Government Test 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Executive Office
Members in House
poll tax raises revenue
powers of the states
one individual holds supreme power.
House of Minority Leader
John Boehner
Mutual annihilation results in hesitation to attack
the right to use power
the official who holds an office
Popular sovereignty
Overarching democratic concept in which authority rests on the people.
Person whose views are between conservative and liberal and may include some of both ideologies
recommended using three branches of government.
Jaffe V. Redmond
1996-protects confidentiality with therapists
Abraham Lincoln
president during the Civil War
Our Government is a ___ government
enumerated powers
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
the process by which the institution of government is conducted
meeting of party leaders to pick nominees or positions
a mix of information and diversion oriented to personalities or celebrities, not linked to the day's events, and usually unrelated to public affairs or policy; often called "soft news"
supreme and absolute power within own territory and can decide own foreign and domestic policies
Implied Powers
Delegated powers that are reasonably suggested in the Constitution
the principle that bureaucracy should be depoliticized by making it more professional. Take politics out of administration, by having the work of government done expertly, according to explicit standards rather than personal preferences or party loyalties
Neutral competence
documents setting out the arguments in legal cases, prepared by attorneys and presented to courts
T/F In a presidential government, the legislative and executive branches are independant and coequal.
the process of setting up new congressional districts after reapportionment
What state gives electoral votes to popular vote?
court decision that stands as an example to be followed in future, similar cases.
Amendment 23
Which Amendment gave electors to Washington, D.C.
with waht power can the president rescind spending bills that have already passed
patriot act
increase federal gov't powers to detain, investigate, and prosecute people suspected of terrorism. suspends writ of habeus corpus. narrows probable cause. broadens scope of who could be considered a terrorist.
Articles of Confederation
1st attempt at independent gov't. Congress has limited power, states are strong. Weak Central gov't. Hard to pass proposed amendments because they needed 9 states to pass the proposal. No power to tax, no executive or judicial branches.
Article 5
states are not deprived of equal representation
dissenting opinion
an opinion that disagrees with the court's disposition of the case
one who favors a free market economy and no governmental interfeence in personal liberties
viginia plan
Plan for government proposed at the constitutional convention in which the national governmentwould have three branches executive, judicial, and legislative; representattion in the legislature would be determined by state population
Politics . a person who votes for candidates, measures, etc., in accordance with his or her own judgment and without regard to the endorsement of, or the positions taken by, any party.
Magna Charta
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
Electoral Votes
Votes cast by electors in the electoral college
reserved powers
powers thst belong strictly to the states
6th amendment
right to a fair and speedy trial
A follower of the economic theories of John Maynard Keynes, who argued that the government can stimulate the economy by increasing public spending or by cutting taxes.
monetary policy
The Federal Reserve System's use of the money supply to stabilize the business cycle. As the nation's central bank, the Federal Reserve System determines the total amount of money circulating around the economy. In principle, the Fed can use three different "tools"--open market operations, the discount rate, and reserve requirements--to manipulate the money supply. In practice, however, the primary tool employed is open market operations. To counter a recession, the Fed would undertake expansionary policy, also termed easy money. To reduce inflation, contractionary policy is the order of the day, and goes by the name tight money.
convention delegates
People chosen to represent their state at the nominating convention
checks and balances
each branch of the government exercises some control over the others.
In civil suit, the person against whom a court is brought by the plaintiff; in a criminal case, the person charged with the crime.
A word used to describe a style of investigative reporting that uncovered many scandals and abuses
single issue parties
those concentrating on a single public policy matter
Gibbons vs Ogden (1824)
The Court upheld broad congressional power over interstate commerce.
concurrent jurisdiction
cases that can be tried in both federal and state courts
Three-fifths Compromise
Agreed that three fifths of a state's slave population would be counted in determining both taxation and representation
Coattail effect
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
82. Political Socialization
the process most notably in families and schools- by which develop our political attitudes
U. S. varied
wide range of landscape from deserts, hills, and plains
plurality system
a type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in the parliament or other representative body, a candidate need only receive the most votes in the election, not necessarily a majority of votes cast
Straight ticket voting
practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election
Discharge Petition
enables members to force a bill that has been in committee for 30 days onto the floor for consideration
Magna Carta
The idea first appeared here that the gov't was not all-powerful. TRIAL BY JURY, DUE PROCESS OF LAW, RIGHT TO PRIVATE PROPERTY.
The phrase divided government, refers to?
The different political parties controlling the Presidency and the congress.
Legislative Power
The Power to make law and to frame public policies
original jurisdiction
the authority of a trial court to be first to hear a case
Brown v. Board of Education
supreme court overturned the infamous Plessy v. Ferguson
Gideon v Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
Planned Parenthood v Casey
Supreme Court loosens its standard for evaluating restrictions on abortion from one of "strict scrutiny" of any restraints on a "fundamental right" to one of "undue burden" that permits considerably more regulation
cost-of-living adjustments (COLA)
a change made to level of benefits of a government program based on the rate of inflation
Executive office of the pres
aides and their staff, the extended white house executive establishment
Hard, Soft, and Public Money
Hard Money:
• Money given directly to the candidate and regulated by election laws. The campaign can use to ask voters to vote for them.
• Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that is limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds was harder that raising unlimited soft money.
Soft Money:
• less regulated and the money that interest groups, PACs and corporations give to parties for "party building" activities. This money cannot be used to advocate DIRECTLY for a candidate. It is used for ads that increase voting or state the truth about the candidate without asking you to VOTE FOR the candidate.
• Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and get-out-the vote efforts
Public Money:
• Government has in their reserves
• Agree spending Caps
• Only spend certain amount
• Neither McCain or Obama spent - they spent more
How are juvenile cases different from adult cases regarding issues considered to be serious criminal actions? What state agency is responsible for the internment of juveniles in the state system in Texas?
Juveniles (10-16years). 14-16 can be tried as an adult.Juvenile court are heard under Texas Family Code(civil law rather than criminal law.) Repeat offenders and juveniles guilty of serious crime held in a state facility controlled by Texas Youth Commission. 6member board makes policy for this state agency. Under state law, a juvenile guilty of certain violent offenses can be transferred to an adult prision under the Texas Juvenile Determinate Sentencing law and serve 40+ years there.
example of Pres. power pardon
in 1975, Pres ford allowed Nixon to be free of all charges against him as a result of the watergate scandal
An informative, convincing speech on the Senate floor is not likely to sway the votes of members because
the real nuts and bolts of lawmaking goes on in congressional committees.
What are the 5 steps in the polling process?
1. Define the universe (to be surveyed)
2. Construct a sample
3. Make valid questions
4. Conduct interview (select how poll is taken)
5. Report & analyze the poll's findings
Who overrides vetoes
carries out the laws
Women's Suffrage
1920- 19th amendment
bill of rights
1st 10 amendments
contrary to constitutional provison and so illegal , null and void of no force and effect
joe biden
president of the senate
smallest unit of election administration (voters per precinct report to one polling place)
standing committees
permanent committee that evaluates bills and either kills them or passes them along for further debate
cabinent department
informal advisory body brought together by thee president to serve his needs
- department of heath, human services, homeland security etc.
Executive Power
executes, enforces and administers laws
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
off-year election
the congressional election held between presidential elections. Every 4 years.
charges against a president approved by a majority of the house of representatives
Grassroots Lobbying
carrying message to the public
foreign born resident or non citizen
A condition that is resistant to sudden change or overthrow.
Asymmetric Warfare
war between parties of unequal strength, in which the weaker party tries to neutralize its opponent's strength by exploiting the opponent's weaknesses
fairness doctrine
rule requiring broadcasters to provide opportunities for expression of opposing views on issues of public importance
public relations
a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institution
30.3; power held by a government executive to free people convicted of crmies
president evoking his power to stop legislation
supremee court held hat reporters like other citizens must respnd to reveent questions put to them in court but they dont have to reveal their source
proportional representation
rule applied in Democratic primaries whereby any candidate who wins at least 15% of the votes gets the number of State Democratic convention delegates based on his or her share of that primary vote
A small fort defending an important point; a place of refuge or defense
a political system in which people elect representitives to speak to them
10th amendment
Anything that the Constitution doesn't say that Congress can do should be left up to the states, or to the people.
Horse Race
• Media looks at campaigns
• Hearing announcing
• What media is getting ahead
• Looking at poll numbers
• Who has a better chance of winning
The Federalists
Those persons who supported the ratification of the Constitution.
Concurrent Powers
Authority possessed by both the state and national governments that may be exercised concurrently as long as that power is not exclusively within the scope of national power or in conflict with national law
Executive agreements
Pacts between the president and heads of foreign governments are called
July 1764
James Otis asserts that the colonies suffer from "taxation without representation" in his essay.
Conference Committees
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill
random sample
a certain number of randomly selected people who live in a certain number of randomly selected places
Categorical Grant
a payment that the federal government distributes to a state or local government to fund specific activities.
Exective Branch
The branch of the government that carries out laws
a political system governed by a few privileged people
Committee Chairman/Chairwoman
Member who heads a standing committee in a legislative body.
Which of the following news sources typically provides the least depth while covering topics?
the Internet
New Deal
FDR didn't like the supreme court because they kept turning it down.
judicial activism
a judical philosophy in which judge makre boldy policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground. advocates of this approach emphasize that the courts can correct pressing needs, especially those unmet by the majoritarian political process
The power to write the rules in Congress is controlled by the...
A serious crime which may be punished by a heavy fine, imprisonment, or death
good faith exception
Evidence seized on basis of mistakenly issued search warrant can be used in trial if parties had reason to support the warrant at the time of its issuance.
Public Opinion Poll
A numerical survey of the public's opinion on a particular topic at a particular moment.
to gather with one another in order to express views on public matters
policymaking system
the process by which policy comes into being and envollves over time.
Common Law
A body of unwritten laws developed in England from Judicial decisions
General Effect
Long-lasting effect of the events of a particular time on the political opinions of those who came of political age at that time
seperated powers
the division of the powers of the government between judicial, executive, and legislative branches
Elasic clause
Congress has the right to create laws to maintain freedom and liberty
checks & balances
helps keep one branch of government from dominating the actions of the others
Relative backwardness
the condition in which a nation falls behind others due to the fact that other nations have industrialized. This in turn pressures other nations to keep up with their neighbor's military capacities, yet on the plus side, those nations could rest easy knowing that crucial technology would not have to be reinvented. Ex. Russia and England. Significance: provokes nations to try and modernize as quickly as possible. Gerschenkron discusses various methods to develop, using Germany, England, and Russia and various forms of development through state, market, and bank.
plea bargain
an agreement to plead guilty to a crime in exchange for a reduced sentence
Rival Warlords
Two or more militray commanders in a struggle to win control of a country. Afghanistan
Harm principle
You can do anything as long as it doesn't cause harm to anyone.
Griswold vs. Connecticut (1965)
Helped establish the right to privacy as a constitutional right when it overturned a Connecticut law that banned all forms of birth control.
How old do you have to be in the house?
3 Ways to Change the Bureaucracy
1) Termination- eliminating programs that are inefficient/ unnecessary. An important counter to tenure. 2) Devolution- attempt to take power away from a bureaucracy and give it to lower levels. 3) Privatization- replacing government control and giving it to private sector companies.
tyranny of the majority
suppression of rights imposed by those voted into power by a majority
Indirect Tax
a tax levied on one party but passed on to another for payment.
United States v. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions
population, territory, sovereignty, and government
What are the four characteristics of a state?
The _________ has impeached ______ Presidents. The __________ has removed _____ of them from office.
House of Representatives, 2; Senate, 0
extended freedom of speech to the states
fiske vs kansas, stromberg vs california
12. Could a member of Congress start a political action committee (PAC)?
yes, many of them do
They all contained a bill of rights and they all recognized people as the sole source of authority in a limited government
What two principles did both state constitutions share?
nominated by President & approved by Senate
how do you get to be on the Supreme Court?
Establish Justices
Improve court
premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents .
Petit Jury
the trial jury
one who favors governmental involvement in the economy and in the provisions of social services and who takes an activist role in protecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment
administrative review
administrators' study and interpretation of a law and writing the rules and regulations to implement the law's enforcement. All laws undergo administrative review, whereas relatively few undergo judicial review, which is the courts' interpretation of the law
article 17
popular election of senators
came into being in 1775
The assigning by Congress of Congressional seats after each census; state legislators reapportion state legislative districts
Connecticut Compromise
Agreement during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be composed of a Senate, in which States whould be represented equally, and a House, in which representation would be based on a State's population. The compromise came up when the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan were presented.
president that integrated the armed forces and supported civil rights
organization extending to the whol society that can legitimately use force to carry out decisions
How many representatives are from GA?
Judicial Branch- State Gov't Level
State Courts
The formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted.
the smallest unit of election administration.
a formal written statement from a grand jury charging an individual with an offense; also called a true bill
grandfather clause
voting qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those whose grandfathers has voted before Reconstruction to vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test
an official representative of the US appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy.
ideas, beliefs and practices that have their historical roots in Judaism and Christianity
Stokley Carmichael
civil rights leader that radicalized the SNCC and coined the term "black power."
whole committee
This committee can pigeonhole, amend, "pass" recommendation, "unfavorable" recommendation, clean bill.
committee chairman
member who heads a standing committee
Judicial Restraint
A judicial philosophy whereby judges adhere closely to statutes and precedents in reaching their decisions.
The federal government's practice of spending more than it takes in results in
deficit financing
People are cohort to join a group.
Great compromise
A decision made during the Constitutional Convention to give each state the same number of rep in the Senate regardless of size, representation in the House was determined by population
probable cause
the situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. in making the arrest, people are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence.
North Texas Region
Second and third generation wealth
A proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the House of Representatives or the Senate can formally submit a bill for consideration.
new jersey plan
plan at the constitutional convention favored by small states that called for three branches of government with a single chamber legislative
Labor Union
Tries tp ersuade customers and workers not to deal with a business
War Communism
- Two key elements:  Repression: • Secret police force known as Cheka, • Arrested and shot suspected counter-revolutionaries and workers and peasants who failed to obey government. AND  State takeover of economy: • Virtually all industry was nationalized . • State control of factories now
Amendment 24
Prohibits requiring payment of a tax as a qualification for voting
Governor Ann Richards
Elected in 1990. Confronted problem that she didn't have enough appointment power. Extremely concerned about corrupt people in the insurance commission. Her staff found evidence that a man was corrupt. This was kept out of court by asking the man to resign or she would go public with her findings. She then appointed someone new to replace him.
If you're a good politician, you can get more administrative power.
the articles of confederation said congress had or did not have the powers to regulate trade between states?
did not have
purposes of Government
maintain social order, provide public services, national security, economic control
Three fifths compromise
An agreement at the Constitutional Convention that slaves should be counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes of determining the population of a state
Miller v. California (1973)
decision that avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a prurient interest and being patently offensive and lacking in value.
Bill of Attainder
law inflicting punishment without a court trial; illegal
free exercise clause
the First Amendment clause that protects a citizen's right to believe and practice whatever religion he or she chooses
Where do bills of revenue begin?
House of Representative
How many years can a president serve?
10 max
Ex Post Facto
Criminal law passed after the fact
a count of the US population taken every 10 years
minimum number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business
establishment clause
congress shall make no law that will promote a certain religion over other religions
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
who is seen as our nation's most influential vice president
dick cheney
The vice president is the head of the Senate and votes only if there is a tie.
municipal utility district (MUD)
a special district that offers services such as electiricy, water, sewage, and sanitation outside the city limits
nineteenth amendment
granted women the right to vote in 1920
City Charter
in home rule cities, a plan of government that details the structure and function of the city governmetn, similar to a constitution
Examples of implied powers
created a national bank; interstate highway system; Air Force and Marines; Social Security system
Public opinion polls
Used by interest groups as evidence when lobbying congress; used by the media to determine "newsworthiness"
What are "527 Group"?
Interest groups that previsously gave soft money t
Police Power
The power of the people to make rules for other people for the common good
political party
a group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and and the holding of public office
county seat
the city within a county that is a seat of county governement
executive office of the president
the presidents executive aides and their staffs; the extended white house executive establishment
Albany Plan of Union
1754: the first formal proposal to unite the american colonies, excl. Georgia, by benjamin franklin --> rejected by Crown and colonies
possible winner of popular vote not win presidency
defect of electoral college
What is a power of all state governors?
Use of the veto
The provisions of the Voting Right Acts of 1965 and its amendments of 1970, 1975 and 1982 apply to
all national state and local elections
What is a political party?
A group of people who have the same ideas about government
The higher the President stands in the polls the more likely
They can get their agenda through -more power projection
__ out of __ had to ok a law for it to pass with the articles of cofederation
9 out of 13
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