French and Industrial Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bourgeoisie
Middle class
Nobility
The upper class
Francis Bacon
Popularized Scientific Method
Knowledge is power.
Richard Arkwright
invented water frame
Galileo Galilei
Italian Philosopher
Father of science
Heliocentric view
Inquisition
Agricultural Revolution
New farming methods invented
agriculture
Only the development of _________________ in the Neolithic era was as important as the Industrial Revolution.
Old Regime
life in pre-revolution France
Peasants
The lower class,90% of the population
urban population
tremendous gains in English agricultural production was necessary in order to feed its rapidly growing _______________.
Lyons & Marsailles
revolted against centralized government & committee of public safety
Sans-culottes
"without breeches" petty traders and laboring poor, faced rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortage, demanded the guarantee of daily bread
The Directory
new reorganized legislative assembly chose 5-man executive, support military expansion, reinforced disgust and starvation, started to govern dictatorially, ended by Napoleon
National Convention
formed when legislative assembly imprisoned king and called for new convention to be elected, made of Girondists and the Mountain
Legislative Assembly
replaced National Assembly, new members, jacobins, who weren't as experienced and were new to the policies made by previous delegates, less cautious, committed to liberal revolution
Expansion
Western industrial predominance led to this in non-Western lands
class-consciousness
active awareness of one's common status with others in a particular economic or social level
1793-cotton Gin
Machine that separated cotton seeds from the cotton.
Causes of the French Revolution
Economic
Hunger and malnutrition
Resentment
Rene Descartes
Father of of Modern Philosophy,Father of Analytical Geometry.
Mind and Body.
Family to big family
Crop rotation.
More food produced=population increase.
Robespierre
leader of the Mountain, head of Committee of Public Safety, led Reign of Terror
Holland
The only European country where the lower classes lived as well as in England
reaction
a desire to return to earlier political, social or economic conditions
Women's rights gained
divorce, inherit property, financial support from fathers of illegitimate children
Common People
98% of population, everyone not included in clergy and nobility, very diverse, carries the other 2 estates and pays taxes, third estate
Aristocratic Oligarchy
Eighteenth century rulers of England (along w/ monarchs), part of stable government which was necessary for revolution
First Coalition
Prussia, Austria, Britain, Holland and Spain
Reign of Terror
Committee of Public Safety.
at least 16,594 died from the Guillotine.
Feudalism
used during Medieval Europe as a way of a political system
tenant farmers
type of farmers in England who mastered the new methods of agriculture better than the other three types of farmers, don't actually own land, they rent it, pick and choose which techniques they want that will be profitable
meritocracy
young men rise quickly who started as nothing but rose because they were the best
End of the Empire
Napoleon declares that he renounces the thrones of France and Italy.
Exiled Napoleon to Island of Elba.
Budget Percentages
50% on interest for debt, 25% on maintaining military, 6% on court, 19% on what the country actually needs
Declaration of Rights of Man
August 27,1789, granted equality before law, representative government, individual freedom
Mountain rising to power
Mountain joined sans-culottes in face of military defeat, peasant revolt and hatred for Girondists, led to arrest of Girondists deputies and all power passed to Mountain
Oath of the Tennis Court
National Assembly says they won't disperse until a new constitution is made,
Factory Act of 1833
9-13 years work for maximum of 8 hrs
14-18 years work for maximum of 12 hrs
Decree of August 23, 1793
young men drafted, married men forge arms, women make tents and clothes & serve in hospitals, children ear rags into lint & old men kindle courage in young & preach unity
Formation of National Assembly
half of third estate wanted to meet as one body, so they broke away
Clergy
The church
Tithe
tax on landowners
Voltaire
Real name:Francois-Marie Arouet,French Philosopher.
Freedom of Religion
James Hargreaves
invented spinning jenny
John Locke
English philosopher.
Right to life,health,liberty,or possession.
Philosophy
stress on reason,optimism,and civic reform
Thomas Hobbes
English philosopher.Father of Liberalism.
Social contract theory
Edmund Burke
glorified unrepresentative parliament & predicted reform leading to chaos and tyranny, says you can't change too much too fast because it would lead to violence
two
number of landless agricultural workers by 1700 in England for every independent farmer
Charles Townsend
English agricultural innovator "Turnys" invented crop rotation, increases food production by a third
Jean-jacques Rousseau
French Philosopher.
Theory of Natural Man.
Baron de Montesquieu
French Philosopher.
Separation of power.
Estates
The class system in pre-revolutionary France
free trade
no tax on foreign products
population explosion
despite tremendous expansion in production, this threat meant many people still lived in poverty
Jethro Tull
English agricultural innovator who pioneered use of the seed drill
Economic conditions
The French Revolutions changed political conditions; the Industrial Revolution changed _________________.
3 Estates
1. Roman Catholic clergy
2. Nobility
3. Common People
Hundred Days
Timeframe in which Napoleon ruled France again.
1769-water Frame
Used to power the spinning frame
Enlightenment Influence
Age of Enlightenment helped influence the beliefs of the Revolution.
Influenced by the Social Contract Theory.
protectionist policies
shielding domestic producers in their own countries from foreign competitions by restricting imports usually through high taxes
nationalism
loyalty and devotion to nation, France had fiercely loyal army of 1 million enough for 14 different armies
Great Fear
rumors of outlaws roaming the countryside, hired by king, probably false, peasants rose against lords
Friedrich Engels
talks of horrible conditions in factories, uses hyperbole or exaggeration to draw attention to horrible conditions, "At the bar of world opinion, I charge the English middle classes with mass murder, wholesale robbery, and all the other crimes in the calendar."
Failure at Moscow
Scorched earth policy.
sept 14 1812 Napoleon reached Moscow but the city was emptied.4/5 of the towns building were destroyed.
1760-spinning Jenny
Allowed for multiple threads to be woven together.
The Mountain
led by Robespierre, group in National Convention, usually at odds with Girondists
sans-culotte revolt again
crushed by national convention by force, used army
planned economy
set maximum price for all products, socialism, fixed price of bread so everyone could afford it and peasants wouldn't revolt
labor
physical or manual work done for hire in economic production; the working class collectively
Revolution
A great change over a short period of time.
Tennis Court Oath
Third estate called a meeting
Voted to declare themselves National Assembly
Women's Bread March
October 5, 7000 march to Versailles, invaded royal apartments, slaughtered some guards, wanted to kill Marie Antoinette, made royal family move from Versailles to Paris
Royal Absolutism to Constitutional Monarchy
delegates elected to Estates General from all three estates, pass all laws and taxes
Reason for increased taxes
France had no central bank, paper currency and no means of creating credit, money was gold coin, difficult to obtain gold loans, no choice but to increase taxes
Assembly of Notables
called by Louis XIV to gain support for taxation on land, but noblemen and clergy say that such drastic tax changes requires approval from Estates General, so Louis issues taxes by decree
Committee of Public Safety
Robespierre at head and members from the Mountain, 12 members, dictatorial
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
priests chosen by voters, clergy take loyalty oath, pope condemned attempt to subjugate church, only half priests took oath, people pushing this were very secular, failed, change was too big, too fast
Why didn't France repudiate its debt?
too weak, unpopular, lose prestige, they owe their own country, aristocrats hold debt
Night of August 4, 1789
2nd estate gives in to peasants whose demands weren't really that great, peasants became less revolutionary because there demands were met and there was no need for rebellion
Declaration of Right of Man and of The Citizen
Established the fundamental rights for French Citizens and all men without exeption
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