.E.P.R. stands for what and what does it mean?
valence shell electron pair repulsion. a theory of chemical bonding useful in determining the shapes of molecules. basically two pair equals linear, three pair equals triangular, four pair equals tetrahedral
what is a complete ionic equation?
it lists individually all of the ions present as either reactants or products
what is the total number of MOs formed?
the number of AOs in the set
Atomic fission is the process of splitting an atomic nucleus. This results in the release of large amounts of energy as well.
Carbon has an atomic weight of 12 and 6 protons. How many neutrons and electrons does it have?
Br -1
Quantum numbers
nonsoluble product
Ideal Gas Law
1 kilojowle =
1000 jowles
lowest MP and BP.
NH3 + base
nitrides + water
Recovery involves a ___________ adaptation of lives to wellness,
stimulated by glucagon; breakdown of glycogen to free glucose
When silver crystallizes, it forms face centered cubic cells. The unit cell edge length is 409pm. Calculate the density of silver.
The Adler model considered the ________ to be an extension of the _________, rather than the other way around.

Symbol: Dy; atomic weight: 162.50; atomic number: 66
electron groups=5 lone pairs=2
electron geometry=trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry=T-shaped
Describe lysosomes
1) intracellular digestion 2) contain many hydrolases 3) Lumen has acidic pH 4) Fuses w/ phagosome to form phagolysosome
Internal Energy
Sum of potential and kinetic energy
the donation of a proton from one water molecule to another
hydrophilic molecule
"water loving" molecule, polar, and is favorable in water
If a system is endothermic, will the total heat change be positive or negative?
What does amphipathic mean?
both hydrophillic and hydrophobic (usually molecules that contain both types of moities)
election (1/2000 the mass of a proton) located outside the nucleus. negative charge
at constant T and P, if the reaction is at equilibrium, delta G is equal to this
when atoms are optimally separated
energy is at a minimum
activation energy
the amount of energy needed to break the bonds of reactants
Describe mitochondrial membranes
1) outer membrane has pore proteins, porins. 2) Inner layer folded into cristae, increases surface area [lined w/ ATP producing protein]
the substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
reason why chalk does not dissolve in water
stalagmites, stalactites, stones
What do chaperones do?
They increase the efficiency of proper protein folding. Found in all organisms. Molecular chaperones bind to proteins as they are synthesized in the ribosomes and prevent aggregation and degradation.
line spectrum comes in the response
Emission spectrocity creates what kind of spectrum?
4; 2 alpha
has no e-; just protons and neutrons ; i.e. He
Why do atoms bond together?
resulting cmpd is lower in energy and more stable
What is inhibition by enzyme multiplicity?
Multiple forms of the enzyme exists all having the same catalytic function, but different regulatory characteristics; each is inhibited by a different end-product.
Carboxyl group pKa of Tyrosine
Carboxyl group pKa of Tyrosine
Carboxylic acid group pKa = ~ 2.2 +/- 0.2
Are fatty acids soluble in water?
If they are > 10 carbon atoms long, they are nearly insoluble in water. Because of their lower density, they float.
we now know that as little as little as ? milagrams is suffieienct for providing us with necessary relief
30 mg or 1/10 of the normal 325 mg pill
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