Geology 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
consolidated
cemented
aretes
sharp ridges
seafloor spreading
...
Playa
Dry lake bed
inefficient drainage basins
good
Pahoehoe
Lava that looks ropy
yes
can magnitude be negative?
competence
maximum size particle transporte
toe
accumulation of wastage blance
 
end of glacier
Muscovite
K, Al... a NonFerromagnesian mineral
Floodplain deposits:
-fine grained sediment
-usually suspended load
limestone
a biochemical sedimentary rock lithified from carbonate sediments and composed mainly of calcium carbonate in the form of the mineral calcite.
glacial period
glaciers grow and advance
drainage patterns
dendritic(tree like)/radial(flows down from volcano)/rectangular(paved brick patio)/trellis
calcite
dominant constitute of sedimentary rocks
Transgression vertical sequence
LimestoneShaleSandstoneold land surface
Where are sediments deposited?
in water
Tides
the moons gravitational pull causes the tides
low clouds
below 2000 meters (stratus, stratocululus nimbostratus)
Foliation
organization, patterns in the rock. Slate, schist, gneiss (then magma)
Rocks with flat, wind-abraded surfaces are called:
ventifacts
felsic melts are almost alwaysderived from secondary meting in continental crust lowest
intermediate
fall
material free falls down a cliff
rhyolite
light brown, fine-grained felsic rock =granite
Size
larger particles settle faster than smaller ones
3 types of deformation
elastic, ductile, brittle
mass number
sum of protons and neutrons
igneous, sediment, metamorphic
3 types of rocks
Which metamorphic index mineral indicates the highest degree of metamorphism? A. chlorite B. staurolite C. sillimante
C.    sillimante
Effusive Eruption
gentle, lava, low viscosity, mafic
occur at hot spots or divergent boundaries
Ionic Bonds
Positive and negative charge

Weak bond, less resistant to weathering

Often expressed in minerals as cleavage
`What element allows a rock to preserve the paleomagnetic field of the earth?
Iron
splash wave
a long-wavelength wave produced when an object splashes into water
Tuff
When ash, or ash and lapilli, transform into coherent rock
geology
the science that examines the earth, its form, & composition, and the changes it has undergone and is undergoing
Transported Soil
Eroded rock particles that are transported by water, wind or glaciers and then modified in there new deposition location
contact metamorphism
occurs adjacent to an igneous intrusion, occurs in a narrow contact aureole and results in foliation textures
Compaction
This happens when pressure from the overlying rock presses all the fluids out of the pore spaces.
Earthquake
vibration of earth produced by the rapid release of energy
agents of contact
temp and chemically active fluids
contour lines
connect poings of the same elevations
causes of floods
heavy and intense rainfall, over-saturated soil, urbanization, high river or stream levels, poor levee construction
how many large plate boundaries are there
6
Energy Inputs and Outputs.
What drives the atmosphere?
The Barnett Shale produces gas because it is rich in:
Methane
Graywacke
dark gray sandstone consisting of a mixture of poorly sorted angular to subangular sand-sized particles of quartz, feldspar, rock fragmetns, and significant concentrations (at least 15%) of clay minerals
Ocean floor Major Topography
Continental margins, Deep-ocean basins, and Mid-ocean ridges
unconformity
occurs wehre erosion wears away layers of sedimentary rock. Other rock layers then form on top.
parent isotope
A radioactive isotope that undergoes decay
compressive stress
pushed together or squeezed from opposite directions.
lake
lacustrine. formed at the bottom or along the shore of lakes, as geological strata.
these form when sediments are compressed together or otherwise hardened, or when masses of intergrown mineral crystals precipitate from aqueous solutions
sedimentary rocks
dense materials________
sink to the center (iron alloys)
when shear stress is MORE than shear strength, landsliding occurs
TRUE
Half-Life
Of a radioactive element is the time it takes for half of the parent to decay into daughter product.
continental crust
oceanic crust is thinner and denser than _____________________ .
trichloroethylene (TCE)
pollutant found in degreasers and some wells in Dickson
Mantle
the third, mostly solid layer of the earth
lithosphere
the solid rocky outermost part of the Earth
silicates
minerals that have Si and O
SiO2 - quartz
KAlSi3O8 - feldspar
cinder cone volcanoes
smallest volcanoes, have steep sides, made of pyroclastics, form from basaltic lava, somewhat mellow eruptions
Which of the following seismic waves will arrive at a seismograph first?
P Waves.
earths atmosphere
78% nitrogen, and 21% oxygen; pressure increases the closer to earth you are
Well
a deep hole dug or drilled into the
ground to obtain water from an aquifer
coal begins to be formed in which environment?
swamps
what kind of soil is found in rochester
Afisols
Comets
form at a certain distance from the sun (frozen gas vaporizes creating the tail)
surface waves
seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface
Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
Biological influencesPsychological influencesSocial
If both the Greenland Ice Sheet and the Antarctic Ice Sheet were to melt, the sea level would only be about 6 inches.
T OR F
FALSE
Metamorphic rocks are formed by
Pressure, Heat, Hot Fluids
What is the role of the asthenosphere in Plate Tectonics?
--?
porosity
percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces
-Determines how much groundwater can be stored
-Variations can be considerable over short distances
How do glaciers move?
Internal Movement: flowing solid 200 m/yr, rotation of grains, slipping along weak surfaces, melting and refreezing. External Movement: basal slip- slipping on a layer of water between the ice and bedrock 200 m/yr
yazoo tributary
a tributary that flows parallel to the main stream because a natural levee is present
B and C only
foliation is defined by
a) the orientation of quartz minerals in a general direction
b) the orientation of amphibole crystals in a general direction
c) the orientation of platy minerals in a general direction
d. B and C only
Rift Valleys
Valleys formed by normal faulting at a divergent plate margin
cephalopods are excellent Mesozoic guide fossils because of their
rapid evolution and nektonic life-style
vein
a narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from the surrounding rock
Principle of fossil succession
fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order, and therefore any time period can be recognized by its fossil content.
Divergent Boundary
I an the boundary where the Eath's plates separate. Mid-ocean ridges form here.
volcano
A vent or series of vents that issue lava and/or pyroclastic material.
water table
the upper limit on the zone of saturation
Similarities btwn seaway & penn
Cretaceous- coal bearing clastic wedges (low in sulfur) && cyclothems
What forces eventually transform organic-rich deposits into coal.
Pressure (from being burried)Heat (from earth's core)TimeOrganic Material - plants that harvest sunlight - hence contain carbon.
Glaciers are an example of what kind of solids?
-ductile solids
zone of aerationterm
the area above water table including ccapillary fringe and belt of soil moisture-water here can't be pumped by wells b/c it clings to rock/soil
Law of Superposition
In any undisturbed sequence of rocks deposited in layers, the youngest layer is on top and the oldest on bottom, each layer being younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it.
isotope
One of two or more species of atoms of the same atomic number that have different atomic masses.
atoms are characterized by
their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus) and their atomic mass number (the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus)
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
Rocks made up of carbon-rich relics of plants
which layer in the earth does not transmit a S waves?
the outer core
are examples of microplates
The Juan de Fuca, Riveria, Cocos, Nazca, Caribbean, Burma, Arabia, Philippine, and Scotia
New Madrid seismic zone
•A Highly active seismic area that was hit by three of the largest earthquakes ever to hit the U.S.. It is not along a plate boundary however an ancient rift zone underlies the thick pile of sediment. The zone was formed over 500 million years ago, and is known to accumulate stress and slip occasionally. Near Missouri/S. Illinois
3 stresses that cause faults (faults happen at colder brittle surfaces):
-reverse faulting (compression)-normal faulting (tension)-strike-slip faulting (shear)-
How dows geology influence where and how we live?
Volcanoes, landslides, earthquakes, type of soil, rivers ++
principle of faunal succession
the layers of sedimentary rocks in an outcrop contain fossils in a definite sequence. The same sequence can be found in rocks at other locations and so strata from one location can be matched to strat in another location.
How are sedimentary rocks formed? (what do they look like?)
sediments are compacted and cemented together, layers
what are the 2 types of movement for glaciers
sliding and creep
Volcanoes linked to climate change
1815 volcano tamboro exploded and in 1816 it snowed in july in NE.
The plate tectonic theory predicts that California will eventually sink into the ocean.
False. Western California is predicted to move northward along the San Andreas transform with the Pacific Plate
right side of the Bowen series
calcium-rich parts of the magma form small crystals of feldspar
the moon is thought to have been created by what process
collision theory or capture theory
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
• atomic number: # protons in atom (thus, all
atoms of a particular element have same
atomic number)
• atomic mass: sum of masses of protons
and neutrons
• isotopes: atoms w/ same # protons but diff
# neutrons (e.g., Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbon-14)
landforms expected to be found on erosional coasts?
sea stacks, sea cliffs, and rocky headlands
Which does not occur as a result of metamorphic change?
Rocks break apart and crumble
4 ways to determine mineral composition
shape & size of xtal, acid test, test with magnet
What is earth magnetic field ? What ia a magnetic reversal


Region of magnetic force the surrounds the earth. 
a change in the polarity of the magnetic field.
how many seismographs do you need to locate the epicenter?
3. The station where all three station reading intersect is the epicenter
blah
blah
Groundmass
fine crystals
Effervescent
HCl, Calcite
felsic
Si and Al
schist
made of mica
oxidation
an element loses electrons
Palaeontology
The study of fossils.
Guyot
a submerged flat-topped seamount
prograde metamorphism
metamorphism via increasing temperature and pressure, orogenic belts
Solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air are called________.
Pyroclasts.
Lechatelierite
Only formed by lightning strikes.
Continental flood basalts
Thick, flat, immense.
climate change, earthquakes, tsunamies, volcanic gasses, lahars, tephra
volcanic hazards?
crest
highest point to a wave
Folding
bending of layers of rock
medial moraine
if 2 meet in middle
Gneiss
Foliated; Schist, Granite, or Volcanic Rocks
High Winds
Closely spaced isobars indicate ________.
What types of igneous rocks crystallizes deep within the Earth's crust?
Gabbro.
spreading center
where sea floor is created
Crater
circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.
Protolith:
the preexisting rock that undergoes mineralogical and textural changes in response to modification of its physical or chemical environment
Crossdating
a technique that ensures each individual tree ring is assigned its exact year of formation. this is accomplished by matching patterns of wide and narrow rings between cores from the same tree, and between trees from different locations.
nonpoint sources
diffuse and intermittent, influenced by such factors as land use, climate, hydrology, topography, native vegetation, and geology
Minerals
Basic Building materials for all things
Cross Bedding
deltas, sand dunes, river deposits
Stress
describes the forces that deform rocks
Describe Calving
Ice breaks away and melts
sediment (138)
inconsolidates particles created by the weathering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitations from solution in water, or from the secretions of organisms, and transported by water, wind or glaciers.
Describe the glacial budget.
In-zone of accumulation-snow; Out-ablation, general term for loss of ice or snow from a glacier, melting, calving-icebergs.
Si04
The basic building block of the silicate minerals
Erosional Unroofing
Weathering and erosion removes vast amounts of rock
true
t or f: porphyritic igneous rocks suggest a 2-stage cooling process of the magma
Wave refraction
Slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water so that they move near parallel to the shoreline.
concentration factor
measure of its concentration necessary for profitable mining . how many times the average crustal concentration of a metal must be increased or mined at a profit
hydrologic cycle
cyclical movemt of water-from oceans to the atmosphere by evaporation to earth's surface by precipitation to streams through runoff over and under the ground and back tot the oceans
Hadley Cell
- Example of global atmospheric circulation in tropical areas
rock cycle
the cycle of crystallizations that sees rocks moving between the 3 different forms of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks and being magma in between.
each may form at the expense of another if it is forced out of equilibrium with its physical or climatic environment by either internal or surfcial forces. it is important be aware that rock moves from deep to shallow, and from high to low in response to tectonic forces and isostasy.
star
a large sphere composed dominantly of hydrogen and helium in which fusion reactions are producing energy
Quartz has both what?
ionic and covalent bonds
superposition
layers of sedimentary rock are oldest on the bottom and youngest on the top
Mass Wasting
downhill movement of masses of bedrock, rock debris or soil, driven by the pull of gravity
subduction zones
____ characterized by lots of volcanism and seismicity.
Desertification
• Global climate change patterns can increase arid lands, and accompanying deserts - Arid: low amounts of precipitation. • Desertification: conversion of one type of land, such as a grassland, to something resembling a desert. • Most deserts located between 15 and 30 degrees N and S of equator. - Dry belts of air circulation.
Collision
a convergent boundary ceases to exist when a piece of the buoyant lithosphere, such as a continent or an island arc moves into a subduction zone
Anabolism
"Building up" using small molecules to make larger ones - uses energy
fracture

Break in a rock caused by tensional, compressional or shearing forces (see also joints).
natural selection
variation exists among individuals in a population-some traits are more beneficial than others
Which of the following types of radiation (light) from the Sun supplies the greatest amount of total energy to the Earth?
Visible
Pluton
a structure that results from the emplace ment and crystallization of magma beneath the surface of the earth
compression
-is the result of the pressure stress
-the arrows are bigger on the sides, convergent plate boundary
what does glaciation affect?
human transportation, icebergs that threaten shipping, can block potential roads
Oceanic trench
One plate dives beneath the other, forming a subduction zone. The sinking plate drags the sea floor downward
intrusive or plutonic igneous rocks
gabbro, diorite, granite, peridotite
reverse fault
rocks above the fault plane move upward in relation to the rocks below, causing a shortening of the structure.
Phaneritic texture
texture in which the crystals making up an igneous rock are distinguishable without using a microscope.
bedding plane
A nearly flat surface separating two beds of sedimentary rock.
what is the general composition of the oceanic crust
basaltic
Continental Rise
Continental slope merges into a more gradual incline- the continental rise, At the base of the continental slope turbidity currents deposit sediment that forms deep-sea fans
elements for olivine, proxene, amphibole, biotite
O, Si, Fe, Mg
Intermediate
another term geologist use to refer to Andestic
what is a coprolite?
fossil dung ( dung stone)
temperature in stratosphere
gets warmer the higher you go
hydrosphere includes water that is:
outgassed from earth's interior
changes during metamorphism
certain many recrystalize, the rock becomes more compact, crystals may grow larger
Non-silicate mineral
Minerals not consisting of Si and O
The biomagnifications of mercury occurs as mercury moves through
the aquatic food chain
Fracture Deformation
-limits of both elastic and ductile has exceeded
-Brittle substance
-irreversible kind of deformation
(chalk-broke)
Thrust Faults
Low angle reverse faults. Layers are thrust up and over other rocks.
Magnetic Reversal
When the Earth's magnetic poles change places.
Pyroclastic material
the volcanic rock ejected during an eruption. Pyroclastics include ash, bombs, and blocks
JAMES HUTTON
Hutton's Theory  was first read at the March 7 and April 4, 1785,  meetings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Hutton published a two volume, roughly 1200-page version of his theory in 17951st volume-the origin of granite 2nd volume is almost entirely devoted to what we call today, geomorphology. 3rd volume was never completed
Landslides Contributing Factors
-Mountanious ares are prone to these due to quakes.
-Steep slopes are mor unstable
-Rock layer that tilt downhill are common.
Suspended Load
Consists of fine sand, silt, and clay sized particles
Volcanic Dome Description
Viscous Magma with high (70%) silica content. Mostly explosive activity.
What is Hydrothermal Metamorphism?
Associated with mid-ocean ridges and near some igneous intrusions
hot spot
an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it
Benioff Zone
A dipping plane, or seismic zones, of earthquake defines subduction zones. Most of these zones dip from oceanic trenches beneath adjacent island arcs. (See Figure 8.5)
How deep are plates subducted? New lithosphere is created___________.
2900km.
At mid-ocean ridges.
Sea floor spreading
when two oceanic plates pull apart, magma rises and new crust is formed
What is the name for an organism that breaks down organic matter?
Decomposer
What kind of sedimentary deposit forms where streams a stream overflows in the lowlands?
a flood plain
evaporation
Liquid water that is turned into a gas (opposite of condensation).
1.)Which Boundaries do earthquakes occur at?
2.) Where do volcanoes form?
 
1.) All boundaries.
2.) Hotspots, divergent boundaries and convergent boundaries.
Columnar joints
a pattern of crack sthat forms during cooling of molten rock to generate columns
Erosional Surfaces: What is Non Conformity ?
Erosional contact between Igneous/Metamorphic rocks and Sedimentary rocks. Erosion surfaces form on top of rocks that are not layered
Mount Saint Helen's
Where is an example of an andesitic magma?
requirement for the formation of extensive black shales
undisturbed anaerobic bottom water, reduced supply of detrital sediment, high organic productivity in the overlying oxygenated waters, low-every depositional site
what is sanitary landfill
also called a municipal solid waste landfill; it is a method of solid waste disposal that does not create a hazartd to public health
Calcareous & Siliceous Ooze Definition
Microscopic organisms that die and settle out in layers in deep ocean with little clastic input
piedmont glacier
a glacier at the foot of the mountain made when valley glaciers come out and spread out into alluvial fan
One of these is not a form of sedimentary cement A. silica B. basalt C. calcite
B.    basalt
ice retreated from the northern part of the continental us approximately _______
ten thousand years ago
rock that forms at or near the surface of the earth -
sedimentary rock.
Exfoliation is a natural process which results from
unloading of deeply buried rocks
What is meant by "geothermal gradient"?
The gradual increase in temperature with depth in the crust
What grade of metamorphism occurs at a depth of 2km (down into the crust) and a temp of 100 degrees C.
low-grade metamorphism or diagenesis
Periodic Table of the Elements
• Elements can have similar chemical properties
• Periodic table organizes elements in order of
atomic number (# protons)
SEISMIC REVELATION OF DEEP EARTH STRUCTURE
o Seismic s-waves can't travel through liquids
o S-wave shadow defines the diam. of the outer core
What causes (lahars) volcanic mudflows?
Typicall occu in desert hills and mys during heavy rain or fast snowmelt.
How do waves form
Waves are formed by the wind. The wind pushes the water around, eventually creating higher and higher tides, which eventually form waves of water, all caused by the power of the wind pushing and pulling on the water it flows over.
Composition of oceanic crust? And thickness
basalt (common dark lava rock). average 7 kilometers
How much warning could be a real-time earthquake warning system provide before destructive seismic waves arrive? What is the current state of earthquake prediction?
About 1 minute.
Scientists cannot yet accurately predict most earthquakes.
explain how magnetic anomalies are applied to stuy in geologic structures and ore detections.
A body of magnetile ore (a highly magnetic ore of the matal iron) has been emplaced in a limestone by hot solutions rising along a fracture. The magnetism of the iron ore adds to the magnetic field of the earth a strong magnetic field at the surface
how much of the US is floodplain?
About 2.5% of U.S. land is floodplain - home to about 6.5% of population
describe the lower mantle (zone 1 of the mantle)
the lower mantle is solid and forms most of the volume of the Earth's interior
What type of wave can be thought of as push-pull waves?
P waves. they push or pull particles of matter in the direction of their path of travel.
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