Geo 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
intermediate, felsic
continental settings
nonfoliated, fine-grained, sugary-textured metamorphic rock; very hard, formed from quartz
Atlantic ocean
in the middle
layers of sedimentary rock
Slip Face
steeper face, points downward
flat-topped seamount from wave erosion
Wavelength refers to distance between crests whereas wave period refers to time between crests
largest particle that can be transport
shield volcano
broad, slightly dome-shaped, cover large areas, mild eruptions of large volumes of mafic lava
describing particles formed in situ (in place)
7 continents
Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America
turbidities are common on the
continental shelf
Thailands is the largest exporter of
textural feature of some limestones; fine-grained carbonate mud
Hot spot
Is a presistent volcanic center located above a mantle plume.
pyroclastic ejecta
-ash & bombs
-makes tuffs & breccias
till at the margins of the ice
the process by which colloidal (i.e. clay-size) particles join together
Scientific Method
principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving a hypothesis, experimentation, collection of data, analysis data, and draw a conclusion
When water condenses, it ____________ heat energy and ____________ the surrounding air.
releases; heats
-u shaped valleys that have been flooded by sea water
standing waves that occur in natural basins
Rat Migration
rats migrated with humans (for whatever reason) and you can trace routes of migration based off of genetic skeletal structure. Basically, if Hawaii and the Cook Islands had similar rats then they were undoubtedly interacting.
Which one of the following rocks is not a biogenic sedimentary rock: a) limestone b) bituminous coal c) gypsum d) lignite
glacial ice exhibits what behavior near the top; but what behavior beneath a depth of 60m?
brittle and ductile
what are the 4 sedimentary processes
weathering and erosion-transportation-deposition-lithification
If you are located on zero degrees latitude, then you are on the
A Horizon
The Transition Zone also called top soil. Dark in color and has rich organic compounds.This area is disrupted by plows.
the period of British rule in India, which lasted for nearly 200 years, from 1857 to 1947
Clay minerals can absorb water because they are
negatively charged
How many fatalities were caused by hurricane katrina?
1464 dead.
angular distance east or west on the earth's surface, measured by the angle contained between the meridian of a particular place and some prime meridian, as that of Greenwich, England, and expressed either in degrees or by some corresponding difference in
Coastal erosion is aggravated by:
long-term sustained sea-level rise probably due to the melting of polar ice and by short-term disturbances such as storm events and tsunamis.
after air cools because of elevation
falls downward to earth
The process by which Earth material is broken down in situ into smaller pieces is called
____________ ______________.
physical weathering
Volcanic Arc
Magmatic Arc
Island Arc
Volcanic Arc:
Magma comes up under land mass where submergence is happening forming a mountain, like a big lava-pimple
Magmatic arc: Magma pools up under the surface near subduction zone but does not form mountain/volcano
Island Arc: magma comes up under ocean near subduction zone and creates island.
The region of the mantle about 100 to 250 km beneath Earth’s surface where rocks are plastic and easily deformed. Mushy and flows.
What is the Bathymetric metric technique based on?
The energy of sound
valleys carved by glaciers tend to be shaped like what letter? and valleys carved by water are shaped like what?
U and V
What is the outer core?
2300 km, liquid, made of iron
frontal lifting
- cold and warm fronts- a warm air mass ALWAYS goes up over a cool air mass
slump or rotational slide
combined flow and slide on a curved surface, leaves scarp
How is normal fault different from a reverse fault? 
Hanging wall goes up
erosion will occur when what is greater than what?
stream power greater than critical power
1800 - early idea like evolution
'chain of being' - a straight-line classficiation
What were the first land vertebrates? when did they first appear{name of perios}and the years before they were present
crossopterygians, a fish that came to land in the Devonian period about 400 million years ago
What were the main effects of cyclone sally?
15.8 million dollars in damage
30 gov buildings destroyed
Damage to concrete seawall
Hurricane Category 2:
hydrolysis of plagioclase (matching)
-compression stress
-folds & faulting
San Andreas Fault
Transform Fault (matching)
Soft Stabilization
working with beach processes
extinct freshwater reptile whose fossils in Brazil and South Africa
freezing, resin, asphalt impregnation (tar pits), unaltered
plate are measured in relation to?
% Of Earth Covered By Deserts
marker bed
easily recognized, aka key bed
youngest rock
-center of syncline/sides of anticline
Magma that reaches the Earth's surface
sed over ERODED sed rock(some releif)
silicate mineral, member of pyroxene family; ferromagnesian
temperate glacier
glacier where surface melting gentle, or no thermal gradient
What is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface called?
Basalts at Continental Rifts example
Basin and Range
Root growth enlarges joint openings and is therefore a process associated with
___________ ______________.
physical weathering
volcanic breccia
consist of larger fragments of volcanic debris that either fall through the air and accumulate or form when a lava flow breaks into pieces.
the book considered slumps as phenomena in
unconsolidated rocks
-water that is less than 3.5% salinity
an adjective used in reference to igneous rocks that are rich in feldpar and quartz
the science dealing with the areal differentiation of the earth's surface, as shown in the character, arrangement, and interrelations over the world of such elements as climate, elevation, soil, vegetation, population, land use, industries, or states, and
Impact Theory Crash Site
Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
found in late 1980s
mainly made of limestone which also caused degassing
Principle of Uniformitarianism
Earth processes occurring today are similar to those that occurred in the past
Plate Tectonic
is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motions of Earth's lithosphere. The theory builds on the older concepts of continental drift, developed during the first decades of the 20th century (one of the most famous advocates was Alfred Wegener), and was accepted by the majority of the Geoscientific community when the concepts of seafloor spreading were developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere is broken up into what are called "tectonic plates". In the case of the Earth, there are currently seven to eight major (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. The lithospheric plates ride on the asthenosphere. These plates move in relation to one another at one of three types of plate boundaries: convergent, or collisional boundaries; divergent boundaries, also called spreading centers; and conservative transform boundaries. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation occur along these plate boundaries. The lateral relative movement of the plates varies, though it is typically 0-100 mm annually (Read & Watson 1975)[2].
The tectonic plates are composed of two types of lithosphere: thicker continental and thin oceanic. The upper part is called the crust, again of two types (continental and oceanic). This means that a plate can be of one type, or of both types. One of the main points the theory proposes is that the amount of surface of the (continental and oceanic) plates that disappear in the mantle along the convergent boundaries by subduction is more or less in equilibrium with the new (oceanic) crust that is formed along the divergent margins by seafloor spreading.
Most major tsunamis are produced by earthquakes with hypocenters less than
a. 5 km
b. 10 km
c. 20 km
d. 30 km
e. None of the above
30 km
Plate Tectonic System
Lithosphere (crust + upper mantle, rigid solid), Asthenosphere (lower mantle, soft-solid capable of flow)
Coastal Upwelling
Deep, nutrient rich water comes up because water goes 90 degrees right offshore
Warm water goes North
Cold water goes South
Parallel Extinction
The mineral is extinct when the cleavage or length is aligned with one or the other of the cross hairs. The extinction angle is zero degrees
open space in towns in Mexico and other Spanish-speaking countries, often in front of a church
the belief that the soul, upon death of the body, comes back to earth in another body or form.
What occurs more, soil creep or rock creep?
Soil creep
the break up of rocks such as frost wedging or wave action
The range of the wavelengths of common swell varies from____ to ______ meters
56, 400
wet sand has a higher angle of repose than dry sand
parts of a hurricane
-eye- eye wall- spiral rain bands
a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size, surrounded by land.
Life on other planets
Could be possible since carbon based planets are common
removal of a block of rock out of the bedrock by a glacier
Lateral Blast
Caused by a sudden release of pressure on a volcanoes
magmatic system and produce a low angle blast. 1st ID’d at Mt. St.
Besides composition, what else influences explosivity?
gas content! a subduction zone will have more gas than at a M.O.R. bc volatileness from water- the more water vapor the more volatile
el nino (southern oscillation)
- changes in sea surface in tropical pacific ocean- easterly trade winds weaken (wild fires & droughts)- upwelling reduced- warm water that is nutrient poor- rain and flooding in the winter in CA to FL- miler winters in the north
Stage 5 of a tropical cyclone:
a calm center of the storm forms
What factors contributed to the dust bowl of the 1930s?
Extended drought. Over-grazing. Over-plowing. Use of sod as a building material.
____ , the creator of Hinduism, gave every living thing a spirit or soul. Many are vegetarians and ___ are sacred and are allowed to wander freely through city streets.
Brahma , Cow ( Zebu )
What is the backarc region?
It is the acrea loacted on the side of the volcanic arc opposite the trench
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