French Revolution Terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bigotry
prejudice
tallie
direct tax
Tithe
-Church tax
1815
Congress of Vienna
Bastille
prison in Paris
third estate
middle class
locke
natural rights-life liberty property
people/nobles who fled France
emigres
Versailles
where the kingdom was
Estates-General
Assembly comprised of representatives from the three classes of French society
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
stamp act
tax on paper goods
Left Wing
completely opposed french monarchy
marie antoinette known as...
madame deficit
Napoleonic Code
Equality.
Religious freedom.
End of feudalism.
Moderate Stage
Second Stage of Revolution-Moderates challenge existing authority
assignats
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
girondists
more radical than Robespierre. must deal with international crisis
Louis XVIII
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
josephine
napoleons wife, perisian, had affairs while he was away, begged for another chance, couldnt have a male heir, eventually divorced her to have another heir
Mestizos
People mixed european and indian ancestory
Reign of Terror
25,000 French Dead, Robespierre
Continental System
Napoleon's unsuccessful idea to prevent British goods from reaching Europe
3 Estates
1st Estate: clergy
2nd Estate: nobles
3rd Estate: peasants and bourgeois, only ones to pay taxes
Robespierre
"incorruptible"; Going to start the Reign of Terror; Seems very peaceful at first
Napoleon
military leader; politicans turned to him so they could advance their own goals; later became the ruler of France
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Estates
The three social classes into which France was divided before the French Revolution, including the clergy, the aristocracy, and the common people
Legislative Assembly
The legislative branch of government elected to power & voted to start a war with Austria; forced to step down from power
Council of State
Prepared legislation for Napoleon. Main govt agency in the new system.
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Levee en masse
conscripting males into military service
republican
The radicals in the French Revolution wanted a ___ form of government.
estates general
legilative body made up of representatives of 3 estates in pre-revolutionary France
Slogan of the Revolution
"Liberty, equality, fraternity". Stated that all men had the right to be free, all men were equal, and all men deserved brotherhood, or acceptance.
Concordat
Support of the Roman Catholic Church- with Pope Pius VII as New Roman Emperor of France.
maximilien robespierre
dominated committee of publis safety, leader of political group known as the jacobins
bushido
A japanese code of honor for samari
Marie Louise
Napoleon's second wife, grandniece of Marie Antoinette, gave Napoleon a son in 1811 (Napoleon II) This marriage formed an alliance with the Austrian royal family.
catalyst
something that helps other things to change
The Jacobins
largest and most powerful political club of the revolution; left wing liberal; 4 levels top is most extreme: Mountains>Girodists>Sans-culottes>Commune; Leader - Maximilian Robespierre;
Indissoluble
incapable of being annulled, undone or broken; permanent
Abbe Sieyes
started the French Revolution and rallied up the people, believed that the Third Estate was everything
Consulate
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Deficit spending
Spending more than is being taken
National Convention
FRENCH FORMED GOVERNING BODY THAT ABOLISHED THE CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, DECLARED FRANCE A REPUBLIC & EXECUTED LOUIS XVI
Ancien Regime
Consisted of an aristocratic, social, and political system established in France.
universal manhood suffrage
election process that allowed every man to vote regardless of whether he owned property
Sovereignty
the idea that people alone had the authority to make laws limited an individuals freedom of action, in practice this system of government meant choosing legislators who represented the people and were accountable to them
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry
Marie Antoinette
Wife of Louis XVI. Unpopular and guillotined. Didn't support reform
BATTLE OF VALMY
Sept 20, 1792. Disorganised French armies won a moral victory (not really much more than an artillery duel) vs. the Prussians. Blocked the Prussian march on Paris. French armies then went on to occupy the Austrian Netherlands, Savoy(king of Sardinia had joined Austrians) and Mainz.
L'Ouverture
"the one who opened the way", allies with French army, took power away from rivals, wrote a constitution, formed authoritarian society, he gets captured and that was the end of that guy
SEPTEMBER MASSACRES
Preceding events led to mass hysteria in Paris. Paris mobs and military volunteers responding to panic of foreign invasion roamed streets of Paris persecuting anyone suspected of counterrevolutionary sympathies. Massacred some 1,100 people including nonjuring priests and anyone who appeared to have upper class connections.
balance of power
political situation where no one nation is powerful enough to threaten others
Under the Constitution of 1791, the ___ would make the laws.
Legislative Assembly
3. Great Fear
Cause:
-pent up aggression of Third Estate unleashed by the Dec. of the Rights of Man
Effect:
-rift b/w nobility and peasants
-factions develop
Brunswick Manifesto
Frederick William II's threat that if any harm comes to king, it's war.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
The slogan of the French Revolution.
Storming of the Bastille
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic.
St. Helena
Island Napoleon is banished to where he dies.
Bourgeoisie
The middle and upper classes of French society who, as members of the Third Estate, wanted an end to the principle of privilege that governed French society in the late 1700s. The bourgeoisie represented the moderate voices during the French Revolution and were represented by delegates in both the Estates-General and the National Assembly.
Louis XVI
never wanted to become king; very quiet and shy, never looked put together, liked to use his hands and help with work
Montagnards
also known as the Mountain. members of the radical faction within the Jacobin party who advocated the centalization of state power during the French Revolution and instituted the Reign of Terror
estate
a major social class or order of persons regarded collectively as part of the body politic of the country and formerly possessing distinct political rights
Cahiers de Doleances
list of suggestions and grievances compiled by each estate to be presented to the king
Journalist who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman.
Olympe de Gouges
Congress of Vienna
Series of meetings in 1814-1815 during which European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napolean.
Taille
Property tax - a direct tax on French owners of property. Probably the most important revenue earner. However, the nobility (which, along with the church, owned a large proportion of French property) were exempt from paying this tax on principle.
Nobilty, Church and The Rest
Makeup of the Three estates
Olympe de Gouges
Composed the Declaration of the Rights of Woman. Stating that women should have the same rights as men and should be seen equal. She claimed that revolution would not be completely until women can be part of it.
The 3 Estates
First Estate - Roman Catholic Church Second Estate - the rich and nobility Third Estate - 98% of the population, bourgeoise (merchants, and the poor)
the civil code
The civil code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals qualified for education and employment because of talent rather then birth or social standing.
Causes of French Revolution
unfairness of 3 estates; declaration of the rights of man and citizen
scorched earth policy
Burning live stock and crops to prevent the enemy from living off the land
republican government
a government in which all power rests with the citizens who vote to elect their leaders
Moderate Phase of the Revolution
(1789-1792) - Nation Assembly (Parliament) runs France; "declaration of the rights of man and the citizen"; Tennis court oath; storming of the Bastille; Great fear
Gallican Church
The Catholic Church in France from the time of the Declaration of the Clergy of France (1682) to that of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790) during the French Revolution.
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat
George Danton
the leader of the Paris COmmune, was one of the main leaders, he was fearless and devoted to the rights of Paris' poor
Duke of Wellington
led a combined British and Prussian army and destroyed Napoleon at Waterloo
Coup d'etat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Declaration of Pilnitz
the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen
Jean Paul Marat
He was a radical leader who edited anewspaper during the revolution. He was assasinated while in his bath tub.
June 20, 1791
the day that Loius and his family disguised themselves as common people and tried to flee the country to a nearby border
Brunswick Manifesto (1792)
issued by the leader of Prussian army as they are about to invade france which threatened the people of Paris if harm came to the King.
"Declaration on the Rights of Man"
class distinctions abolished = equality; National assembly siezing power for itself; declares French people to be citizens with rights
plebiscites
vote of yes or no (which ended in a swift political victory for Napoleon
When did napoleon surrender and where was he exhiled to?
April 1814; to Elba.
Abbé Sieyes
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
modeled after declaration of independance
declaration of the rights of man
Congress of Viena
diplomats and head of states again sat down and formed the Congress of Viena to restore balance
Lettre de Cachet
a warrant formerly issued by a French king who could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal
Flight to Varennes
In June of 1791 LXVI and his family attempted to escape and join the emigres who were agitating outside France to overthrow the revolution. King left a written message repudiating the revolution. He was spotted and arrested in Varennes in Lorraine in northeastern France. He was returned to a hostile Paris which now distrusted him and he was forced to accept the constitutional monarchy. His actions disoriented the revolution since now a system modelled on the English constitutional monarchy was impossible since he was obviously not a willing participant.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
constitutional monarchy
when there is a king or Queen in place but they don't have total control and thier is a constitution and the kings don't have absolute power
Cashiers de Doleances
List of grievances drawn up by each of the three orders before the meeting of the Estates General in 1789.
Dr. Joseph Guillotine
Thought of an idea about a more, civil way of execution, with no pain.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
equality of citizenship; popular sovereignty
1.Briefly describe each estate of France. Who was in each estate? What rights or lack of rights did they have?
1rst estate- Catholic Clergy, did not have to pay taxes
2nd Estate- Aristocracy, right to collect money from peasant/servants
3rd Estate- Everyone Else, had to pay taxes
Corvee (Work Tax)
for a few days a year, peasants had to work on maintaining local roads
How did the Committee of Public Safety lead the Reign of Terror?
comm. assumes dictatorial power to stabilize France; led by Robespierre who executed anyone who questioned the revolution with 60% being peasants
How did the following contribute to the French Revolution: 4. The Great Fear
- Violent events in Paris repeated throughout France. Soon, a "Great Fear" swept across the land.
- Peasants believed rumors that nobles planned to send bandits to kill them and the revolution.
- Eager to take revenge, peasants attacked and destroyed monasteries and manor houses. They burned the documents that recorded rents, dues, and obligations. They killed nobles, agents, and tax farmers
-> showed how widespread people's hatred of the Old Regime has become.
- After, thousands of Parisian women rioted over the rising price of bread. Holding weapons, they marched on Versailles.
- First, they demanded that the National Assembly take action to provide bread.
- They then broke into the palace and killed guards. They demanded that Louis and Marie return to Paris; Louis agreed.
- Few hours later, king, family and servants left Versailles; their exit signaled the change of power and radical reforms about to overtake France.
Louis XVI reaction to Tennis Court Oath?
1. lock them out of their meeting place
2. do not recognize them as legit
How did voting take place in the estates general?
Each estate had 1 vote which meant that the 1st and 2nd estates together could outvote the 3rd estate.
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