Genetics study guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sugar, base___
nucleoside
pyrimidines are ___
cytosine and thymine
trait
a distinguishing characteristic or quality, esp. of one's personal nature:
The five-carbon sugar present in DNA.
deoxyribose
An enzyme that breaks internal phosphodiester bonds in a single- or double-stranded nucleic acid molecule; usually specific for either RNA or DNA
endonuclease
heredity
the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring: it is dependent upon the segregation and recombination of genes during meiosis and fertilization and results in the genesis of a new individual similar to others of its kind but exhibiting
5'-TCAG____-3' is a half of a palindromic restriction site. What is the complete sequence?
5'-TCAGCTGA-3'
An enzyme that removes a terminal nucleotide in a polynucleotide chain by cleavage of the terminal phosphodiester bond; nucleotides are removed successively, one by one; usually specific for either DNA or RNA and for either single-stranded or double-stran
exonuclease
A purine or pyrimidine base covalently linked to a sugar.
nuceloside
what is the sequence 5'-CATAG-3' considered to be?
a palindrome
Any enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA from deoxynucleoside 5''-triphosphates, using a template strand.
DNA polymerase
genetics
the science of heredity, dealing with characteristics of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment
pedigree
an ancestral line; line of descent; lineage; ancestry.
amniocentesis
a surgical procedure for obtaining a sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac in the uterus of a pregnant woman by inserting a hollow needle through the abdominal wall, used in diagnosing certain genetic defects or possible obstetric complications.
meiosis
part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid.
If guanine makes up 13% of the nucleotides in a sample of DNA then adenine would make up what percent of the bases?
37
___elongates new strand by adding to the 3' end of the RNA primer
DNA polymerase
In a replicating DNA molecule, the region in which nucleotides are added to growing strands.
replication fork
weak bond, 2 negatively charged atoms share a hydrogen atom is a___
hydrogen bond
The method for selective replication to produce large quantities of a particular DNA sequence is called ____
polymerase chain reaction
A weak noncovalent linkage between two negatively charged atoms in which a hydrogen atom is shared.
hydrogen bond
The DNA strand whose complement is synthesized as a continuous unit.
leading strand
In nucleic acids, a short RNA or single-stranded DNA segment that functions as a growing point in polymerization.
primer
The observation that among eukaryotes, the DNA content of the haploid genome (C-value) bears no consistent relationship to the metabolic, developmental, or behavioral complexity of the organism.
c value paradox
A newly synthesized DNA or chromosome strand.
daughter strand
The base sequence at which a particular restriction endonuclease makes a cut.
restriction site
allele
any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation.
hybrid
the offspring of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species, or genera, esp. as produced through human manipulation for specific genetic characteristics.
___creates last bond between precusor fragments
DNA ligasenucleic acid hybridization
Any of the short strands of DNA produced during discontinuous replication of the lagging strand; also called a precursor fragment; also called Okazaki fragment
precursor fragment
The formation of duplex nucleic acid from complementary single strands.
nucleic acid hybridization
Repeated cycles of DNA denaturation, renaturation with primer oligonucleotide sequences, and replication, resulting in exponential growth in the number of copies of the DNA sequence located between the primers.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
purebred
of or pertaining to an animal, all of whose ancestors derive over many generations from a recognized breed.
A mode of replication in which a circular parent molecule produces a linear branch of newly formed DNA.
rolling circle replication
The end of a DNA or RNA strand that terminates in a free phosphate group not connected to a sugar farther along.
5" end
A protein able to bind and stabilize single-stranded DNA.
single stranded DNA binding protein (SSBP)
A palindrome is a sequence that___
Is the same when read from either direction
sugar, base, phosphate___
nucleotide
The five-carbon sugar in RNA.
ribose
dominant
ruling, governing, or controlling; having or exerting authority or influence:
The technique used to separate molecules on the basis of their different rates of movement in an electric field is known as___
electrophoresis
Bidirectional replication of a circular DNA molecule, starting from a single origin of replication.
theta replication
___hydrolyzes ATP tp drove unwinding of DNA
helicase
phenotype
the observable constitution of an organism.
In a random sequence consisting of equal proportions of all four nucleotides, what is the average distance between consecutive occurrences of the restriction sites for the Tth111 I 5'-GACNNNGTC-3', where N stands for any nucleotide?
4096
A polymer of covalently linked nucleotides.
polynucleotide chain
An organic base found in nucleic acids; the predominant pyrimidines are cytosine, uracil (in RNA only), and thymine (in DNA only).
pyrimidine
A deoxyribose sugar lacking the 3'' hydroxyl group; when incorporated into a polynucleotide chain, it blocks further chain elongation.
dideoxyribose
The pyrimidine bases are ___
Thymine and cytosine
A protein that separates the strands of double-stranded DNA.
helicase
The semiconservative copying of a DNA molecule.
replication
bonds linking sugar components through the phosphate groups are___
phosphodiester bonds
carrier
the bottom support of anything; that on which a thing stands or rests:
heterozygous
having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic.
probability
the quality or fact of being probable.
karyotype
the chromosomes of a cell, usually displayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size.
homozygous
having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics.
A strand of nucleic acid whose base sequence is copied in a polymerization reaction to produce either a complementary DNA or RNA strand.
template
___initiates synthesis of RNA from DNA without needing a primer
RNA polymerase
The bases are spaced every _____________. There are ________bases per helical turn in each strand.
3.4 A, 10
A nuclease that recognizes a short nucleotide sequence (restriction site) in a DNA molecule and cleaves the molecule at that site; also called a restriction enzyme.
restriction endonuclease
An enzyme that catalyzes formation of a covalent bond between adjacent 5''-P and 3''-OH termini in a broken polynucleotide strand of double-stranded DNA.
DNA ligase
The base sequence at which DNA synthesis begins.
replication origin
The enzyme complex that forms the RNA primer for DNA replication in eukaryotic cells.
primosome
A radioactive DNA or RNA molecule used in DNA-RNA or DNA-DNA hybridization assays.
probe
A nucleic acid hybridization method in which, after electrophoretic separation, denatured DNA is transferred from a gel to a membrane filter and then exposed to radioactive DNA or RNA under conditions of renaturation; the radioactive regions locate the ho
southern blot
The chemical orientation of the two strands of a double-stranded nucleic acid molecule; the 5''-to-3'' orientations of the two strands are opposite one another.
anti parallel
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism or group of organisms with reference to a single trait, set of traits, or an entire complex of traits.
gene
the basic physical unit of heredity; a linear sequence of nucleotides along a segment of DNA that provides the coded instructions for synthesis of RNA, which, when translated into protein, leads to the expression of hereditary character.
The usual mode of DNA replication, in which each strand of a duplex molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand, and the daughter molecules are composed of one old (parental) and one newly synthesized strand.
semiconservative replication
A diagram of a DNA molecule showing the positions of cleavage by one or more restriction endonucleases.
restriction map
In B-form DNA, the smaller of two continuous indentations running along the outside of the double helix.
minor groove
Procedure for DNA sequencing in which a template strand is replicated from a particular primer sequence and terminated by the incorporation of a nucleotide that contains dideoxyribose instead of deoxyribose; the resulting fragments are separated by size v
dideoxy sequencing method
What is the base sequence of a DNA strand that is complementary to 5'-CGATTCGG-3' sequence?
5'-CCGAATCG-3'
transfer rna
a small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
The chemical bonds in DNA by which the sugar components of adjacent nucleotides are linked through the phosphate groups are called___
phospodiester bonds
Each new DNA strand is initiated by a ____
Short RNA primer
A DNA strand terminating in a dideoxynucleotide cannot be elongated because____
a 3' -OH is necessary for polymerization
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