chemistry exam study guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
phosphorus-33 contains
18 neutrons
gamma rays are
elecctromagnetic waves
Chlorine 35 has
17 protons
An octet is equal to
8
Technology is the
analysis ochemical behavior
Argon, crypton, and xenon are
noble gases
the distance between to successive peaks on a wave is its
wavelenght
isotopes of an element contain different number of
neutrons
Who called the "atom" an atom?
Democritus
rutherford experiments led to the discovery of the..
electron
The symbol that represents the measured unit for volume is...
mL
The SI unit for time is
second
which element has properties most similar of those to sodium?
calcium
a 3-dementional region around a nucleus where an atom may be found is called an
orbital
Malleability and ductility are characteristiss of substances with
metalic bonds
compare with ioniccompounds, molecularcompounds
have lower melting points
study of the composition and stucture of the material and the changes that materials undergo best describes the science of
chemistry
an example of an extensive physical property is
mass
What unit measures radiation damage to human tissue?
rem
Study of hte compisition and structure of materials and the changes that materials undergo best describes the science of?
Chemistry
A testable statement used for making predictions and carrying out further experiments is a
hypothesis
a covalent bond results when _________ are shared
electrons
The most appropriate SI unit for measuring the length of an automobile is the
meter
a quantum of electromagnetic enegery is called...
a photon
Study of the composition and structure of materials and the changes that materials undergo best describes the science of...
chemistry
A physical property may be investigated by
melting ice
the number of significant figures in the measurement 210 cm is..
2
one-half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together is called the..
atomic radius
study of composition and structure of materials and the changes that materials undergo best describes the science of
chemistry
how many half-lives are required for 3/4 of the nuclei of 1 isotope in a sample of decay?
2
the SI unit for time is the
second
The atomic sublevel with the next highest energy level after 4p is
5s
the electron-sea model of bonding represents
metallic bonding
the number of valence electrons in group 1 elements is
1
Nucleus
an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
two features that may distinguish matter are
mass and volume
how many quantum numbers are needed to discribe the energy state of an electronin an atom
4
most cemical bonds are
partly ionic and partly covalent
how many periods are found on the periodic table?
7
Most chemical bonds are
partly ionic and partly covalent
The SI base unit for time is the?
Second
A horizonatal row of blocks in the periodic table is called
period
A change in the force of Earth's gravity on an object will affect its
weight
the most reactive group of the non metals are the...
halogens
most chemical bonds are...
partly ionic and partly covalent
Two features that distinguish matter are
mass and volume
if two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is..
nonpolar covalent
organic chemistry is the study of..
carbon containing compounds
if a material can be shaped or extended by physcal pressure, such as hammering, which property does the material have?
malleability
a compound that vaporizes readily at room temperature is most likely to be an
molecular compound
the elements of the _______ group satisfy the octect rule without forming compounds
moble gas
Two features that that distiguish matter are
mass and volume
The energy required to move an electron from an atom is the atoms
ionization energy
what would be the most appropriate SI unit for expressing the mass of a single brick
Kilograms
The discovery of the electron resulted from experiments using
cathode rays
In the modern periodic table, elements are orderd according to
increasing atomic number
How many double bonds are in the lewis structure for HF
none
The state of matter in which a material has a definate volume but no definate shape is the...
liquid state
A change in the force of the Earths gravity on an object will affect its
weight
what are often used to monitor the approximate radiation exposure of people working with radioactive materials?
film badges
elements in a group or column in the periodic table can be expected to have similar
properties
in the modern perodic table, elements are ordered according to
increasing atomic number
Isotope
an atom that has the same number of protons (atomic number) as other atoms of the same element but has a different number of neutrons (atomic mass)
The SI units for mass and length are
meter and gram.
the si standard units for mass and length is...
meter and kilogram
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons is called
electronegativity
Law of definite proportions
This states that a chemical compound always contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by weight or mass
Poor precision in scientific meausurement may arise from
both human error and the limitations of the measuring instruments.
The main energy levels of an atom are indicated by the
principal quantum numbers
radioactive tracers are used to
follow the movement of substances in a system
poor precision in the scientific measurement may arise from..
both human error and the limitations of the measuring instrument.
To draw a Lewis structure one must know the
number of valence electrons in each atom
nickel-60 has..
32 neutrons
What unit measures radiation?
roentgen
Gamma rays
are electromagnetic waves
The unit m3(superscript 3) measures
Volume
They symbol that represents the measured unit for volume is?
mL
the negative ion is called the...
anion
Malleability and ductibility are characterisitics with substances with
metallic bonds
argon, krypton, and xenon are..
noble gases
the distance between two successive peaks on a wave is its
wavelength
Qualitative observations are recorded using
non-numerical information
the study of substance containing carbon is
organic chemistry
as the atomic number increases, the number of electrons in an atom
increase
The study of substances containing carbon is
organic chemistry
a positive ion is known as a
cation
The elements that border the zigzag line in the periodic table are?
metalloids
the number of significant digits in 0.000305 kg is
3
one of the wave properties of electromagnetic radiation, such as light is...
frequency
Distance between 2 successive peaks on a wave is
wavelength
a positive ion is known as a(n)..
cation
which is NOT a property of metals?
unreactivity
physical means can be used to seperate
mixtures
what is the atomic number of tungsten
74
What is the atomic number for aluminum
13
to which group do fluorine and chlorine belong
halogens
the metric unit for length that is closes to the thickness of a dime is the
milimeter
Mendeleev predicted that the spaces in he periodic table represented
undiscovered elements
A nuetral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is a
molecule
The person whose work led to a periodic table based on increasing atomic number was
Moseley
organic chemistry is the study of...
carbon containing compounds
the number of orbitals for the d sublevel is...
5
the horiontal row of blocks in the periodic table is
period
For the f sublevel the number of orbitals is
7
a covalent bond results when ____ are shared.
electrons
atoms are ____ when they are combined.
more stable
the part of the atom where an electrons CANNOT be found is the..
nucleus
a vertical cloumn of blocks in the periodic table is
group
atoms are _____ when they are combined
more stable
a change in Earth's gravity on an object will sffect its
weight
How many quantum #'s are needed to describe the energy state of an electron in an atom
4
For the f sublevel, the number of orbitals is
7
A neuclear particle that has about the same mass as a proton, but with no electrical charge is called a
Neutron
Quantum Number
a number that specifies the properties of electrons in an atom
basic researchis
carried out for the sake of increases knowlege
If electrons in an atom have the lowest possible energies, the atom is in the
ground state
The group of 14 elements in the sixth period that have occupied 4f orbitals is the
lanthanides
The symbol for the metric unit used to measure mass is
g
what does the 101 in 256/101 Md reprsent
the atomic number
The state of matter in a material had neither definite shape nor a definite volume is the?
Gaseous state
if some measurements agree closely byt differ widely from the actual value, these measurements are..
precise, but not accurate
Basic research is
carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge
Excited state
a state in which an atom has more energy than it does at its ground state
to draw a lewis structure one most know the.
number of valence electrons
as the mass number of isotopes of an element increases the number of protons
remains the same
A nuclide is identified by
the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
To calculate the density of an object
divide its mass by its volume
/ 127
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