First Half of Anthropology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Communitas:
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1. Prosimii
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Oligocene
Anthropoid Radiation
Neanderthal
short, thick bones
animatism
many impersonal spirits
Spirit
1 Corinthians 2:11
Post-cranially like other Australopithecines: bipedal
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Seer
Knows will of supernatural
Anthropology
study of human kind
Phoneme
Smallest unit of sound
Ardipithecus kadabba
early preaustralopithecine species from the late Miocene to early Pliocene; shows evidence of perihoning complex, primitive trait intermediate between apes and modern humans
Arboreal
Adapted to living in trees.
International Migration
Movement across country boundaries.
types of linguistics
historical, descriptive, ethnolinguistics, social
Anthropometry
Measurement of human body parts
Bipedalism
challenges: blanace, support internal organs
yes
King as god? - Khmer
Kebaran
Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers of the eastern Mediterranean region and Levant.
national character
Benedict-gathered information from anything she could get ahold of-gather as many different materials as she could-compile and pull together to arrive at modal personality approach as 'national character' studies
Scientifically testable ideas that are taken on faith, even if tested and shown to be false
Pseudoscience
modernity
in case of McDonald's effeciency, hygiene, cleanliness exemplify modernity
Language
Primary means of human communication, spoken and written
Mar
term for close, personal kinship relationships b/w ppl (family)
Genetic studies lately are really supporting some ideas of hominid evolution and challenging others.
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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
language determines thought, Different languages produce different ways of thinking which then has an effect on culture
Irish American Population descendants
40 million today
Dowry
wife's kin group provides substantial wealth to the husband's family
culture
"that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and every other capabilities and habits acquired by man [sic] as a member of society."
-Edward Tylor 1871
association
an observed relationship between two or more variables
rituals
behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
Sorting Board
Mini reproduction of the site
Core values
Key, basic, or central values
acculturation
An exchange of cultural features between groups in firsthand contact; mechanism of cultural change
norm
an ideal cultural pattern that influences behaviors in society
Moral Dilemma
Anthropological researches must do everything in their power to ensure that their research does not harm the safety, dignity, or privacy of the people whom they work
California:1849
Gold rush causes 13,000 Mexicans outnumbered by 100,000 whites
Band
basic unit of social organization among foragers that includes fewer than one hundred people
What is an examples of Repression?
Taliban
etic perspective
objective conditions that frame religion (how beliefs and practices relate to other aspects of society) ex. egaltarian, hierarchial , central power(king).
The chief components of proteins
Amino acids
Please think about how monuments change how you view the landscape you live in and how you think about the past.
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Glottochronology
the determination of how long ago different languages evolved from a common source language
cultivation continuum
continuum of land and labor use
archaeological evidence
Olduwan tools (cores, scrapers and flakes), animal remains, site DK1 (may have been a wind shelter), Site FLK1 (worked bones indicate they are using animals for more than just food
**major components of an ethnography
-research questions
-sampling
-daily life
-rituals
-at least 6 months
-participant observation
-informant
-interpretation
Transnationalism
A pattern of immigration in which immigrants maintain close social and economic ties with their families and cultures in their home communities
evolution
adapting and changing over time both culturally and biologically
Ocher
earth product used as paper; colors range from pale yellow to red; used as pigments and paintings
Domestication
Modification or adaption of plants and animals for use by humans. When people plant crops, we refer to the process as cultivation. It is only when the crops cultivated and the animals raised have been modified- are different from wild varieties- that we speak of plant and animal domestication.
Hadith
(Islam) a tradition based on reports of the sayings and activities of Muhammad and his companions
Paleo-Indians
the ancient peoples of the Americas who were present at the end of the last Ice Age.
Law
A kind of social control characterized by authority, intention of universal application, obligation, and sanction
effigy mounds
burial mounds shaped like animals, found in late woodland era, made to look like they were in movement, ceremonial centers
life history
the ethnographic method of gahtering data based on extensive interviews with individuals about their culture from childhood through adulthood
Functions of kin groups Non-industrial
-Food production
-Political representation
-Religious worship
-Education of children
diffusion
borrowing by one society of cultural trait
Patrilineal descent
descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership.
integration
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
While studying human variation it is important to remember that much of the variation we see it
Polygenic
Sturgeon
A large primitive fish with body plates on the body
Pastoralists
make a living by herding domesticated animals and either trading for or doing limited gardening of plant food
Redistribution
Major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies
notochord
rod like structure of cartilage that, in vertebrates, is replaced by the vertebral column
meiosis
a process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half. results in what? g___
Transhumance
Seasonal movement up- and down- slope according to the productivity of pasturelands.
Francois Boule
described one neanderthals giving a poor bias b/c the specimen was old man with arthritis 
Carol Stack
 
•She suggests that poor people coped by fostering kinship ties and fictive kinship links to form close, cooperative groups that ensure economic and social support in times of need.

-1960s study on poor midwestern black community called “The Flats”
-She suggests that poor people coped by fostering kinship ties and fictive kinship links to form close, cooperative groups that ensure economic and social support in times of need.
-“Swapping”: food, shelter, child care, personal possessions: generalized reciprocity
   -Disincentives to marry: welfare, sharing

 
biological anthropology
the specialty of anthropology that looks at human beings as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics make them different from other organisms and what characteristics they share---paleoanthropology, human biology and variation, primatology
petty
of little or no importance or consequence:
middle paleolithic
middle part of old stone age, associated with mousterian tools, neandertals produced using levallois technique
archaeology
remains from the past in order to describe human behavior
generalized reciprocity
Informal gift giving for which no accounts are kept and no immediate or specific return is expected.
agency
the ability for humans to make choices or exerice free will even with dominating strucuture
Kinship system
The totality of kin relations, kin groups, and terms for classifying kin in a society
What is language?
A system of SYMBOLIC communication using sounds &/or gestures that are put together according to rules resulting in meanings that are based on agreement by a society and intelligible to all who share that language.
Electron Spin Resonance
a technique for studying chemical species that have one or more unpaired electrons, such as organic and inorganic free radicals or inorganic complexes possessing a transition metal ion. The basic physical concepts of EPR are analogous to those of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but it is electron spins that are excited instead of spins of atomic nuclei.
historical linguistics
deals with long term change in language
Wealth
(1) Ownership of or access to valued material goods and to the natural and human resources needed to produce those goods (2) The total value of all property owned less the amount of debt owned
polygamy
marriage of one person to more than one spouse
foraging economies
relying upon gathering wild plants and hunting wild animals
4 religious types by Anthony Wallace
shamanic, communal, Olympian/polytheistic, monotheistic
The Paleo-Indian: Folsom
11,000 - 10,000 BP, Smaller point
Ruth Benedict
Wrote patterns of culture . Compare and contrasted different groups in terms of what she called "Modal Personality"
Pueblo Indiano : Appollonian - Reserved, quiet, they were shy and very polite. Personal restrain expression of love and anger.
NW Coast ( Kwakiutt) : Dyonysiom - very expressive, they let it all hang out. They are noted to be very out there. Pot latch big ceremonies.There in your face
camelid
undulates like the llama and al paca used as beasts of burden in South America.
yap stone
large stone wheels on pacific islands of yap that are symbols of great wealth because they are carried there from far away
Internal Migration
Movement within the boundaries of a country
Paternity
Father must pay cattle, courts make it easier for biological father
selective perception
the phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions
surveys
gather specific info from a lot of individuals quickly
multiculturalism
the view that cultural diversity is a positive value and makes an important contribution to contemporary societies
Meech Lake Accord
a package of constitutional amendments that would define Québec as a distinct society within Canada
Wild vs Domesticated
-larger animals became smaller making them easier to control-plants became bigger for more production-plants had to rely on humans for reproduction
Culture shock
state of anxiety , a state of shock
Material Culture
The tools people make and use, the clothing and ornaments they wear, the buildings they live in, and the household utensils they use.
A. afarensis; LUCY
Most complete skeleton: 40%, female, 4 ft tall and 20 years old discovered by Donald Johanson
Sahelanthropus tchadensis:
-Common name: Toumai 7-6 mya *IS A BIPED -The FIRST human ancestor
perils of bipedalism
hip strain, varicose veins, we aren't faster or more efficient, childbirth is more difficult
Nuclear family
A group consisting of one or two parents and dependent offspring, which may include a stepparent, step children and adopted children
biological (physical) anthropology
the study of the evolution, variation, and adaptation of humans and their past and present relatives
Bergman's rule
- increased SA relative to mass, the faster hear dissipates
Rober L. Carneiro
Changes in food intake changed the ways people made food-people had to specialize
The relationship between taxes and inequality
Tax distribution between classes
authority
the ability to take action based on a persons achieved or ascribed status, or moral reputation
cognitive map
the coding you learn early in life that permits you to interpret the world around you according to your own cultures perspective
Life span
the amount of time in years that a person lives.
large and complex brains
#10 less instinct, more learned. large relative to size
Semantic Domain
a set of words that belongs to an inclusive class. (chair, table, china cabinet all belong to furniture)
Homo sapien neanderthalensis
Which of the following members of the genus Homo has the largest average cranial capacity:
Limitations of Functionalism
Offers a synchronic or snap shot view of culture as frozen in time
Ahistorical, static
Cannot account for change
Reductionist
critiques of NAGPRA returning bones
repatriated remains can't be studied,, biological studies of skeletons could be beneficial to living NAs, as new techniques emerge, scientists lose valuable info
moiety
one of two units into which a tribe or community is divided on the basis of unilineal descent
How do the Romans portray condemnation being the result of rejecting God?
Creation, Conscience, and Scripture (Romans 1:20-21)
what is the different between lamarks hypothesis and darwin's natural selection?
lamark's theory involved the adaptation through reproduction and Darwin's natural selection was due to the environment change
Principles of Exchange: Reciprocity
The exchange of goods and services of equal value
3 forms of exchange
Generalized- time/value not specified
Balanced- time limit
Negative- hope to get something for nothing
charreada as ethnic rite of intensification
Displays a romanticized view of the original Mexican Cowboy lifestyle; focuses on elegance of ranching and the skills gained from it; rodeo was created from this
Margaret Mead/Coming of Age in Samoa (1928)-
Found out differences in behaviors of girls, had to do with culture.
Detailed census records made in Roman Egypt show that brother-sister marriages among members of the non-royal farming class were common. What light does this shed on the incest taboo?
It demonstrates that despite the human tendency to avoid inbreeding, it occasionally occurs and may even be preferred.
When is an individual considered an adult in our society? in others? why is this?
When one is a full participant in both the responsibilities and large priveleges.
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