Geology - Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
curving outward
Dunkard Group
works of glaciers
Overlapping Alluvial fan
Mineral resources are
economic commodities.
slowest body wave
s wave
modern invertebrate phylum/class
-early Cambrian
foliated texture
Slaty, phylliritic, Schiotose,gnessic(mineral bonding)
A large, steep-walled, basin-shaped depression formed after a violent eruption in which large volumes of magma re discharged, when the overlying volcanic structure collapses catastrophically through the roof of the emptied magma chamber.
A fine-grained, foliated metamorphic rock that develops from shale and tends to break into thin, flat sheets.
litosphere lies immediately abovetis part o earths interor
Contains the protons and neutrons
_________are fractures (breaks) in rocks along which appreciable displacement has taken place
Oceanic Crust
ocean floor average 8km
Warm, clear, shallow, normal salinity, marine water
geologic structures
produced by deformation, includes: joints, faults, folds and foliation
physical and chemical
Minerals have definite____________ properties.
Chert, formed?
main rock forming mineral quartz
line connecting points of same earthquake intensity
Actual damage or resultant deformation that we can measure.
aspect of detrital sedimentary rocks is most useful in determining source area
envelope of gasses that surround earth
How were Himalayan Mountains created?
Transform Boundary
a large, long-lasting mass of ice,
formed on land, that moves downhill under
its own weight
leftover decomposed plant and animal matter
the perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal
gass bubbles, are a lot smaller
poorly sorted sediment deposited from the melt of glacial ice
realized that fossil seashells from rocks were similar to those found on the beach.

fossils were once living animals.
his theory was that the positions of land and sea had changed and thought these changes occurred over long periods of time.
form by chemical precipitaiton of minerals from water
restraining bends
left bends in right-lateral faults; fault locks in compression
long sand ridges. right angle to wind
Bending of rock layers that are squeezed together
ground sinks permanently du to water table being drawn too much and not recharged
Digging wells in east texas - discovery of natural gas
P waves
fastest wave, first, passes through solid liquid and gas, refracts, compressional waves
A ________ is a volcanic depression much larger than the original, crater, formed when the volcano collapses into a vacated magma chamber.
Volcanic "opportunities"
1. New Land
2. Soil improvement
3. Geothermal Power
Sedimentary Rock classification
defined by particle characteristics and composition:
a) Clastic - conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone/shale, arkose
b) Biochemical - limestone, skeletal limestone, micrite (chemical limestone)
c) Organic - coal
d) Chemical (evaporates) - rock salt, rock gypsum
Limestone Breccia
Detrital, coarse grain with large angular fragments, has acid reaction
Subsidence at a a continental margin is governed by two main processes: 1. cooling of lithosphere and 2. weight of sediments
igneous rocks that form when molten rock solidifies at surface
_________ -impermeable layers that hinder or prevent water movement (such as clay and unfractured igneous or metamorphic rock).
Aquicludes or aquitards
Thermal Metamorphism
metamorphism caused by heat conducted into country rock from an igneous intrusion
mort common rock in world, volcanic, dark, fine grained, silica poor, basic, common in oceanic crust and solar system, used in road constrction
How much radiation is scattered and reflected by clouds?
The accident at the Chernobly nuclear power plant caused similar levels of environmental degradation as did the Three Mile Island accident.
A sedimentary rock composed of very fine-grained silica
Geothermal Gradient
The temperature increase with the depth into Earth.
When did James Ussher believe the Earth was created?
Blocks of bedrock slide down a slope
Generally very fast and destructive
the push, pull or shear a material feels when subjected to force
Absolute Age
The actual number of years elapsed from a geologic event until now
Weathering pits
Depressions in the rock in which weathering causing soil to form succession stages of plant growth happen before a muture plant community is established Lichen produces acid, rock pool diamorpha can grow in the rocks
proterozoic eon
the eon following the archean and preceding the phanerozoic.
Sink hole
a circular depression in the ground surface commonly caused by collapse into an underground cavern formed by solution
line that connects points on a map that have the same temperature. Iso=equal; therm=temperature. Therefore, all points through which an isotherm passes have identical temperatures for the time period indicated.
Braided Stream
Stream channel that is difficult to define the center of that channel
mechanical weathering
Involves the physical break-up of rock into pieces.
silicon and oxygen combine to form the framework for the most common mineral group
Drainage Reversal
When the drainage system reverses due to tectonic processes
a class of minerals that are compounds of oxygen anion and metallic cations
which one of the following planets has the most atmospheric mass
ground moraine
till left behind by rapid ice retreat
Big Bang Theory
(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 13.7 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature
metamorphic rock
forms when heat and pressure change the composition or texture of other rocks
plate tectonics
see theory of plate tectonics, the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere
Ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
perched aquifer
a secondary water table that occurs above the normal water table because of an impermeable layer
Complex Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Al silicate plus Si2O6; cleavage--two at directions 90; very dark green to black, green to brow, to grayish green
Triangular Faults
When v-shaped valleys are cut into scarps, the remainder of the fault face on spurs between balleys assumes a triangulr shape known as a triangular faced
Supply and Demand for Oil:• Demand
o Historically (almost) always increasing
o Half of all oil consumption has occurred in the last 25 years!
Metamorphic Rocks
Rocks formed when other rocks are put under extreme heat and pressure
layer of pebbles and cobbles on the surface
large masses of ice on land that show evidence of being in motion or of once having moved under the force of gravity.
Which minerals are commonly found in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks?
Feldspar and quartz.
Shield Volcanoes
Gradual and very long slope. 10s of kms wide. Usually exudes basaltic lava. Ex. Hawaii - 5 form main island
Island Arcs
as oceanic crust of the sinking plate melts, magma rises through the top plate, over time the flows build up a series of islands
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Form from the products of the mechanical breakup of other rocks. Natural processes continually attack rocks exposed at the surface.
extrusive rock
igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface
Lunar Gravitational Force
Is more powerful than the solar gravitational force.
accumulation zone
the zone at the head of the glacier
Principle of Original Horizontality
Sediments are deposited under the influence of gravity in nearly horizontal beds.
positive feedback
a process in which ine action produces an effect (the feedback) that tends to speed up the original action and stabilize the process at a faster rate
continental rift zone (d)
linear belt along which continental lithosphere stretches and pulls apart
Historical geology
a major division of gelogy that deals with the origin of Earth and its develpment through time. usually involves the study of fossils and their sequence in rock beds.
Ways to study the sea floor
Sonar , Drilling, Paleomagnetism
Event between Mesozoic and Paleozoic
Largest mass extinction in Earth History
rain forests
-common to refer to them as the "lungs of the planet
-slash and burn tactics used to harvest timber and create space for agriculture in spaces such as the Amazon River basin. It sends clouts of gas into the atmosphere and also removes trees that convert gas into co2. THis helps mitigate greenhouse-gas buildup in the atm.
-rainforests are the source of many of today's drugs, and scientists fear they will be gone as rainforests are torn down.
over the past 2000 yrs which of the following volcanic hazards has caused the most fatalities?
pyroclastic flows
end (terminal) moraines
piles of glacial sediment left when a glacier sits and stalls in one position for a while
base level
lower limit to how deep a stream can erode
Rip Current
A seaward flow of water in a confined narrow zone from a beach to beyond the breaker zone.
Chemical Bonds
• Ions / atoms in compounds are held together
by electrical forces of attraction between e’s +
protons; chemical bonds• Ionic bonds: simplest type; “electrostatic”
• Covalent bonds: usu stronger than ionic bonds; formed by sharing e’s (e.g., C in diamond)
what are clastic sedimentary rocks?
Sedimentary rocks that have discrete fragments nd particles. All detrital rocks have a clastic texture
theroy of plate tectonics
earths lithosphere is made up of huge plates that move over the surface of the earth
How many scales to measure earthquakes?
3- Modified Mercali Scale (intensity), Richter scale, and moment magnitude scale.
2 5
the s wave is slower than the p wave and travels betwwen __________ and ___________ kilometers per hour
What are the global atmospheric circulation cells called, where are they located, and what do they do?
1) Polar, Ferrel, Hadley2) Pole, Middle, Equator, Equator, Middle, Pole3) Cold dry air descends as warm moist air rises
What are the factors controlling soil formation?
parent material, time, climate, plantes and animals, topgraphy
Pressure over the subtropical ocean is...
High, because ocean is cooler than land which makes air over ocean denser than over land, making pressure high
Law of superposition (Steno 1669)
law that states oldest rocks are on bottom
What is a dike?
a pluton that forms in a crack that cuts across the host rock
Walther's law can be applied to determine what the lateral facies relationships were at the time of deposition
in a conformable sequence of facies (blank) can be applied to determine (blank)
What are the layers of the Atmosphere?
Troposphere, the lowest layer with an average thickness of 11 km and convects vigorously owing to surface heating by the Sun. The above layer is the stratosphere a colder, dryer layer that extends to an altitude of about 50 km.
Where can we expect most thunderstorms to occur, at ridges or troughs in the jet stream?
In troughs where warm air crashes into cold air.
Name the deposit and the specific sedimentary rock that forms:
G. sediment deposited at the bottom of a lake
H. sediment left at the mouth of a river
I. sediment deposited on the continental shelf
G. sediment deposited at the bottom of a lake
(lake bottom sediment, shale)
H. sediment left at the mouth of a river
(delta, sandstone)
I. sediment deposited on the continental shelf
(silt and clay, shale)
How is an artesian well different from an ordinary well?
Wells are hole that are dug into a saturated zone. Artesian wells are tapped into aquifers.
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