Chemistry Chapters Flashcards

Terms Definitions
row of elements
period
Avogadro's number
6.02 x 10^23
those compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
hydrocarbons
the various procedures used to separate metals fr. their ores
metallurgy
organic compounds in which the carbonyl group is attached to carbon atoms within the chain
ketones
a colorless, crystalline, solid form of carbon
diamond
an observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained
experiment
systematic naming of chemical compounds
chemical nomenclature
particular distribution of electrons among available subshells
electron configuration
Mixtures of pure metals are called what?
alloys
Physical Properties
characteristics that can be observed with production of new substances
a procedure for determining the amount of substance A by adding a carefully measured volume of a solution with known concentration of B until the reaction of A and B is just complete
titration
everything in the vicinity of the thermodynamic system
heat
spectrum showing only certain colors or specific wavelengths of light
line spectrum
Compound
substance made up of 2 or more elements chemically combined; can be broken down by chemical change
hydrocarbons in which not all carbon atoms have four single covalent bonds
unsaturated hydrocarbons
alkanes in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a ring, or cyclic, structure
cycloalkanes
the form of matter that is relatively incompressible fluid; has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape
liquid
a substance that dissolves in water to give a nonconducting or very poorly conducting solution
nonelectrolyte
the ionic compound that is the product of the neutralization reaction
salt
a tabular arrangement of elements in rows and columns, highlighting the regular repetition of properties of elements
periodic table
a substance or mixture that has a characteristic luster and is generally a good conductor of heat and electricity
metal
a chemical reaction or a physical change in which heat is absorbed (q is positive)
endothermic process
an electron pair shared between two atoms
bonding pair
amplitude
the state or quality of being ample, esp. as to breadth or width; largeness; greatness of extent.
Heterogeneous Mixture
sample from 1 part of mixture is different than another
the form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid; a given quantity will fit into a container of almost any size and shape
gas
a chemical equation in which strong electrolytes are written as separate ions in solution
complete ionic equation
a property of a system that depends only on its present state, which is determined by variables such as temperature and pressure, and is independent of any previous history of the system
state function
the tendency of atoms in molecules to have eight electrons in their valence shells
octet rule
the distance between the nuclei in a bond
bond length
Law of Conservation of Matter
matter cannot be created nor destroyed by a chemical reaction
a particular choice of metric units
International System of Units (SI)
a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
double bond
mass of A over the mass of the whole compound
mass percentage
states that for a chemical equation that can be written as the sum of two or more steps, the enthalpy change for the overall equation equals the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps
Hess' law of heat summation
What is the periodic trend for ionization energy?
Decreases down and increases across the periodic table.
What is the periodic trend for atomic radii?
Increases down and increases across the periodic table.
What is hte definition of Ionization energy?
The energy needed to remove one of the atom's electrons
precise
systematic error
Name XeF8:
xenon octafluoride
energy
capacity to do work
Formula for iron(II) iodate:
Fe(IO3)2
Intensive
Independent of quantity
-melting point
-boiling point
-specific gravity
-density
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous? --- vodka
Homogeneous
Homogeneous Mixtures are...
Also called SOLUTIONS.
Ionic or Molecular? -- CO
Molecular
Properties of Metals
POSITIVE CHARGE
shiny
ductile
malleable
-good conductors of heat and electricity
Ionic or Molecular Compound? -- ClO2
Molecular
Metal, Nonmetal, or Metalloid? -- tin
Metal
Symbol for the following element: neon
Ne
Intensive Properties or Extensive Properties? -- Gold has a mass of 82.6 g:
Extensive Property
Chemical equilibrium
N2O4 (g) →← 2NO2 (g)
the study ofsubstances containing carbon is
organic chemistry
Atom
-basic unit of an element
-smallest unit of an element that retains chemical properties of element
Gold Foil Experiment
shoot radio-active particles through gold-foil
-some shot back at him
Period 1,2,3,4,5,6 or 7? -- H
Period 1
What is the chemical formula for potassium permanganate?
KMnO4
Formula for the compound that forms between lithium and acetate:
LiC2H3O2
How many significant figures? 108,700 km
ambiguous
Bromine has 2 naturally occurring isotopes (Br-79 & Br-81) w/ an atomic mass of 79.904 amu. The mass of Br-81 is 80.9163 amu, & its natural abundance is 49.31% Calculate the mass of Br-79
78.92 amu
Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either in vivo or invitro (organism or cells)
Biosynthesis
When the equation for a reversible reaction is written in the opposite reaction, the equilibrium constant becomes the reciprocal of the original equilibrium constant
qthe electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond are called
valence electrons
Physical Change
produces a recognizable change in the appearance but no change in composition or identity
-snow, rain, humidity
Determine the number of moles of oxygen atoms in: 4.98 mol H2O2
9.96 mol
Main Group Element, Transition Metals, or Inner Transition Metals? -- O
Main Group Elements
What is the ratio of hydrogen atoms (H) to oxygen atoms (O) in 2 L of water? Enter the simplest whole number ratio in order of hydrogen to oxygen.
2,1
Which element does X represent in the following expression: 41/20 X
Ca
A vaccincation or an agent or measure used to prevent disease
Prophylactic
Abnormal sensitivity to a drug , or reaction that is not intended
Idiosyncrasy
Bimolecular reaction
elementary step with 2 molecules
A + B → products rate = k[A][B]
A + A → products rate = k([A]^2)
Half-life
t(1/2) - the time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease to half of its initial concentration.
how do you figure out density...?
desity = Mass/vloume
mendeleev predicted that the spaces in his peridoic table represented
undiscovered elements
Calculate the mass, in grams, of: 2.90 x 10^22 helium atoms
0.193 g
How many neutrons are found in one atoms of 40 K?
21 neutrons
Iron is mined from the earth as iron ore. Common ores are Fe2O3 (hematite), Fe3O4 (magnetite), and FeCO3 (siderite). Calculate the mass percentage composition of iron for the third one of these iron ores:
48.2%
If "N" were to form ions, it would attain the same number of electrons as which noble gas?
Ne
CaSO4 + AlCl3 --> CaCl2 + Al(SO4)3 ... What number should be placed in front of CaSO4 in order to give the same total number of sulfate ions on each side of the equation?
3
Pertaining to the art of or act of determining the nature of a patients disease
Diagnostic
elementary steps/reactions
a simple group of series that can represent the overall progress of a chemical reaction at the molecular level.
decrease in pressure
equilibrium shifts to side with most moles of gas
What are pure substances made up of?
Elements and compounds.
elements in a group or column in the periodic table can be expected to have similar
properties
The density of iron is 7.87 g/mL. What is the mass of a 4.00 cm x 4.00 cm x 1.00 cm block of iron?
126 g
A sample is composed completely of gold, absolutely free of impurities. Which terms could be used to describe this sample?
Pure Chemical Substance; Element
You wash dishes for a chem. lab to make extra money for laundry. You earn 6 dollars/hour, and each shift lasts 75 minutes. Your laundry requires 6 quarters/load. --- How many shifts must you work if you wish to wash 10 loads of laundry?
2 shifts
Qc < Kc
system proceeds from left to right to reach equilibrium
What is a valence electron?
Electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom.
scientific law is...
Newton's law is a scientific law and, as such, a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments.
Periodic Table -- Group 7A (tendency and charge):
GAINS one electron; -1 charge
Periodic Table -- Group 1A (tendency and charge):
LOSES one electron; +1 charge
Le Chatelier's Principle
If an external stress is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system adjusts in such a way that the stress is partially offset as the system reaches a new equilibrium positions.
What is the octet rule?
Elements in groups 1A-&a react with other elements by forming ionic or covalent bonds to produce a noble gas arrangement, usually 8 electrons in the outer shell.
what are the parts of a Base Unit?
Time, Length, and Mass
How many oxygen atoms are in 2.80 g of quartz?
5.62 x 10^22
What are the properties of alkaline earth metals?
Group 2A.
Less reactive than the metals found in Group 1A.
Trends in ionization energy in a period:
Ionization energy increases across a period because as the positive charge of the nucleus increases, more energy is needed to remove an electron.
Is N2+O2-->2NO possible according to Dalton's Atomic Theory?
Yes! Atoms rearrange but they do not change their identities.
3CaSO4 + AlCl3 --> 3CaCl2 + Al(SO4)3 ... Now that we've added the coefficients, what coefficient should go in front of AlCl3 to balance both the Cl atoms and the Al atoms?
2 ... final balanced equation: 3CaSO4 + 2AlCl3 --> 3CaCl2 + Al(SO4)3
What is the concept of "like dissolves like"
The polarities of a solute and a solvent must be similar in order to form a solution.

Non-polar dissolves polar
Polar dissolves polar.
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Term:
Definition:
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