GEOL 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Natural breakwaters
Hot Spots composition
Pillow basalts:
erupted into water.
January 12, 2010
Port-au-PrinceHaiti date
icicle-like formation that's grown from the floor of a cave from dripping water
pipe that lava comes from
Example of composite volcanoes
Cascade RangeVesuviusAtlantis
Groundwater inputs:
precip, seepage from surface
What region corresponds to "BOUNDSTONE, and GRAINSTONE" rocks?

B) slope
C) lagoon
pyroclastic debris
explosive, high-water content, high-viscosity magma
U-shaped valley
(length a glacially eroded valley,resembles "u")forms because the combined processes of glacial abrasion and plucking not only lower the floor of the valley, they also bevel its sides
volcanic domes
_______ are steep-sided spine-shaped masses of volcanic rock formed from viscous magma.
flood plain
flat area surrounding the channel
cluster of genera that share particular traits
• Angle of inclination, max. angle perpendicular to strike.Ex: Follows natural flow direction of water on surface
Horizontal river of magma under Earth's surface
any chem, phys, biological change undergone by sed/organism after its initial decomposition(death)
transfers heat through collision of atoms or motions of electrons
partially molten, "weak" zone within the upper mantle immediately below the lithosphere
sinking or settling of the ground water is removed faster and sediment settles, only occurs in loose sediment
medial moraine
where debris constituting 2 lateral moraines merge to become a strip running down the interior of a glacier
mountain belts
5 geologic features that support evidence for continental drift are the fit of continents, _____ _____, fossil distribution, glaciation, and paleoclimates.
trellis drainage
on layers of resistant and non-resistant rock
a southern super continent composed of all present-day southern-hemisphere continents and india (which drifted North by modern times)
Density Stratification
Solid earth, oceans and atmosphere have layers based upon density differences, they are density stratified
Glacial till
• Sediment deposited when ice melts. • Melting ice can’t sort sediments. • Characterized by very poorly sorted, polished and scratched sediments.
92,000 - 230,000 believed dead
Port-au-PrinceHaiti fatality numbers
Organic rocks
Formed from remains of dead organisms ex.) coal
truncated spur
ridges that have triangular facets produced by glacial erosion at their lower ends
nonsilicate minerals
Calcite - calcium carbonateDolomite - carbonate of calcium and magnesiumHalite or gypsum - formed by seawater or saline lake waterOxide minerals - lack silicon and include iron oxides
formation of underwater caverns due to erosion by water moving underground
What is an oxbow lake?
a disconnected meander
geologic cross-section
Helpful to label the sections then make tick marks. Dotted lines represent eroded material.
Reverse faults
Hanging wall moves up relative to footwall
Results from compression
Shorten and thicken the Earth's crust
perfect flood machine
Northern California is considered to be the _______ ______ _______ because:
1. Lots of water is stored at high elevations
2. Water drains quickly from those locations
3. Water drains into a flat area with only a single, narrow outlet.
Changing Boundaries
New plate boundaries are created in response to changes in the forces acting on the lithosphere.
The core-mantle boundary
• Discovered in 1914 by Beno Gutenberg • Based on the P-wave shadow zone • No P waves from 105 to 140 degrees • S waves do not travel through the outer core provides of liquid outer core below the mantle
The number of F6 tornadoes documented in recorded history is
exactly zero
Factors that control weather:
amount of insolation received, temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed & direction
trace fossils
such as verticle burrows, reflect high energy conditions, horizontal ones are low energy setting
strike-slip fault
a fault where the movement is predominantly horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault
Know Thrust Fault
*caused by compression (shortening of crust by .5-20-750 km)
Convergent plate boundary
plate boundary at which lithospheric plates are moving toward each other (ex a subductino zone or continental collision zone); compression stress, reverse faults
what did the Eusthenopteron thermoregulate?
by sunning themselves on mudbanks
specific gravity
the ratio of a substance's weight to the weight of an equal volume of water
Steep slopes contain:
sediment that is poorly sorted and angular.
mature river
fed by many tributaries and has more discharge than a youthful river
what FORMS Travertine?
mineral-charged water as it cools and calcium carbonate precipitates
lava tubes
crust encases flow -> creates a tube, insulates flow, allows flow to travel a longer distance
Coal is formed by
Plant matter decaying in a high-pressure, anaerobic environment (terrestrial)
negative magnetic anomaly
a reading of magnetic field strength that is lower than the regional average
resurgent calderas
a caldera where the floor starts to uplift again
delta forms by
a stream entering a large body of water its currents die out and deposits sediment
What is chert?
-A kind of biogenic rock that consists of extremely tiny particles of quartz
-Quartz comes from shells of animals
Blocky Lava aka "aa"
appears rubbly and forms when the solidified surface is broken up by lava flowing beneath
wind energy
COULD produce 20% of energy in US by 2030 IF developed.
What are 5 types of folds?
anticlines, synclines, domes, basins, and monoclines
very fluid (low viscosity)
Magma with a low silica content tends to be _____.
What happens during Chilean-type subduction?
- young buoyant ocean floor is "forced" to subduct -- plates meet with great force- angle of subduction is shallow- earthquakes are frequent and strong- compression occurs -- creating trench-parallel mountains
zone of ablation
the lower part of a glacier where ice is lost, or ablated, by melting, evaporation, and calving
How is it in comparison to early devonian plants?
much taller and more rigid
The single most important agent of landscape formation in deserts is?
A. wind
B. water
C. geologic uplift
D. creep
E. solution
How is the roots meter designed?
- there is positive displacement meter used for measuring large gas volumes at high flow rates- chamber encloses two machined impellers, which rotate in opposite directions - figure 8 pattern- inlet and outlet gas connections are on opposite sides- revolutions of the impellers measure air as air enters/ exits meter- revolutions are counted through indexed meter reading- Advantage: - Disadvantage: intrusion of particulates will contaminate gas measurements
Where is the conducting strand most effective?
small low plants in areas with abundant soil water.
What is the zone of saturation?
The zone below the water table where all the pore spaces are filled with water
What is the fetch of wind?
the distance that the wind has travled across open water
The highest wind speed recorded in a tornado is
higher than the highest wind speed recorded in a hurricane
When flooding occurs along a river, as you go further downstream
the flooding gets less severe as water spreads out in time and space
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