Geography final 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Providence Canyon
continental shield
exposed craton
die Hauptstadt
capital city
agricultural cultivation
rice, wheat, millet
an exposed craton
continental shield
Buildup of salt in fields
vertical air motion, early-cumulus stage- updraft and cloud formation, mature stage- most active with rain, wind, lightening, and thunder there is up and down draft, dissipatiing stage- light rain, only down draft
Technology systems
clusters interrelated energy, transportation, and production technologies that dominate economic activity for several decades at a time
Uppermost, solid portion of the mantle, plus the crust
interdependent community of plants and animals
strong feelings of collective identity shared by religious or ethnic groups that are concentrated within one particular region
the action or process of eroding.
Arctic / Antarctic
A, AA = cold
Subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family.
gobalized aggriculture
consumer driven agriculture integrated on an international scale
area with conditions suitible for certain plants or animals to live
Relative location
location in relation to another location - near a river
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
creole language
composed of elements of many languages, understood by all
economic system

way people produce and exchange goods, ser vices
The Palestanians were left without a homelanda-after the Islamic religion was establishedb-because Palestine was given to the Ottomansc-as a result of the Arab-Israeli War of 1948d-because in 1947 Jews made up 70% of Palestine
Distance Decay
trailing-off phenomenon in which the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact
contact diminishes with increaing distance and eventually disappears
Imaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth parallel to the Equator, measuring how far north or south of the Equator a place is located. A measure of distance north or south of the equator.
Clastic sedimentary rocks
Sedimentary rocks formed from fragments of other rocks
What is the capital of Nevada?
Carson City
Peripheral regions
regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition, with as little human impact as possible.
long term, large scale changes that lead to new species (speciation)
having an almost vertical slope or pitch, or a relatively high gradient, as a hill, an ascent, stairs, etc.
an area in which many features are similar
Distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, measured in degrees; lines on a map or globe that meet at the North Pole and the South Pole; used to measure distance east and west of the Prime Meridian.
rejects use of math as most essential human beliefs & values, can't be measured
Meandering Stream
- stream with wide curves
-common in lower reach of stream
-develops on flood plain
-stream carries silt and clay
-wide, flat flood plain
-a lot of room for water to move around
-becomes wider until they are cut off to form oxbow lakes and flood plains
Where is Mesopotamia?
Between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Nomadic herding is
a form of subsistence agriculture where livestock is supported by land to arid for successful crop growth and nomadic herders must continuously move the cattle to find food
this is when a foreign entity controls another country through economic means. It owns a lot of business and the flow of imports and exports. ghandi stopped this in india.
For much of their history the Irish have been ruled by the....
the process of water soaking into the ground
human footprint
humans altering the environment on the global scale; the influencing of mankind on earth
Renewable energy
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
What state is the inner core?
solid and rigid
a river in France, flowing NW through Paris to the English Channel. 480 mi. 773 km long.
natural resource
any material in nature that people use and value
This place has fewer than 10 inches of rain a year.
All deserts are barren?
No, in fact very few are.
the loss of all vegetation in an area following a drought
falling off or shed seasonally or at a certain stage of development in the life cycle
mass of sand that slowly moves due to gravitation
seasonal movement
form of cyclic movement when a person moves temporarily because of a change in season.
The US Civil war was fought to keep eight pro-slavery Southern Stats fmor seceding form the Union.
storm surge
high water level brought by a cyclone that swamps low-lying areas
What is a boundary that uses land features for lines?
Physical (Natural)-political boundary
teritary activities involve
the sale and exchange of goods and services
natural resource map
a map that shows the natural resources all over the world
define geographic information systems (GIS).
computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze & display geographic data
a former empire in E Europe and N and W Asia: overthrown by the Russian Revolution 1917.
what year did the EEC reinvent themselves? through what?
1965 thru the Brussels treaty
Gross National Product (GNP)
Is similar to GDP except that includes income that people earn abroad.
Tibet and Dalai Lama
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia and a disputed territory, north of the Himalayas.
At various times from the 1640s until 1950s, a government nominally headed by the Dalai Lamas, a line of spiritual political leaders, ruled a large portion of the Tibetan region.
Which way are the winds of a wave cyclone in the warm sector?
primarily southwesterly to southerly
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided the US for the sale of land for settlers
What is the basis for claims that the Middle East is the center of the Islamic world and why is such a characterization not entirely accurate?
It isn’t accurate because only 25% of the worlds muslims live in the Middle East
Des Moines
study of population
Saudi Arabia




The United Arab Emirates


largest- Saudi Arabia
of the lineage of
the growth of city populations

naturally formed features on Earth's surface
What accounts for Venezuela’s economic wealth?
Mid-20th Century Industrialization
A great landmass surrounded by oceans
What animals were domesticated for religous reasons?
Natural Disasters
re-build schools, homes, hospitals, business buildings, costing alot of money.loss of money could have been spent on more important things
The system of words, their pronunciation, and methods of combination used and mutually understood by a community of individuals.
The Rhine flows from?
South to North.
Which ocean is east of Africa?
the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations
Where is mid latitude steppe?
great plains
the relatively rapid downhill slippage of water-saturated soil or regolith.
lower and less steep mountains, with rounded tops
lake nasser
artificial lake in southern Egypt created in the 1960s by the construction of the Aswan High Dam
What is the worlds largest desert?
the Sahara
ancillary activities
banking, law enforcement, things that are not associated with the core activity of a firm
a commercial city in western Germany, in the state of Hesse
systems of roads, ports, and other facilities needed by modern economies
Define Geomancy
belief that physical attributes of places can be analyzed and manipulated to improve the flow of cosmic energy.
More developed regions
Anglo-America (USA and Canada), Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan, South Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, some Pacific Islands).
the systematic killing of all the people from a national, ethnic, or religious group, or an attempt to do this
-the cross breeding of plants of different varieties in order to produce a new plant with desirable traits from both parent varieties; the Green Revolution has popularized its use (see tudy guide)
learn about the world by finding outwhere things are and why they are there
of, pertaining to, or designating a city or town.
the city that is the seat of government of a state, nation, or province
Who is the notable geographer who studied the perceptual regions of the south?
Wilbur Zelinsky
Formal Regions
formal regions are groups of areal units that have a high degree of homogeneity in terms of particular distinguishing features (such as religious adherence or household income).
Utah- Mormons
A plantation is a large farm or estate, usually in a tropical or subtropical country, where crops are grown for sale in distant markets, rather than for local consumption. The term plantation is informal and not precisely defined. Crops grown on plantations include cotton, coffee, tobacco, sugar cane, sisal, and various oil seeds and rubber trees. The term "plantation" has usually not included large orchards, but has included the planting of trees for lumber. A plantation is always a monoculture over a large area and does not include extensive naturally occurring stands of plants that have economic value.
Jai alai
played like handball with a long basket strapped to their wrists
someone who seeks safety by going to another country
single chains, found in the crust and mantle
What is the capital of Vatican City?
Vatican City
410 Type of gerrymandering in which pockets of a particular group are linked together
Stacked Vote
natural increase
the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths during a specific time period
on of the tow main branches of Islam
specialist holidays
holidays based on a particular area, interest or study.
South Pole
the point on earth located 90 degrees south latitude where the lines of longitude meet
C.M. - What is a vast rolling plain without trees?
What two countries are most productive with Timber?
BRazil and Chile
culture region
a portion of the earth's surface that has common cultural elements
this plan called for a one house legislature with one vote for each state
New Jersey
a cone-shaped mass of material made by volcanic eruption
Linguistic diversity
The differences in how a language is spoken
What is the primary process in tropics for raindrop formation and in mid-latitudes during the summer?
Collision-Coalescence Process
A climograph is a chart that is used to show the average temperatures, rainfall, and other weather related data that pertain to a particular place.
Which country has the highest standard of living in the region? What are some reasons for this?
Costa Rica--Education, democracy, Political Stability, and Foreign Investment.
What is species-Based conservation? 2 kinds!
Directed toward one species; endangered species act!-In situ conservation: focus on natural habitat of species, i.e. Northern Spotted owl sensitive to habitat-Ex situ conservation: out of it's environment, lab/cage/zoo maintain #s
Bora wind
N to NE Kabatic wind in Adriatic or Aegean Sea.
Remote sensing Chapter 1
the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long distance methods
Plastic flow
Pressure of snow and ice at the top of the glacier causes the ice depth to deforem and move downslope in an effort to reduce the pressure on it.
The Green Revolution is
a revolution in the 20th century in which modern cultivarion methods were used to produced more food per acre. To keep up with popl growth
What enhanced the theory of sea floor spreading
magnetic reversals or paleomagnetism
Outbound and Domestic Tourism in India
Outbound: low, mostly middle class and wealthy
Domestic: higher than outbound pilgrimages are important
What 3 islands are part of the Greater Antilles?
Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico.
How does beach sand move along the coast?
from longshore currents, it moves the sand southwards in most places, the sand flows along the breakside into the spit
Why does Milan, Italy have a hot and dry climate?
the tall peaks of the Alps block winds carrying moisture from the North Atlantic
la baia
los angeles
Hindu Kush location
Geography (Middle Colonies)
Rich soils
-one person rules
-totalitarian dictator
-absolute monarchy
a stable platform
What is Islam's holiest city?
hurricane in the western pacific
How is A horizon formed?
This colonia, created by the activities of the American Manufacturing Company, became an important Puerto Rican  place in NYC
What type of territory is Yugoslavia?
Mesclun/Yuppie Greens/Spring Mix
Guthman- fast food/organic foodborrowed from the French. organic greens originally sold in bags (industrialized)
A representative lawmaking body whose members are elected or appointed and in which legislative and executive functions are combined.
the uninhibited or very sparsely occupied zone
What is the capital of Rwanda?
internal migration
the permanent or semipermanent movement of individuals within a particular country
elements or compounds with a crystalline structure; found in all soils
a large, more or less circular depression or basin associated with a volcanic vent, its diameter often many times greater than the original vent. may be the result of collapse or subsidence or may also result from an explosive event
Land wird nur an eine (älteste) Person vererbt
Folk Culture
body of institutions, customs, dress, artifacts, collective wisdoms, and traditions of a homogenous, isolated, largely self-sufficient and relatively static group
half a sphere...northen and southern. divided by equator.
an agricultural or mining product that can be sold
Oil Reserves
Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emerates (UAE), Libya, Algeria.
Mixed Forest
Forest with both coniferous and deciduous trees.
- natural beauty
- entirely in appalacian mountain
- "The mountain state"
tall buildings
increased roughness of surface areas, which can slow overall winds so heat and pollutants are not as easily dispersed
Physical Geography
study of physical phenomena on Earth
210 Two languages of Belgium
French & Flemish
a movement in western europe beginning in 1517, when many christians broke away from the catholic church and started protestant churches; this led to mutual hostility and religious wars that tore apart europe
condition of the atmosphere in the same place over a short time
A mountain which has lava coming out
The climate of an area:
includes temperature and precipitation
What type of alliance was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization?
The North and South conflict of Sudan was intensified by the Muslim-dominated regime where, to impose Islam's Sharia religious laws?
What was a highway for early explorers, settlers & immigrants?
Atlantic Ocean
Elevation above where it is too cold for trees to grow
Prime Meridian
An imaginary line that runs through Greenwich, England.
Berlin Conference
1884 Conference dividing Africa into European colonial territories. Ignored African culture, tribes, physical boundaries. Caused civil conflicts.
City Beautiful movement
Movement in environmental design from the beaux arts school. Architects strolve to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces conveying a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the industrial world.
342 Leader of the African National Congress (ANC) and first black president of South Africa
Nelson Mandela
industrial revolution
a time of major improvements in industrial technology
wind blown silt and clay material that produce very fertile soil; found across the world.
steep, high wall of rock, earth, or ice
islamic republic
the name given to several states in the muslim world
What did societies survive on before agriculture?
Hunting and Gathering
When was the ban on ivory trade lifted?
late 1990s
Language Family
A group of languages thought to have descended from a single common ancestral tongue.
Stream Capacity
the total amount of load being moved by a stream
384 Only large landmass not a part of a sovereign state
What % of the earth's volume do the upper and lower mantle comprise?
the way of life of people who share similar beliefs and customs
North Atlantic Drift
A warm ocean current that brings mild temperatures and rain to parts of northern Europe
China Compatriots and Foreigners Definition
Compatriots: Ethnic Chinese living in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan
Foreigners: People traveling on non-Chinese passports
a line of latitude about 23 degrees South of the equator
tropic of capricorn
Environmental Perception
a person’s idea or image of a place; may often be inaccurate
How many people are in Israel today?
6.4 million (1 million Arabs)
What is the “resource curse” and how does it apply to Nigeria?
The “resource curse” makes countries less stable because the extraction of materials can lead to conflict.“Resource curse” was able to fund both the Rebel Groups and Government for a longer period of timeBoth groups (Government and Rebel groups) used money to buy weapons.*30% of the population lived on a dollar a day before oil extraction. This went up to 70% once the oil drilling and extractions began
sphere of influence
area of a country in which a foreign power has political or economic control
Discuss the geography of South America.
Latin america was colonized by mostly Spain and Portugal. They are very family oriented. They enjoy music,dance, and arts. They play soccer and baseball. They celebrate holidays to the extreme like Carnival. Literacy rate is 90%.Most developed countries are Brazil and Mexico. 1/6 of them have t.v.s Amazon is 130 miles wide. Amazon is mostly navigable, largest waterflow, mid of rain forest and longest river in Western hemisphere.
When did canada become and independent country?
in 1876 after Great Britian approved of their own governing
What were the reasons for the expansion of the Russian empire?ch10
The expansion was for an effort to gain coastline. They gained the resource of fur from expanding which is good b/c of the climate and how people dressed.
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