Geology Unit Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Coarse crystals
spreading center
Salt Wedging
mechanical weathering
rift valley
deep valley
light, splits into sheets
inner core is (solid/liquid)
Small Shield Volcano
Mt. Kilimanjaro

naturally occurring, crystalline solid with a well-defined composition, inorganic
Fe, Mg... a Ferromagnesian mineral
negative anomaly
mass deficiency is present
the coarsest clastic sediment, consisting of particles larger than 2mm in diameter and including pebbles, cobbles, and boulders.
deposits of unconsolidated sediment extending landward from low tide to the edge of the dunes or a sea cliff.
most common shoreline depositional feature.
are continually modified by the action of waves, longshore currents, tides, and storms.
May be continuous or isolated pocket
developed when groundwater dissolves limestone
pebble ghosts
remains of pebble weathering
Regression vertical sequence
sandstoneshalelimestoneold land surface
Most minerals are what?
chemical compounds
bedrock slides downslope over a fracture plane
warm front
warm air replaces cooler air
made from partially decayed land plants
Mt. St. Helens:
overlies a subduction zone.
minimum number of seismic startions necessary
movement down slope as viscous fluid
volcanic rock, usually rhyolite in composition, containing numerous cavities that remain after trapped gas has escaped form solidifying lava
(1) on minerals, extremely straight, parallel lines; (2) glacial straight scratches in rock caused by abrasion by a moving glacier
has only one limb- vertical displacement,
-energy comes from condensing water vapor
-windspeed more than 75 mph
-rotary cyclonic rotation
-diminish when they move over cold water, landmass
what type of rock is basalt
A description of aggregate weather conditions; the sum of all statistical weather information that helps describe a place or region.
Vertical or steeply inclided intrusion which cuts across other rock types
Sulfate Minerals
Mineral gypsum of gypsum rock

precipitate from evaporating saline solutions
Which word is used to describe elevation change under the ocean?
Pahoehoe Flows
Basaltic lava flows (low viscosity). Cool quickly, and initially form a smooth surface that often forms a ropey kinda thing
the comcept that the processes that have shaped the earth in the geologic past are essentially the same as those operating today
Soil Profile
Vertical and horizontal movements of the materials in a soil system create distinct layering, parallel to the surface
which stage of mountain belt formation involves intense deformation of a region
process of the material being carried to its new destination.
Point bar
a crescent-shaped accumulation of sand and gravel deposited on the inside of a meander
mineral pulled and rotated in response to forces
sedimentary rocks
are composed of sediments including rock fragments, chemical compounds that precipitated out of water, skeletical remains of organisms.
> sedimentary rocks form by lithification of sediments
landslide mitigation
anchor- slope stablizer, soil removal, horizontal drainage, surface drain ditch-collect and remove rain water, horizontal drainage boring
point on the surface directly above directly above the focal point is called what
climatic assessment
why was the VEI originally developed?
Oxidation and leaching are example of?
Chemical weathering
Biochemical limestone
Most limestones are biochemical in orgin and form from CaCO3 produced by the biological activity of animals and plants
Relative age dating methods
superposition, original horizontality, cross-cutting, inclusions, fossils, and unconformities
fossil correlation
A determination of the stratigraphic relation between two sedimentary rock units, reached by studying fossils.
slip face
steep downward slope of a dune.
beds (strata)
layers of sediment that have accumulated in a depositional environment
description of the kinds & relative abundances of mineral crystals that comprise the metamorphic rock
mineralogical composition
The way a mineral surface scatters light is called...
divergent plate boundary
where plates move apart < >
in geology, any change in the original shape or volume of rocks
conjecture or guess
which statement about the scientific theory is NOT true?
a) it is an explanation for some natural phenomenon
b) predictive statements can be derived from it
c) it is testable
d) it is a conjecture of guess
e) it has a large body of supporting evidence
Subtropical Deserts
descent of cool, dry air (Sahara, Arabian, Kalahari)
Inner Core
The fifth, solid layer of the earth
the thin layer of gases that surrounds the Earth
natural cause(s) of climate change
exposed land surface changes
variations in earth's orbit-eccentricity, obliquity, and precession
volcanic activity
changes in sun's output-sunspots
isostructural mineral
Minerals who have the same internal structure but different compositions
NaCl & Pyrite [FeS2] - both have cubic structure
rhyolitic lava
high in silica (70%), high, viscosity: high, very thick and pasty, flows so slowly, might not be able to see move
How much of the Earth's magnetic field can be described by a simple dipole?
cross-cutting relations
if one geologic feature cuts across another, the feature that has been cut is older
saturated zone
Subsurface zone in which all rock openings
are filled with water
abundant fossil evidence starts to appear in the rock record about?
600million years ago
differential weathering
rocks that will weather at differnet rates due to climate
shield volcanoes
largest type of volcano, most runny liquid lava, made of iron rich minerals. if the rock had stayed underground it would have been gabbro (basalt)
plate tectonics
the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust
Archives -Advantage
-Easy access to large amounts of pre-recorded data-Data is often accurate and unobtrusively collected
While the U.S. only comprises 5% of the world's population, it is responsibile for _____% of the overall amount of the world automotive carbon dioxide.
Barrier Reefs
Parallel to the shore but separated from it by wide, deep lagoons.
With what type of plate boundary are Benioff Zones associated?
losing streams
gain water from the inflow of groundwater through the streambed
Kettle Lake
A water filled depression left by a glacial ice block
talus slope
an accumulation of rock debris at the base of a clip
coast photography and complicated by moon/sun properties
how are tides generated?
Shear stress
Directed stress in which the force is exerted on one side of an object in the opposite direction as force on the other side
important Mesozoic event in the history of land plants
first appearance of angiosperms
rock cycle
a series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
tensional stress
stress that pulls apart or elongates a rock unit
Magnitude decreases or increases
When Frequency increase or decrease, what happens to magnitude?
stream piracy
the diversion of the drainage of one stream into another
Black shales in Cretaceous
from Seaway--primary source rock for oil & gas: must have 1. still water 2. antoxidant 3. high rates of organic productivity
At _______ feet petroleum source rocks enter the _______ window, where temperatures are high to high enough to turn organic material into oil.
7,5000 ftOil Window
true or false: the weather was uniformly cold during the pleistocene
FALSE! it varied.
earth's allocation of h2o
oceans: 97 %glaciers: 2 %groundwater: .6 %lakes/rivers, atmosphere: ~.02 %
Law of Original Horozontality
States that most sediments, when originally formed, were laid down horizontally. However, many layered rocks are no longer horizontal. Because of the Law of Original Horizontality, we know that sedimentary rocks that are not horizontal either were formed in special ways or, more often, were moved from their horizontal position by later events, such as tilting during episodes of mountain building.
Heavy Bombardment
A time early in the history of the solar system when crater-forming impacts were very frequent.
what is regional metamorphism
metamorphism that occurs over a large area and is usually the result of tremendous temperatures, pressures, and deformations within the deeper parts of the Earth's crust
Mantle Plume
A column of very hot rock that flows upward until it reaches the base of the lithosphere
which of the following is not a dip-slip fault?
right lateral fault
lapilli tuff
if the rock is composed of a mixture of ash and lapilli but neither component makes up more than 75% of the total volume of the rock, then it is a
Pyroclastic flows
fiery cluod of ash and gases, a highly heated mixture, largely of ash and pumice fragments, traveling down the flanks of a volcano or along the surface of the ground
Cretacous-Tertiary Mass Extinction (65 mya)
-killed the dinosaurs (large stuff over 20 kg) and ammonites (sea creatures)-birds, mammals, turtles, alligators, etc remained-most likely caused by a meteor impact in Yucatan Peninsula
Layers of the earth
Inner Core, Outer Core, Lower mantle, Upper mantle, Crust (Continental and Oceanic)
Evidence of asteroid in Chesapeake Bay
By drilling holes and analyzing seismic lines a 56 mile crater was discovered. The presence of tektites told geologists that an asteroid collided there 35.5 million years ago.
What is the rock cycle?
gradual and continuous change of rock in earth's crust to igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks
The seven major plates of planet Earth
the North American, South American,
Pacific, African, Euroasian, Indian‐ Australian, and Antarctica plates
What factors influence a violent eruption?
Composition- more SiO2 means more viscosity, Temperature- more viscosity at lower temperatures, and gas(volatile) content- the more gas the more explosive.
What happens when a hole is drilled into a confined aquaphor?
Water will spring forth
latent heat of vaporization
amount of energy you need to put into liquid to make it evaporate
If a rock unit dips 5 degrees to the North, its strike is:
East and West
The mineral property "cleavage" refers to _______.
the splitting of a mineral along planar surfaces
Reason for installing rock bolts that "stitch" the rocks together
prevents rock from falling on a roadway
The rock types found most commonly in the Cumberland Valley include which of the following?
Folded and faulted limestones, shales and quartz-rich sandstones
The effects of an earthquake vary from shaking and ground rupture, fires, disease, tsunami, emission of radon gas, and changes in land structure. All of these have the end result of destroying cities, causing death, and making hefty bills and volunteer wo
Discuss the effects of earthquakes on society, as we understand it.
What is the the theory of plate tectonics
plates thectonics theory hold that the earth lithosphere is divided into rigid plates that move over the asthenosphere and diverge ,converge and/or slide past each other as they move.
Discharge (Q) is measured using a simplifiedform of the Continuity Equation
Q = VAV = average flow velocityA = cross sectional area of water (channel)
/ 107

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online