French Revolution 20 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
secular
nonreligious
1st Estate
Clergy
Napoleon Bonaparte
...
Grand Army
Napoleon's Army
Ancien Regime
Old regime
The plain becomes
moderate
Aristocracy
Nobles that made estates.
sans-culottes
The laboring French poor
Influence of the Philosophes
...
Directory
government overthrown by Napoleon's coup d'état
Bastille Day
July 14, 1789
national Assembly/citizens marched to Bastille
Danton
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
Daimyo
A vassal to a shogun
Phases of Revolutions
-Pre-Revolutionary Outbreak
-Old Regime
-Moderate Phase
-Radical Phase
-Successful Revolution OR Counter-Revolution
book that lists the resentment/grievences in each class
cahier
The Old Regime
Social class system
17 July 1791
Champs de Mars Massacre
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Thermidorian
end of the reign of terror
estate
a social class of people:
-first estate-roman catholic clergy
-second estate-nobility
-third estate- city workers, peasants, and bourgeoisie
congress of vienna
esablish peace and security.
Estates-General
assembly of representatives from all three estates
short term causes consist of
bankruptcy
Great Fear
Estates-General
Lycee
a government-run public school in France.
which rev? assembly abolisheds fuedal priviladge, declaration of rights of man, new constitution
first
liberals
favored gradual change; reluctant to accept status quo
St. Helena
location of Napoleon's second exile
Nepotism
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)
nationalism
strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
passive citizens
no property rights or voting rights
Gallican Church
Roman Catholic church in France, headed by the monarch, not the pope
PLEBISCITE
or general referendum. In the weeks after Brumaire this was held to determine if there was a popular mandate for the new Consulate(supposedly a three man consulate). Approved 3 million to 1,500.
Estates General
An assembly of representatives from all three estates in order to get approval of tax reform
American Patriots
People who favored independence from Great Britan.
symbol
storming of the bastille <-- bastille became the ___ of the revolution
merit system
ranking system based on ability, napoleon changes everything to this
relics of feudalism
aristocratic privalages, payments of fees for the use of village facilities such as the flour mill, the oven and wine press to the clergy
Mandate of Heaven
The rulers right to rule
guillotine
an instrument used to cut off heads
Paris Commune
Radical political group made up largely of the sans-culottes
privileged
having special rights and benefits not given to all people
The nobles belonged to this estate.
2nd Estate
Vendee Revolt
1793. Revolt against revolution. Noble revolt and some rural peasant support.
Who calls the estates general ?
Louis XVI
penknife
Weapon Robert Damiens used trying to kill Louis XV.
Rosetta Stone
Stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to deciphering of hieroglyphics.
cahiers
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
necker
Louis XVI's finance minister who was fired for suggesting less spending
Girondists
a member of the moderate republican party that was in power during the French Revolution; the Girondists were overthrown by their more radical rivals the Jacobins
Tennis Court Oath
the Third-Estate delegates were locked out of a meeting at Versailles and pledged to stay in a closed room until a new constitution was written; nobles and clergy who wanted reform soon joined them and it was a great symbolic act
Louis XVI
French King who ruled before the French Revolution.
Leipzig (nations)
In October, Napoleon and his troops outnumbered two to one, Napoleon suffered a major defeat at this town and retreated across the Rhine River into France. His armies, ever more filled with reluctant, raw recruits, lacked adequate supplies
Constitution of 1795
Constitution which officially put the Directory into power; conservative but still embodied the ideas of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Edmund Burke
In Reflections of the Revolution in France, he forecast problems as those without political experience attempted to govern
LEOPOLD II
Succeeded Joseph II in 1790 and resisted please of emigres and Marie Antoinette to intervene in France. Met with King of Prussia, Frederick William II, at Pilnitz and came up with Pilnitz Declaration...
constitutional monarchy
england gives people a parliament , laws limited the rulers power
legislative assembly
in sep 1792 rioting and street fighting in paris led to fall of the __________
Sans Culottes
Part of the third estate, they consisted of small shop keepers, craft and other town workers as well as day labourers
Blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
Maximilian Robespierre
Wiped out every trace of Frances past
-new calendar, closed all churches...
Jacques Louis David
Painter who painted Napoleon crossing Alps with the name Charlemagne on the rocks
October 1793
Execution of Marie Antionette and the Girondins
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Reactionary
one who opposes progress or change and wants to return to earlier ways.
National Guard; Lafayette
Louis XVI created a...with its leader...
English Civil War
1642-1649, War between supporters and opposers of King Charles I
Conservatives
Like to stick to the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change
old regime
The political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution.
A member of the legislature who introduced a more human method of beheading than the uncertain ax.
Joseph Guillotine
First Estate
made up of the Roman Catholic clergy, about 1 percent of the population.
Insurrection of Prairial
As price controls removed in the Thermidorean Reaction there followed a period of inflation. Working class suffered most from this. Led to sporadic uprisings which culminated in Year III, May(Prairial) 1795. Mob attacked Convention. Troops called in to disperse. Army prevailed. 10,000 arrested, imprisoned or deported. A few guillotined. Foretaste of modern social revolution.
Jacques-Louis David
He painted the "Tennis Court Oath" in 1791 that depicts when the National Assembly was formed and the historical significance of that moment.
les sans culottes
les patriotes vertueux, ce sont des revolutionnaires issues de la partie modeste et laborieuse du peuple
the rights of women
Olympe de Gouges--- followed official declaration in each of its 17 articles, but applied it explicitly to women
John Locke
believed in a person's right to life, liberty & property.
Who created the Committee of Public Safety?
The National Convention
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France
White Terror
Same as reign of terror only the radicals are getting killed
The Continental System was
a blockade of trade with England
Battle of Trafalgar
Only major battle that Napoleon lost in his drive for a European empire. Naval defeat off the coast of Spain. British commander (Horatio Nelson) ensured supremacy of British navy for next 100 years and forced Napoleon to give up his plans for invading Britain.
Brunswick Manifesto
Issued by Prussia and Austria on July 25, 1792. Stated that if harm done to the king or queen there would be severe retribution. Mistake - played right into hands of radical revolutionaries in France. They used it to panic France into thinking invasion imminent. Began recruiting defense force.
Flight of Varennes
June 21, 1791. Louis XVI negotiated with Leopold, so they fled because they were going to invade. They were arrested and taken to Paris. The National Assembly said that they were "kidnapped."
Revolutionary Tribunal
A court instituted in Paris by the Convention between October 1793 and the Thermidorian Reaction, the Tribunal was one of the main instruments of the Reign of Terror and had many people guillotined.
National Constituent Assembly
The king eventually gave into the National Assembly and requested that the First and Second Estate to join the National Assembly. This new legislative body was known by this term.
Conspiracy of Equals
1794. worried they are next in Robspierre's terror. shout him down. execute him
Lettre de Cachet
letter bearing a seal ordering the imprisonment without trial of a person the letter names
Second Estate
made up of the nobility, less than 2 percent of the population
civil constitution of the clergy
placed the French Catholic Church under state control with elected priests and bishops, paid them a salary, ended papal authority over the French Catholic Church and dissolved convents and monestaries
Storming of the Bastille
July 14, mob tearing down this building stone by stone getting guns and powder in the process
Committee of Public Safety
Group that decided which members of France were enemies of the republic
Marie Antoinette
She was married to King Louis XVI of France.-- She was from Austria. She was imprisoned during the French Revolution. She was tried and convicted of treason. She was killed by guillotine on October 6, 1793.
who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy;
declaration of the rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
Reign of Terror
a time period in France where anyone who thought ill will towards the government could be publicly executed
Revolution of the
Workers
• July 14: A crowd of artisans gathers outside the Bastille
• They want weapons and the release of political prisoners
• The king's troops fire on them, killing 98, wounding 111
• The crowd storms and takes the Bastille, killing eight soldiers
•This is revolutionary!
-The King's Response to the Storming of the Bastille
• He writes in his journal "rien. " (Nothing happened that day)
• He spends the day going hunting
Abolition of Feudalism
the abolition of the feudal system in France at the beginning of the revolution.
National Assembly
June 17, 1789 - proclaimed by the 3rd Estate as new government of France
Republic of Virtue
set out on this, tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility
What is the 3rd estate
Written by Abbe Sieyes. Stated that third estate should have power in france. Stated nobility should be abolished.
three causes of the French Revolution
social unrest, economic woes, desire for political reform
Reforms of the National Assembly
The assembly took over the churchand sold of its wealth to pay for Frances debt.
divine right of kings
the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
Committee for Public Safety
set up by the national convention in 1793. one its job was to direct the army in crushing foriegn invaders. they also adopted a draft in which all unmarried and able-bodied men between 18 and 25 were liable for military service.
What did the Constitution of 1795 outline?
2 chambers;suffrage for all males; reps. had to be property owners; Nat. Conv. dissolved
2nd week in July, 1789
Rumors that the military is going to take revenge with the influx of poor to Paris
What group of people were in each level?
1st- Clergy (aristocrats)
2nd- Nobility
3rd- Commoners of Society
How did the Mountain consolidate control in the National Convention?
used sans-culottes to form a mob and demand the expulsion of Girondins; also when Charlotte Corday (Girondin) stabbed to death Marat (a hero of sans-culottes)
how the royalty got caught after the Revolution?
their faces were on the currency
Who were the émigrés and how did they spur a counterrevolution?
thousands of nobles (incl. Count of Artois, Louis XVI's borther) leave France & spread fear of revolution to foreign countries in Europe in hopes of restoring old regime
The march of the Parisian Women occured on Octover 5, 1789. What was the purpose of this march to Versailles?
To meet with King Louis XVI, and describe to him how their children were starving from lack of bread.
Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen
This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law
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