Geology 53 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Argon 40
specific gravity
Discovery of radioactivity
Transported Material
Stream Load
top of the wave
Earthquake: Focus vs. Epicenter*
Solid rock forming magma
sides of a fold.
A lightly covered, fine-grained extrusive igneous rock with the same general composition as andesite. The extrusive equivalent of granodiorite.
Desert erosion is mostly
running water
lava under the earth's surface
Crust is how thick?
25-85 km
Limestone hardens to become this
Reflective nature of a surface
Are most igneous rocks layered?
Glaciated valley... sea rises and floods over valley
•drowned glaciated valley
Unstable arrangements of protons and neutrons
impact metamorphism
metamorphism that occurs when meteorites strike earths surface
minerals bend without breaking, but return to their original shape when released
Eon sequence (4)
Hadean- Archean- Proterozoic- Phanerozoic
organs containing the same basic structural elements, such as a bird's wing and dog's forelimb
Differences in mineral composition of rocks lead to weathering at different rates. This process is called ?
graded stream
no aggradation or degredation-stream is in equilibrium-controlled by base level
the imperceptibly slow down slope movement of earth materials on gentle slopes
which desert contains the largest diversity of migrating birds
James Hutton- geologic process occur today the same way that they did in the past
an accumulation of loose mineral grains, such as boulders, pebbles, sand, silt, or mud that are not cemented together
sole marks
negative impression of ripple marks
Processes Responsible for Different Magma Compositions(and thus wide variety of igneous rocks)
1)Magmatic Differentiation2)Assimilation3)Magma Mixing4)Partial Melting
Extreme heating in permian causes evaporation of sea water over vast regions--->excess salt
the hard, outer layer of the earth
would not occur during an earthquakes if no human structures were nearby
Polar covalent bond
Methane (CH4), Water, (diamond- everything perfectly squared which is why it is so strong)
3- water content
- decreases friction between grains
-adds weight to slope
The theory that all geologic phenomena may be explained as the result of existing forces having operated uniformly from the origin of earth to the present.
Deposits of windblown silt and clay are called:
fracture zones
faults running perpendicular to a mid-ocean ridge. active transform faults and inactive extensions into the plate interior. prominent linear breaks in the ocean crust. Oceanic crusted @ transform faults is transported to deep ocean trenches and destroyed.
rocks composed of more than one mineral
High-Level Waste
"Spent Fuel" rods and military use.
an igneous rock layer formed when magma hardends beneth earth surface
The Maiana trench in the western Pacific ocean is the deepest on Earth.
what does viscosity reflect
silica content of magma
Large sections of the earth's crust that moves
Dendritic Drainage
An irregular stream drainage network that resembles the limbs of a branching tree.
The addition of volcanic arcs, island arcs, and subduction complexes to a continent
A flow of groundwater that emerges naturally at the ground surface.
________ can reduce the amount of organic waste disposed of in landfills.
First glaciations that occurred during Paleoproterozoic era in Earth history is calleda. Hudson. b. Huronian.c. Permian. d. greenvile.
 b.    Huronian.
1. Mechanical load
a. Bed load- transported in the turbulent zones. Never move far from bed floori. Rollingii. Dragging, traction iii. Salutation- bouncing along the bottomb. Suspended load- motion in the turbent flow pushes you toward laminar flow and the speed of this keeps it suspended in the stream
Which type of plate boundary is associated with andesitic volcanism?
indicates the maximum particle size a stream can transport
-determined by streams velocity
Mineral with K in its chemical composition
orthoclase feldspar
spit that connects an island with the shoreline is a
the grinding and scraping of a rock surface by the friction and impact of rock particles
Thrust faults
Reverse faults having dips less then 45 degrees
results from stress; is the change in shape or size of an object because of the stress on it
the point on the land surface directly above the focus
- compass direction along a line from one point to another
reease of water causes melting at ti tpe of plae boundary
What causes (or drives) metamorphism? (p. 230-234)
Heat and pressure.
Pleistocene Glaciation
From 1.8 million to 11,000 years ago
magnetic time scale
the detailed history of earth's magnetic field reversals as determined by measuring the thermoremanent magnetization of rock samples who ages are known
global wind
Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances.
coriolis effect
The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
as magma undergoes quick cooling, the size of the crystals that form is?
small (extrusive)
Sources of Extraterrestrial Debris
Short-period (orbit less than 200 years) or long-period
Solar System surrounded by:
About one billion comets in Kuiper belt - flattened disk (in plane of Solar System) from near Neptune to about 50 astronomical units (93 million miles, distance from Earth to Sun)
About one trillion comets in Oort cloud - spherical orbits far beyond planets
laminar flow
very slow streams, water moves in roughly straight-lined paths parallel to the channel
what type of rocks are sedimentary and metamorphic?
: The physical and chemical breakdown of materials of the earth’s crust by interaction with the atmosphere and biosphere.
Nuee Ardente
*aka ash or pyroclasic flow*hot gases and loose ash that is so dense that it rolls down the hill*deadliest feature*ex: Pompei
From the land surface downward to the unweathered bedrock, which of the following is the correct order of the different soil horizons?
what type of stream typically forms where there is a superabundance of loose sediment being transported
graded stream
Dynothermal Metamorphism ---Metamorphic Foliated Texture
interlocking minerals that are aligned in planes

dominated by platy or elongate minerals

planar feature exploited by water, less resistant to weathering
Continental Rise
the gently sloping surface at the base of the continental slope
gypsum vs plagioclase
1 perfect cleavage gypsum, 2 cleavages at right angle
Mica is a common example of a ________ silicate.
Convergent Plate Boundary
Edges move toward one another, OCTL destroyed because it is denser and heavier as it gets older
a measure of how hot or cold something is.
Base level
lowest elevation to which a stream can cut down (erode) base level can change over time
Salt Crystallization
Growth of minerals (salt) in the pore spaces of rock forcing apart grains. Common in splash zones or shoreline systems and near springs in deserts.
Point Source
Contamination that can be traced to a single location
bed loads
sediment rolled along the bottom of a stream by moving water or particles rubbed along the ground surface by wind
Pluvial Lake
A lake formed during a period of invcreased rainfall. For example, this occurred in many nonglaciated areas during periods of ice advance elsewhere.
What was the name of the last glaciation?
Wisconsin glaciation
transverse dunes
when there is more sand than barchan, relatively straight elongated dune perpendicular to wind direction.
the various advances and retreats of the quaternary ice age began about _______
3 mya
Shape the surface of the earth through?
erosion and deposition
4 causes of Ice Ages
change in sun's output; supercontinent assembly; block incoming solar radiation; Milankovitch Theory
chain silicate structure
a _____________ forms when 2 of a tetrahedron oxygen atoms are shared with adjacent tetrahedrons to form a chain
Photosynthesis-Respiration Cycle in Animals
in this cycle, oxygen and carbon dioxide move through atmospheric reservoirs (balloons) between plants and animals. Doubling the biomass of both plants and animals doubles the rates of all of the fluxes (arrows) both to and from each atmospheric reservoir, but leaves the volume of each reservoir unchanged.
know the different type of metamorphism and where is happens
divergent plate margins include seafloor metamorphism and can be found at divergent plate margins
parabolic dune
a sand dune similar in shape to a barchan dune except that its tips point into the wind
tidal marsh
a type of marsh that is found along coasts and estuaries of which the flooding characteristics are determined by the tidal movement of the adjacent estuary, sea or ocean [1]. According to the salinity of the flooding water, freshwater, brackish and saline tidal marshes are distinguished. Respectively, they may be classified into coastal marches and estuarine marches. They are also commonly zoned into lower marshes (also called intertidal marshes) and upper or high marshes, based on their elevation with respect to the seal level.[1][2] In addition they may also be classified into back-barrier marches, estuarine brackish marshes and tidal freshwater marches, according to the degree of the influence of the sea level.
Local Base Level
mainstream is the local base level for its tributaries when they join main stream and point as acute angles
Wave base is?
Where the wave ceases to have any effect. The distance down the the wave base is equal to ½ of the wavelength
two groups of igneous rocks are recognized:
extrusive and intrusive. extrusive igneous rocks (volcanic) include rhyolite, andesite, and basalt, all of which are aphantic, and tuff; and intrusive igneous rocks (plutonic) such as granite, diorite, and gabbro, which are phaneritic
What is Seismic Material?
Energy waves that move thru the earth cause by a sudden release of energy from explosions or earthquakes
Absolute plate velocity
the movement of a plate relative to a fixed point in the mantle
plates move at about 15cm per year
Which one of the following best describes the dominant minerals in a gabbro?
Ca-rich plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine.
What is the law of superposition?
The youngest layer is on top
line on a tlted plane down which wate wouldflow
dip of the plane
How do we map the sea floor?
Echo beam sounders, and Multi-beam sonar devices help us find out how the ocean floor was created
What is meant by the viscosity of the magma?
magmas resistance to flowing
How do we know what the climate was like in the geologic past?
Proxy data: Seafloor spreading, glacial ice, fossil pollen, tree-ring growth, historical documents
What happens to magma that gets stuck underground?
Magma that gets stuck underground cools, forming igneous rock (plutons)
Fig. 6 illustrates the general principle that
the surface of a water table is a subdued reflection of overlying landscape topography
Although oil in the United States will probably be consumed in less than 100 years, coalfields can probably sustain that country's rate of energy consumption for several hundred years.
True.Coal is more abundant than the remaining oil reserve in the United States.
Danger of Flash Floods in Automobiles and On Foot
2 feet of water can float your car and 6 inches can knock you off your feet
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