Geology Quiz 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
flying reptiles
seasonal beach profiles
Cones of Depression
drowned river valleys
segment of a stream
Trigonal. Rhombohedral cleavage. Occurrence: hydrothermal veins
physical breakdown (disintegration) and chemical alteration (decomposition) of rock at earth's surface
Minerals hydrous in composition
clay mineral
Finer particles
Gentler gradients near mouth
The intrusive compositional equivalent of andesite is ____________.
base level
limit of down cutting
Alfred Wegener
"continental drift"
If all continents were joined together, then life on the boundaries should be the same.
Gives schist a shiny appearance.
unconsolidated particles created by the weathering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitations from solution in water, or from the secretions of organisms, and transported by water, wind, or glaciers.
permeable rock that transmits groundwater freely

Folded Mountain Belt
A series of folds
secondary, slow, shear, goes through solids only
-takes acids to break down feldspar
-when water is present
-produces clay
boundary surface between two different rock types or ages of rocks
a metamorphic rock formed under conditions of high pressure and moderate temperature, often containing glaucophane, a blue amphibole.
uneven breakage surfaces (result from equally strong chemical bonding in all directions)
Organic, has acid reaction, powdery, soft, white to gray
Middle Life, Dinosaurs. 245 million yrs ago
skeletal fossils (animals)
-vase-shaped and tubular
-calcium carbonate
-skeletal elements of sponge
positively charges atoms formed when one or more electrons are lost (SMALLER)
Crustal Roots
Low-density crustal rock that protrudes downward beneath a mountain range.
Velocity = Wavelength * Frequency
Desert landform; A broad, flat-topped hill bounded by cliffs and capped with a resistant rock layer

(glacial drift)
material deposited directly by ice

-typically unstratified & unsorted!

*landforms made by till::
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
back scatering
large object make light bounce back
C Horizon
lowest zone of significant weathering. Composed of partially weathered parent material. May have evidence of oxidation from oxygen-rich groundwater. Very thin where there is little chemical weathering (ie deserts). Up to 100m thick in warm, wet tropical climates.
process of continental growth in which buoyant fragments of crust are attached (accreted) to continents during plate tectonics.
normal fault
hanging wall moves downward relative to the foot wall
magma compositions: mafic magmas
-less than 50% silica
Rock cycle
The continuous breaking down and changing of rocks from one type of another.
This scientist's discovery was used to predict the next coming of Halley's comet.
The way a mineral surface scatters light.
What changes occur over Deltas over time?
high-pressure metamorphism
metamorphism occurring at pressures of 8 to 12 kbar
Many limestonre reservoirs
high porosity , low k
Karst topography
Landscapes that have been shaped mainly by the dissolving power of groundwater.
slice of the ocean crust. ocean floor,pillow basalt,sheeted dykes,gabbro intrusions,serpentinised peridotite
the lifting and removal of loose material by wind
Stratigraphic Correlation
"Matching up" equivalent bodies of rock from different locations. The equivalence may be in terms of lithology, age or fossil content.
What scale measure intensity?
modified mercalli intensity scale
17. In which layer does weather occur?
B.O.D. shows how much _________________ is allowed in our water.
biodegradable organic matter
Which process causes an increase in the roundness of sedimentary particles?
Sedimentary rock
rock formed from the weathered products of preexisteing rocks that have been transported, depoisted, and lithified
conversion of sediment to rock via compaction & cementation
What oceanic basins are made up of, very dense, which is why the oceanic basins sink
What is a fault?
Fractures/cracks along which movement has occured. That's how many earthquakes tend to develop. It's a release of energy during movement.
law of baked contacts
law-contact metamorphism occurs when country rock is intruded by plutonic igneous rock-the altered rock is OLDER than the intrusion
oceanic ridge
a continuous mountainous ridge on the flor of all the major ocean basins and varying in width from 500 to 5000 km
That portion of a resource that is identified as currently available to be legally extracted at a profit
geographic poles
the magnetic poles are located close to the geographic poles
Chemical Weathering
process that breaks down rock material through dissolution.
9 magnitude on mercalli scale
northern sumatra, 2004 earthquake
Intrusive rock
cooled and solidified slowly at a depth in the earth, so the crystals are big
Continental Drift
The concept that the continents have move about over the earth's surface
bedding planes
a nearly flat surface separating two beds of sedimentary rock
Nuclear Fusion creates what elements on the periodic table?
3 through 26
Plate Tectonics
The study of the formation and movement of the earth's crust and plates.
About how many minerals are found on the earth
Soil's main 4 ingredients
regolith, humus, water, and air
PENN, N Hemisphere of Pangea = NA, europe, greenland, asia---late paleozoic
clay minerals
when light or dark silicates react with water at the surface, sheetlike structure, impermeable
-body of rock that is highly permeable that can store water and yelid sufficient quanites to supply wells  & springs
(holds & transports water)
Monoclinic crystal systems
-Monoclinic crystals have three axes of unequal length, two of which intersect at an angle other than 90 degrees, and both perpendicular to the third. -crystals look like tetragonal crystals that have been skewed - they often form prism shapes and double pyramids. -Jadeite and nephrite are common examples.
“code of ethics”
1) Must acknowledge contributions of others
2) Must not fabricate / falsify data
3) Must be responsible in training next generation
rocks w/i ice act as sandpaper to smooth/polish rock below

-pulverized (powdered) rock produced = rock flour
define orogeny
an episode of intense deformation of the rocks in a region, generally accompanied by metamorphism and plutonic activity
This is a soil (pedon) that is rich in
calcium carbonate (cal). Pedocals are
often found in arid and semiarid
regions where evaporation of water
from the soil is very high. These types
of soils are also sometimes referred to
as alkali soils. These soils are
typically light colored. A different kind
of pedocal may form when the parent
rock of the soil is some form of
limestone. In these areas, like some
parts of the Dallas-Ft. Worth region,
these soils formed are black and
clayey but very high in calcium
10 1
High Quality Coal is defined as less than _____% ash, less than _____ % sulfur
Curie Point (temperature)
the temperature above which a magnetic material loses its magnetism; different for each such material
Milankovitch Cycles
Changes in the shape earth's orbit and tilt that cause glacial periods and interglacial periods
Transormation of Preexisting Rock
The process of metamorphism involves _________.
The Ogallala Aquifer
the largest freshwater aquifer in the world
Ice age water
less than 40 year supply left. Being depleted rapidly (texas, oklahoma, kansas, colorado.)
phanerozoic eon
the most recent 570 million years of geologic time represented by rocks that contain evident and abundant fossils
index fossil
a fossil that is associated with a particular span of geologic time
slab-pull force
the force that down going plates (or slabs) apply to oceanic lithosphere at a convergent margin
There are over ___ miles of paved roads in the U.S.
3 million
The movement of cold air into a warm air mass will produce:
(a) a vertical set of clouds that can produce thunderstorms
(b) a long string of thin clouds
(c) a cyclonic, rotating system of winds
(d) no change in atmospheric conditions
Volcanic smog forms by reaction of:
sulfur dioxide with water
The total volume of pore space in a material, usually expressed as a percentage
Emission of beta particles?
loss of an electron from "splitting" of a neutron; atomic number goes up by 1 (there is one more proton); atomic mass remains the same
nuclear power
Which is not in the top three sources of world energy production?
Viscosity, Temperature and Water Content of Magmas
Consider three types of magma: basaltic, andesitic and rhyolitic
Basaltic magma has highest temperatures and lowest SiO2 content, so lowest viscosity (fluid flow)
Rhyolitic has lowest temperatures and highest SiO2 content, so highest viscosity (does not flow)
Basaltic makes up 80% of magma that reaches Earth's surface, at spreading centers, because it forms from melting of mantle
Melted mantle at subduction zones rises through continental crust before reaching the surface, incorporating continental high SiO2 rock as it rises, to become andesitic or rhyolitic in composition before it erupts
thermal pollution
when water used as a cooling agent in a factory is discharged BACK to a stream w/o cooling it willl warm or change the temperature of the water body -can disturb plants/animals requiring certain temperature range
which feature is most associated with a confined aquifer?
recharge area or aquatartd
Hydraulic Gradient
The slope of the water table. It is determined by finding the height difference between two points on the water table and dividing by the horizontal distance between the two points.
Negative Effects of glacial loss
-water source (feed year-round rivers in places like Himalayas)-contribution to sea level rise -loss of important climate archive-albedo feedback (lose bright white surfaces and make the world warmer at accelerated rates; effects microclimates (i.e. mtns. with melting ice caps)impact on tourism! (kilimanjaro anyone??)
in the minerals lab the main diagnostic criteria for identifying the metallic mineral metaite was
its reddish brown streak
what are the 2 layers of the upper mantle?
lithosphere and asthenosphere
What drives global atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variability?
The uneven solar heating of the Earth's surface
What is a delta
The resulting deposit of when a stream enters the relatively still waters of an ocean or lake and its velocity drops abruptly
chemical sedimentary rocks
usually form at or near their place of deposition usually from seawater




The porosity and permeability of igneous and
metamorphic rocks is controlled primarily by the _____.




number of fractures in the rock
At ~ 2900 Km
P wave shows step decrease and S wave disappears
a coral animal traps food particles while attached on the sea floor. Which environmental factors would be most favorable to its existence
Normal salinity, clear water, hard bottom
Erosional Features: Kettle Ponds
occur as a result of blocks of ice calving from the front of a receding glacier and becoming buried partially to wholly by glacial outwash.
describe the 5 physical layers of the Earth: Mesosphere
Area between the asthenosphere and inner core
High pressure offsets temperature - Rigid composition
Spit Hooks & Bay Mouth Bars
Are formed by sand being deposited by long shore currents.
why does the topographic expression of the Hawaian Island become progressively lower from the Big Island to the island lying northwest?
the ocean lithosphere is lighter over the hotspot and it floats higher
What is dome, and name an example of one?
A roughly circular upfolded structure similar to an anticline
Black Hills, South Dakota
similar fossils / glaciation / fit of continents / rock types
What evidence did Wegner use to try and prove his theory?
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