Goal terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Immigration Policy Act
an advocate of federalism.
Transcendentalists believed the power to change the world rested with the
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment.
scandal of political machine,use of political power for personal gaincompanies overcharge and political boss gets extra $
formal permission from a governmental or other constituted authority to do something, as to carry on some business or profession.
a formally drawn request, often bearing the names of a number of those making the request, that is addressed to a person or group of persons in authority or power, soliciting some favor, right, mercy, or other benefit:
Pullman Strike
A nationwide conflict between labor unions and railroads that occurred in the United States in 1894. The conflict began in the town of Pullman, Illinois on May 11 when approximately 3,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike.
Nelson Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994
Indentured servants
workers who contracted with American colonists for food and shelter in return for their labor
Civil War battle; turning point in Western Theater of war; completed Anaconda Plan
Political movement opposed to big businesses and bad urban conditions
Niagara Movement
magna charta
the "great charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons and sealed at Runnymede, June 15, 1215.
constitutional convention
the convention in Philadelphia (1787) of representatives from each of the former Colonies, except Rhode Island, at which the Constitution of the United States was framed.
the introductory statement of the U.S. Constitution, setting forth the general principles of American government and beginning with the words, "We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union. …"
the hearing and determining of a dispute or the settling of differences between parties by a person or persons chosen or agreed to by them:
mayflower compact
an agreement to establish a government, entered into by the Pilgrims in the cabin of the Mayflower on November 11, 1620.
Edwin Drake
On August 28th, 1859 former railroad conductor Edwin Drake struck oil. Drake had drilled down sixty nine feet on a patch of land in Pennsylvania. Drake began marketing his oil for heating and lighting.
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
Iran-Contra Affair
A political scandal in the United States which came to light in November 1986, during the Reagan administration, in which senior US figures agreed to facilitate the sale of arms to Iran
search warrant
a judge’s authorization to search a place
Thoreau said, "The government is best which governs least", agreeing closely with the ideas of
Thomas Jefferson
Attitude in the 1920s that led to quotas/restrictions on immigration
triangular trade
a pattern of colonial commerce in which slaves were bought on the African Gold Coast with New England rum and then traded in the West Indies for sugar or molasses, which was brought back to New England to be manufactured into rum.
reserved powers
a political power that a constitution reserves exclusively to the jurisdiction of a particular political authority.
a gambling game or method of raising money, as for some public charitable purpose, in which a large number of tickets are sold and a drawing is held for certain prizes.
an enactment made by a legislature and expressed in a formal document.
community service
a punitive sentence that requires a convicted person to perform unpaid work for the community in lieu of imprisonment.
a person designated to act for or represent another or others; deputy; representative, as in a political convention.
Eugene Debs
Was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
"Axis of Evil"
term initially used by the former United States President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address on January 29, 2002 and often repeated throughout the rest of his stay in office, describing governments that he accused of helping terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction
Convention held to oppose War of 1812; demonstrated sectionalism between North and South
Hartford Convention
boston massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
a sum of money imposed as a penalty for an offense or dereliction:
municipal bonds
a bond issued by a state, county, city, or town, or by a state authority or agency to finance projects.
a district, as of a city, marked out for governmental or administrative purposes, or for police protection.
writ of habeas corpus
a legal order that requires an official who has arrested someone to bring that person to court and explain why he or she is being held
treaty of paris
a treaty signed in 1763 by France, Spain, and Great Britain that ended the Seven Years' War and the French and Indian War.
a case in a court of law involving a claim, complaint, etc., by one party against another; suit at law.
Three events that harmed American trade from 1789-1812
French blockade of ports, impressments of sailors, and Embargo Act of 1807
state of the union address
an annual message to Congress in which the President reports on the state of the nation and outlines a legislative program: required by the Constitution (Article II, Section 3).
a serious crime
Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Constitutional Amendment that prohibited the production, distribution or consumption of alcohol
18th Amendment
Bessemer Process
First inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron.
the owner’s exclusive right to control, publish, and sell an original work
British passenger ship that sunk killing 128 Americans
community colleges
a nonresidential junior college established to serve a specific community and typically supported in part by local government funds.
social contract
the voluntary agreement among individuals by which, according to any of various theories, as of Hobbes, Locke, or Rousseau, organized society is brought into being and invested with the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or to regulate the rela
Public Hearing
Open discussions led by political leaders, where people speak out on matters of public concern, such as education and land use
Mikhail Gorbachev
t statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms
Impeach (impeachment)
to accuse government officials of misconduct in office.
Sought equal rights in the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions at Seneca Falls, NY
Concept used to justify imperialism; "survival of the fittest"
Social Darwinism
a member or supporter of the Antifederal party.
the act of conserving; prevention of injury, decay, waste, or loss; preservation:
judicial branch
court system which interprets laws enacted by the legislative branch
Agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up some of what it wants
A period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
War on Iraq
an ongoing military campaign which began on March 20, 2003, with the invasion of Iraq by a multinational force led by troops from the United States and the United Kingdom
The western boundary of the United States in 1783
Mississippi River
Large groups of Southern and Eastern European immigrants post-1890
New Immigrants
government by the people; a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.
sons of liberty
any of several patriotic societies, originally secret, that opposed the Stamp Act and thereafter supported moves for American independence.
limited government
government in which laws specify or restrict its functions and powers
the dividing of a state, county, etc., into election districts so as to give one political party a majority in many districts while concentrating the voting strength of the other party into as few districts as possible.
two party system
a political system consisting chiefly of two major parties, more or less equal in strength.
minority leaders
the party member who directs the activities of the minority party on the floor of a legislative body, as of the U.S. Congress.
Special Interest Groups
An organization of people with some common interest who try to influence government decisions/promote public policy to benefit its members
World Trade Center
Twin skyscrapers 110 stories high in New York City; built 1368 feet tall in 1970 to 1973; destroyed by a terrorist attack on September 11, 2001
Man who debated Abraham Lincoln on the issues of westward expansion of slavery
Stephen Douglas
natural rights
any right that exists by virtue of natural law.
the act of amending or the state of being amended.
the executive head of a state in the U.S.
grass roots
the common or ordinary people, esp. as contrasted with the leadership or elite of a political party, social organization, etc.; the rank and file.
The Great Compromise
Created a two house Congress based on proportionment and equal representation
Hay Market Riot
turns people off of strike, lead to collapse of the Knights of Labor, in Chicago worker's come together to protest about work conditions, police show up, gets violent, a bomb is thrown, 7 cops die
separation of powers
the principle or system of vesting in separate branches the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of a government.
indentured servant
a person who came to America and was placed under contract to work for another over a period of time, usually seven years, esp. during the 17th to 19th centuries. Generally, indentured servants included redemptioners, victims of religious or political per
tax returns
to go or come back, as to a former place, position, or state:
Horace Mann
education reformer
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
War of 1812
An economic condition marked by both inflation and high unemployment.
Hull House
Provided social and educational opportunities for working class immigrants.
Cattle Indusrty
Greatly affected the Plains Indians
XYZ Affair
commercial jet travel
planes faster than usual
Persian Gulf
Hussein claimed that the oil-riched nation of Kuwait was really part of Iraq so Iraq invaded Kuwait.
A gasoline-based substance used in bombs that US planes dropped in Vietnam in order to burn away jungle and expose Vietcong hideouts.
Dumbbell tenements
• Most infamous tenement• Designed in dumbbell shape• Offered little room for light or ventilation
a system of timekeeping that defines the beginning and length and divisions of the year
WWI alliance of Russia, France, The British Empire, and Italy
Benito Mussolini
• Italian dictator during WWII
• Leader of the Fascist Party
focused on likes and dislikes to convince people to buy more & pay less
middle class
not rich but also not poor
Popular British rock band from the 60's
New Democrat
Clinton promised to move away from traditional Democratic policies. He also emphasized the need to move people off of welfare and called for growth in private business.
Kent State Massacre
Ohio university whe National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War, nine were wounded and four were killed.
public policy
a general agreement among government leaders about how to deal with issues or problems that affect the entire community
Whiskey Ring scandal
• Scandal during Pres. Grant's administration involving a secret association of distillers and federal officials• They defrauded the government of high taxes imposed on liquor• Liquor taxes were set high and then transferred to the Republican Party so it could increase its campaign funds
Omaha Platform:
• Political demands of the populist People's Party
Rough Riders
Volunteer calvary unit led by Teddy Roosevelt that gained fame at the battle of San Juan Hill.
Nixon's Southern Stategy
to increase Nixon's votes by convincing Southern states to vote (Brown v. Board)
Four Freedoms
o Freedom of speech
o Freedom of religion
o Freedom from want
o Freedom from fear
• Four basic freedoms identified by FDR
Louisiana Purchase
Zora Neal Hurston
expressing freedom of the future; black folklore; traveled the rural backroads of Florida- "Their Eyes Were Watching God" and "Mules & Men"
baby boomers
born from 1946-1964, there are 78 million baby boomers in the U.S
hydrogen bombs
a highly destructive bomb that works by the nuclear fusion of deuterium
25th Amendment
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice-President will take his place as President.
Voting Rights Act
of 1965
This act eliminated the literacy tests that had kept many people from voting.
Battle won by Indians over General George Custer that led their eventual defeat
Little Bighorn
Child labor
• Common in the late 19th century• No laws against it
Chief Black Kettle
Native Americans chose to resist white settlement rather than accept being moved off their land. Caused Chief Battle kettle to lead cheyenne warriors in several raids of mining camps and local settlements which caused the U.S.to suprise the Cheyenne at Sand Creek.
New Federalism (belief)
nations needed to reverse flow of power/resources to Washington start power/resources flowing through states/communities to WA
Korean War
• Korea was divided along the 38th parallel line in 1945
• In 1950 communist North Korea invaded non-communist South Korea
• Harry Truman sent US forces to help defend South Korea from communist takeover
• A cease-fire was declared on July 27, 1953
• The border between North and South Korea remains the most heavily defended border in the world
Edith Wharton
a writer who wrote about life among the rich in NY- The Age of Innocence
a part of Japan with a major United States Marine Corps base
brown vs board
dismantled the legal basis for racial segregation in schools
1968 Democratic National Convention
the democratic national convention was held in chicago in 1968. there were a lot of war protests during the convention
Civil Rights Act
of 1964
Law that banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces.
Peace Without Victory
Wilson's motto after the war to have peace in Europe but not punish the Germans
Dien Bein Phu (May 1954)
Vietminh trapped a large french garrison & laid siege to it for 55 days & destroyed French's troops so they would surrender
Judiciary Act of 1801
Dien Bien Phu 1954
When Viet Minh forces overran Dien Bien Phu on May 7, 1954, it was, according to Fall,the end of French military influence in Asia
Eli Whitney
Cotton Gin
"Necessary Evil"
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin.  Cotton gins seperated Cotton from seed.  The cotton gin made cotton a profitable crop or cash crop.  Because of the amount of money the plantation made slavery became a necessary evil. 
FDR's "Fireside Chats"
- radio addresses made by FDR to the American people during the Great Depression and WWI
- FDR used the addresses to reassure American's during times of crises
Fall of Saigon 1975
n 1975, the American radio station in Saigon began playing Bing Crosby's "White Christmas" which was the signal to evacuate.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
group which led the legal fight against segregation in the 1940s began by DuBois
What was the Treaty of Paris,1898?
signed on December 10, 1898, and it gained Cuba's independence from Spain, the U.S. obtained the Philippines for $20 million and Puerto Rico and Guam were ceded to he U.S.
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