Chemistry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
s
sulfur
Rb
rubidium
Be
berryllium
22
Ti
6
C
cation
positively charged atom
ground state
lowest energy state
Atomic Number
number of protons
Rutherford
-discovered nucleus and protons
-gold foil experiment
-nuclear model
c =
3 x 10^8 minutes/sec.
J.J. Thomson
-England, late 1800s
-proved that atoms are not smallest thing (discovered electrons)
-plum pudding model
Hunds Rule
negatively charged electrons repel each other so the electrons with the same spin have to be in the separate places before opposites can join them
matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
Schroedinger
electrons travel in waves, double slit experiment
Atomists
A group of Greek philosophers who shared Democritus' beliefs
ions
means that atoms have a positive or negative charge
line-emission spectrum
spectrum of a few colors, releases energy to go back to ground state once excited, energy is emitted at wavelengths and gives off light
Law of Definite Proportions
Specific substances always contain elements in the same ratio by mass
5 copper + 5 sulfur = 10g of copper sulfate
+ ion
Forms when a neutral atom loses electrons
Percent Natural Abundances
refer to the relative proortions, expressed as percentages by number, in which the isotopes of an element are found in natural sources
Gell, Mann, and Zweig
bubble chamber, quarks are divisible, electron a cannot be broken up
AMU
The unit used to measure the mass of an atom
electrons number in normal atom
electrons equals protons in normal electrically neutral atoms
Law of Conservation of Mass
the total mass of substances present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of substances before the reaction
5
pent
Phosphorus
P
-3.3.5
ClO2-
Chlorite
Phosphate
PO
Cobalt
Co
Chlorine
Cl
micro
10^-6
I
Iodine
Dichromate ion
Cr2O7^2-
Chlorite
-1
ClO
2
atom
smallest partical
Monatomic
One atom
acidic
pH < 7
Halogens
most active nonmetals
Aromatic Aldehydes
Ar - CHO
SO (4) 2 -
Sulfate
lewis base
an electron pair donor
PREFIXES NAMIN COVALENT COMPOUNDS 9
NONA
A base _____.
releases hydrogen ions
yes
does every atom contain electrons
electron shielding
core electrons shield valence electrons from full charge of the nucleus
Common Polyatomic Ions (electrically neutral)hydrogen phosphate
HPO4 -2
Transferrin
measured by a tubidimetric reation used in the evaluation of ion statusused as an indicator of nutritional statusan acute phase protein(negative acute phase reactant)transferrin is decreased in inflammation
Mendeleev
organized 1st periodic table according to increasing atomic mass and he noticed that atoms grouped together had similar properties
conjugate acid
base after it accepts H
colliod
a mixture when particles are not dissolved
_____ bonds occur between atoms of similar electronegativities
covalent
MIXTURE
Composed of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
gibbs energy formula
determines spontinaeity of the reactionG=H-TS
Vaporization
Conversion of a substance from the liquid state to the gaseous state
If there is no difference in electronegativity, there will be no:
polarity
element
a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means
inorganic
pertaining to compounds that are not hydrocarbons or their derivatives
absolute zero
The temperature at which molecular motion is at a minimum ( 0 K on the Kelvin Scale, -273 degrees on the Celcius scale, and -460 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale ).
Nonpolar covalent bond
electrons are shared equally by atoms
main energy levels
the first quantum number represents the ________ of an electron
Avogadros Number
Number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance6.02 x 10 23
electron configuration
the way electrons are around the nucleus
Electronegativity
The attraction an atom has for the electrons in a bond
Chemical Change
When substances are mixed together and there is a change in the chemical makeup of the substances that are involved
Postulate
A basic principle that may be stated without direct proof
melting
the process by which a solid changes to a liquid when heated. during melting the temperature of a solid remains constant.
In the gold foil experiment...
...alpha particles passed right through the
A _______ consists of two sugar molecules joined by a ________.
disaccharide, glycosidic linkage
heterogeneous means
a mixture in which the parts are still visible from other parts
Which serum enzyme begins to rise 2-4 hours , has peak activity occurring 12-36 hrs and returns to normal 2-4 days after an acute myocardial infarction?
creatine kinase
Elements
a pure substance made of only 1 type of atomcannot be decomposed into new kinds of matter
Define Substance
Can not be seperated into other kinds of matter by physical means e.g. elements and compounds
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms; 2) Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element. 3) Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine in simple whole-number ratios to form compounds; 4) Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged. Atoms of one element, however, are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction.
We find the mass of an object with an instrument called a _______.
Balance
significant figures
all the nonzero digits of a number and the zeros that are included between them or that are final zeros and signify accuracy:
MOST POLYATOMIC ION CONSIST OF
A NONMETAL SUCH AS PHOSPHORUS, SULFUR, CARBON OR NITROGEN BONDED TO OXYGEN ATOMS.
law of constant composition(law of definite proportions)
states that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same, regardless of its source
What is a monoprotic acid?
An acid that has only one ionizable (H) proton
MOLAR MASS (GRAM FORMULA MASS)
the mass of one mole of a pure substance
when a metal LOSES an electron, what happens?
it forms positive ions (example plus 1 charge)
Co
cobalt
SO4(-2)
Sulfate
C₂H₃O₂⁻
Acetate
Magnesium
Mg
Copper
Cu
L-->S
freezing;solidification
NO3-
Nitrate
Peramanganate
MnO -1
theoretical yield
calculated
HClO4
Perchloric acid
Electron
negatively charged particle
BaCO3^2-
precipitate - insoluble
O
||
−R−C−OH
carboxyl group
Mass/Volume
How many sig figs?
molecular solids
components are molecules; (sucrose)
definite volume and definite shape
solid
Ionic Charges in Group 17
-1
Because they lack charged poles, nonpolar covalent substances that do not dissolve in water are called __________.
hydrophobic
Atomic Mass
Sum of Protons and Neutrons
Reactivity
The tendency to undergo redox reactions
intermolecular forces resulting from attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
dipole interactions
sweet
devoid of corrosive or acidic substances, or fuel oil or gas containing no sulfur compounds
Particle with no mass and +1 charge
Positron
IONIC BOND
Opposite ions attract (one atom donated electrons)
Valence electrons
electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Earliest particle theory of matter was discovered by _________ in __________He called this particle _________
Democritus400 b.c.Atom
ionic compound
compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
outline the relationships among elements, compounds, mixtures, substances, and matter
MATTER-->SUBSATNCES and MIXTURES-SUBSTANCE:matter that can't be separated into other kinds of matter by physical processes==>ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS-element: substance that can't be decomposed into simpler substances by any chem reaction-compound: chem combined elements-MIXTURE: material that can be separated by physical means into 2/more substances==>HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES-homogeneous mixture: aka solution; uniform in its properties-heterogeneous mixture: physically distinct parts
Fahrenheit
Based on boiling point and melting point of water at 212 deg Fahrenheit and 32 deg Fahrenheit respectively
decomposition
compound decomposed into two or more elements and or compounds
linear
straight line with a central atom in the middle and 2 ligands on either side
The tertiary structure of a protein includes additional three-dimensional shaping and often dominates the structure of ______.
globular proteins
A graph generated by plotting the temperature of a liquid on the x-axis and its vapor pressure on the y-axis.
Vapor-pressure curve
volume
the space occupied by a sample of matter
Octet Rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
Nuclear fission
splitting a massive nucleus into more stable, less massive nuclei with the release of energy
reaction in which energy is absorbed for the reaction to occur
endothermic reaction
pure substance
combination of atoms with the same properties throughout
negative ion
in the chemical formula of a binary ionic compound, the last part
representative elements
the elements in group 1A to group 7A
define intensive properties
independent of the amount of matter present
Mixtures
a combination of two or more kinds of matter each of which retains its own composition and properties
What is the basic structural unit of an element?
an atom.
what is the half life of carbon 14
6000 years
KINETIC ENERGY
A SPACE WHERE AN OBJECT HAS BECAUSE OF ITS MOTION
atomic number
number of protons found in an atom of that element
Yes Sig Figs if they are...
nonzeroszeros between nonzeroszeros at end of number when decimal is writtendigits in sci. notation
indicator
a dye which is one colour in an acidic solution and one colour in an alkalic aloution. these can be solutions or paper
List five indications of chemical changes
burns, color, bubbles, change in heat/energy change, explosions, rust, smoke
true (but it's soooo small that it doesn't matter when calculating atomic mass)
true/false electrons have mass
what is a compound/chemical compound?
a substance that contains 2 or more elements. it has to be broken down into simpler substances through chemical means.
Higher nuclear charge also makes the atom
this makes the atoms smaller and makes it hold the electrons tighter
What is the trend of the tendency to form anions and cations?
Anions - up and to the right (A increases)Cations - down and to the left (I decreases)
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Term:
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