Government Exam 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
declared independence
Trial Court
Original Jurisdiction
Common Law
Protects unalienable rights.
suffrage (franchise)
right to vote
Article 6
Contains the supremecy clause.
all are elected at large
workers who produce the goods
to gather with one another
having or consisting of two legislative chambers or houses
political spectrum
the range of political views
the articles of confederation said congress would or would not be the national government?
Does an Autocratic decision gives people choices?
kitchen cabinet
informal advisers to the president
the process of redrawing the geographic boundaries of legislative districts after a census to reflect population changes
Franking Privilege
allows congressmen to mail newsletters, legislative updates, etc. free of charge
legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
The interpretation placed on the news by those presenting it
a written agreement between two states or sovereigns
a statement of a politicals party's beliefs, principles, and positions on vital issues
Amendment 22
Presidents can serve only two terms.(1951)
The presidents' power to refuse to sign a bill
(Government) The system or form by which a community or other political unit is. governed
federal mandates
A requirement in federal legislation that forces states and muicipalities to comply with certain rules if the states accept money.
punishment without a court trial
bills of attainder
The tangible and intangible benefits and costs of exercising one's right to vote, is referred to as what?
a. Region
b. Capacity
c. Motivation
d. Networks of Recruitment
e. None of these
c. Motivation
laissez faire
no government intervention in the economy
freedoms that are protected by a government's laws
6th amendment
right to speedy trial and defense
• A political group organized under section of the IRS Code
• May accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is regarded to and relevant electorate is targeted
proportional representation
An electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election. Compare with winner-take-all system.
concurrent resolution
an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate, but not the president
Unfunded Mandates
National laws that direct state or local governments to comply with federal rules or regulations (such as clean air or water standards) but contain little or no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting those requirements.
special session
when the president calls Congress in for an emergency
April 19, 1775
British troops clash with colonial militia forces at Lexington and Concord.
A judicial order enforcing a right or redressing a wrong
habeas corpus petitions
allow you to challenge your detention
Magna Carta
a document prepared by English nobles that granted certain rights to English citizens.
grants-in-aid program
grants of federal money or other resources to states, cities, counties, and other local units.
monopolistic competition
a market structure in which many companies sell products that are similar but not identical
private bill
a bill dealing with individual people or places
Assistant to the floor leaders in the House and Senate, responsible for monitoring and marshalling votes.
industrialized nation
a nation with large industries and advanced technology that provides a more comfortable way of life than developing nations
During midterm elections, voters are electing
members of Congress.
Federal Budget
a plan for the federal government's revenues and spending for the coming year.
the requirement that a party must be uniquely or singularly affected by a controversy in order to be eligible to file a lawsuit
The standing committees of each house are controlled by the...
majority leader
those rights that have neithier been granted to the national government nor forbidden to the states by the US consitution
states' rights
articles of confederation
the document creating a "league of friendship" governing the thirteen states during and immediately after the war for independence; hampered by the limited power vested in the legislature to collect revenue or regulate commerce, the Articles eventually proved unworkable or the new nation.
Popular Consent
The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
civil disobedience
a form of protest in which people deliberately but non-violently violate the law, as a means of expressing their opposition to some particular law or public policy.
Single issue group
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
fall review
the annual process in which the office of management and budget requires, after recieving federal agency requests for funding for the next fiscal year, reviews the requests,makes changes, and submits its recomendations to the president
criminal law
A body of rules defining offenses that are considered to be offenses against society as a whole and for which conviction could result in a prison term.
Federal Reserve Board
also known as the "fed"; nation's central banking system which controls the amt of money in the nation's economy through the prim interest rate
free speech, free worship, fair trial
List 3 civil liberties
o A movement that seeks to attach a nation to a state, o Links a perceived common ancestry to a particular territory, o Independence movements, separatist movements, all nationalist movements. Discuss Nation first then discuss its definition then discuss nationalism. Often can be taken to be sub-nationalism, which is significant because nationalism unites a people behind a common cause and is often used against another group, as we can see in Horowitz and Reynolds, Reynolds discussing regionalism, a subset of nationalism, within Malawi causing controversy.
Foreign policy
the general plan followed by a nation in defending and advancing its national interests especially security against foreign threats
council manager
city council and mayor hire a manager to run the city
Liberty vs. License
Debate on whether people would go wild without government restrictions.
Trimester System for Abortion
During the 1st trimester, a woman's right to chose is ALWAYS supreme. During the 2nd, a balance between a woman's right and the right of the state based on viability of the fetus (fetal lung development). And during the 3rd, the state's interest in protecting its unborn citizen is ALMOST ALWAYS absolute.
legal tender
any kind of $ that a creditor must accept in payment for debt
Constitutionally Required Spending Limits
* Balanced Budget. * Welfare Spending- required, yet limits spending to 1% of the entire budget. *Appropriations from Specific State Taxes- can only increase if approved by voters. * Debt Service (only a 5% margin)- Bonds, state credit rating.
President of the Senate
Vice President, in charge of the senate
de facto segregation
A form of segregation which exists "in fact." Such segregation occurs through housing patterns and informal social pressures, not through law.
Who heads the legislative branch?
Headed by the General Assembly (the Senate and House of Representatives)
Will of the people
In a democracy those who rule are responsible to who....?
The civil Act of 1964
made it illegal to discriminate based on race,color, or gender in education, employment, public services, and voting
Supreme Court decision in Mapp v. Ohio, Gideon v. Wainright, and Miranda v. AZ affected individual liberties by?
Expanding the Constitution rights of people accused of crimes
28. The phenomenon of newspapers being financed by political parties and politicians developed when?
in the earliest days of our republic
It stated the colonists intent to break away from Britain and declare independence
What did the end of the DOI do?
2 classes of cases heard by the supreme court
1) those to which a state is a party
2) those affecting ambassadors,and other public ministers and counsels
spoken lie
Establish local governments
craftsmen, they make products
Group that approves executive appointments
Not allowed under the constitution
How many colonies were there?
members of US house of reps
Cash crop
a crop produced for profit
Opponents of the Constitution during the fight over ratification
term limits
republicans and conservatives pushed for term limits 'cause dem. was majority for 40 yrs.
Process Regulation
Rules governing commercial activities designed to improve conditions
Supporters of the Constitution during the battle for its ratification. Also became one of the first two major political parties in the United States.
Inherent Powers
Powers that the national government may exercise simply because it's a government such as helping with national disasters or purchasing territory from foreign countries.
representative democracy
governing system in which public decision is given to representatives of the people chosen by popular vote in free, open, and periodic elections
"Ayes"and "Nayes" called out in unison
voice vote
use of violence to create political change through fear
Separation of powers
The distribution of government legislative, executive, and judicial powers to separate branches of government
Strict constructionists
believe text of Constitution is important and interpretation should be kept to min.
state courts
organized like federal courts; hold trials and do things based on state constitution
head of the 15 executive branch departments of the federal government
Federal register
official journal of the Federal Government
fiscal year
365-day period, begining October 1st and ending September 30th, which defines the beginning and end of the federal government's annual budgetary cycle.
A federal and state program that uses general Federal revenues to fund health care for the poor, disabled, and families with dependant or disabled children.
number of branches in MA and US government
the belief that nations must engage in international problem solving
Division of Powers
Basic principle of federalism; the constitutional provisions by which governmental powers are divided on a geographic basis(between the national gov and state)
Minor v. Happersett
woman’s suffrage/ case over 14th amendment/ says women should have equal to vote/ court said this right is not part of 14th amendment/ so women who wanted to vote, started petions/
Political equality
The principle that says that each person carries equal weight in the conduct of the public business
Limited government
Government has only the powers that the Constitution gives it
national government was created by states, states felt closer to people and reflect ideas
Acheson's Rule
a memorandums written not to inform the reader but to protect the reader
popular sovereignty
Notion that political power or the power to govern is derived from the people. As such, the people retain the right to rescind any grant of power to the government.
Most governments in the colonies had their own governments with how many branches?
3 branches
the Nine Justices
what does the Supreme Court consist of?
this famous body of water in africa is where the great egyptian civilizations grew is
who presides of impeachment trial of president
chief justice (judicial)
Mandate Theory
idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the ppl to carry out his or her platforms and politics/ politicians like this more than political scientists/
Social contract
The idea that government is the result of an agreement among people to form one, and that people have the right to create an entirely new government if the terms of the contract have been violated by the existing one PART TWO: A philosophical device used by Enlightenment thinkers such as Locke, Rousseau and Harrington to suggest that governments are only legitimate if they are created by a voluntary compact among the people
To become a US Judge requires nomination by _____ and approval by a _______ vote of the _______.
President, Majority, Senate
australian ballot
a printed ballot that bears the names of all candidates and the texts of propositions and is distributed to the voter at the polls and marked in secret
Floor whip
Assistants to floor leaders who can be elected by party conferences
What did the English Parliament pass during the "Glorious Revolution"?
Bill of Rights
Political Campaign
An attempt to get info to voters that will persuade them to elect a candidate or not elect an opponent
Factors of Production
basic resources which are used to make all goods and services
Necessary and proper clause
Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, also known as the Elastic Clause; gives Congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities
Under what type of system do Communist China, Cuba and North Korea operate?
one party system
line-item veto
A veto which is used to reject only specific items or parts of legislation passed by the Congress.
writ of certiorari
a formal writ used to bring a case before the surpreme court
The US Senate has a total of ______ Senators who are elected for terms of ____ years. Each national election ______ of the Senators are up for re-election.
100, Six, 1/3
This war lasted from 1754-1763 and had a big impact on relations between the American colonies and Great Britain.
French and Indian War
John Tyler defined status of ascending VP:
president in title and in power
What rights did Anti Federalist stand for?
States Rights. Loyal to their state.
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