Circulatory System 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
trachea
windpipe
larynx
vocal cords
Leukocyte
White Blodd Cell
pharynx
passageway for food and air
neurohils
fast-acting phagocytes, roles in inflammatory response to invasions and damaged tissue
arteries
main transporters of oxygenated blood
kidney
an organ that regulates blood pressure
Which is the universal donor?
type O
tonsils
defense against bacteria and other foreign agents
fish circulatory system
single loop, two-chambered heart
myocardium
the muscular substance of the heart.
left atrium
get oxygenrich blood from the pulminary veinsand give it to the left ventricle
bronchi
two large passageways in the chest cavity
the left atria recieves blood from the...
lungs
Type B has
another type of recognition marker
systemic circuit
blood circulation between the heart and the rest of the body, except the lungs
artery
vessel that carries blood away from the heart
atherosclerosis
a common form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty substances form a deposit of plaque on the inner lining of arterial walls.
lymph
a network of nodes and organs that collects this fluid that is lost by blood
after the atrium contracts, the wave travels from the sinoatrial node to the...
atrioventricula node
What makes up the Blood Vessels?
Veins, arteries, capillaries
diastole characteristics
the resting period, blood fills the heart chambers, pressure is at its lowest
aorta
the main trunk of the arterial system, conveying blood from the left ventricle of the heart to all of the body except the lungs.
tunica interna
the middle part of an artery or vein
two types of blood pressure?
systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
simple diffusion
form of passive transport in which a solute moves down its concentration gradient without the use of a transport protein
Agglutination reaction occurs when
someone is given an incompatible blood type.
where do platelets come from?
shed by megakaryocytes, which are deveoped from bone marrow.
bird and mammal circulatory system
pulmonary and systemic circuits, four heart chambers
what type of blood cells are the most numerous?
red blood cells
where is blood pressure highest and lowest?
highest in arteries, lowest in veins
What are the three major components of the Circulatory System?
Heart, blood vessels, and blood
the functions of the lymph vascular system
collect and deliver water and other solutes from interstitial fluid to circulartory sytem, collects lipids and delivers them to general circulation, delivers pathogens to lymph nodes
hypertension
high blood pressure
platelets
cells which clot the blood
atria
two upper chambers of the heart
CAPILLARY
tiny, narrow vessels where substances are exchanged between the blood and body cells
What are the lower chambers called?
Ventricles
septum
the thick wall of tissue that separates the heart into the left and right sides
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart
the ____________ is the pump, which pushes blood throughout the entire crculatory system
heart
What does blood transport to cells?
oxygen, nutrients
vein
bllod vessel that carries blood to the heart
ABO identification system
method of chemically identifying blood types
anemia
a condition when you lack red healthy blood cells
Karl Landsteiner is the scientist who found that there were several
___________ ___________ and named them
blood types
What is the fluid portion of blood called?
plasma
tricuspid valve
the flaps between the right atrium and the right ventricle. It is composed of three leaf-like parts and prevents the back-flow of blood from the ventricle to the atrium
inferior vena cava
a large vein that carries oxygen-poor blood to the right atrium from the lower half of the body
leukemia
a disease in which one or more types of white blood cells are produced in increased numbers
Oxygen-Rich Blood Path
Left atrium receives blood from lungs and passes it to the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps the blood out of the heart. Then enters the aorta. Then, sends blood all over body.
red blood cells
part of the blood that contains hemoglobin which contains iron
What are the closed system of tubes which carry blood called?
blood vessels
ABO and Rh
What are the 2 main blood group systems?
coronary circulation
flow of blood to the tissues of the heart
What do white blood cells do?
Fight off bacteria and infections
What do the ventricles do?
Right- pumps blood to the lungsLeft- pumps blood to other parts of the body
oxygen, carbon dioxide, food, wastes, disease-fighting cells, chemical messengers
Name 6 different materials carried by the circulatory system.(Hint: Only Crazy Females Will Drive Cows)
What are the four parts of blood?
Plasma, Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets
What are the four main components of blood?(Hint: Penelope ripped white pants)
SK
streptokinase
visceral?
organs
cyt-
cell
atrium
cavaedium.
AF
Atrial fibrillation
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
phil-
love, affinity
BRADYCARDIA
a slower-than-normal heartrate
PCI
percutaneous coronary intervention
IVCD
intraventricular conduction delay
adheres the heart
epicardium
erythrocytes
red blood cells
O
universal donor, blood type
-t
instrument, agent, deviceex: thermostat
Lub Dub
Contract Relax
VEINS
CHARACTERISTICS INCLUDE: low pressure vessels
returns deoxygenated blood (except for pulmonary vein)
contains valves that prevent backflow
movement of blood is dependent on skeletal muscle contraction
serves as blood reservoir
right and left distributing chambers
Ventricles
WHAT IS THE LIVER?
A FILTER
liver
-regulates blood sugar, amino acids, plasma proteins, detoxifies body
-destroys old RBCs and recycles contents (Fe atoms conserved and hemoglobin reused to make bile)
ectotherms
animals that don't regulate their internal temperature
VARICOSE VEINS
distended and twisted superficial veins - due to "broken" valves
What does a plasma cell secrete?
antibodies
formed elements
the cellular component of blood
miles of blood vessels in body...
60,000
right auricle
small funnel-shaped muscular pouch attached to the right atrium of the heart
systemic circulation
the circulatory system in general.
plasma
liquid portion of blood that contains various dissolved substances
fish
two chamber heart, single current of blood flow
pulmonary veins
vessel that carries oxygenated blood which leads from the lungs to the heart
FUNCTIONS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
FUNCTIONS INCLUDE:transports blood throughout the body - brings in nutrition, disposes of wastes
regulates body temperature - vasodilation/vasoconstriction
Outer, heavy connective tissue that prevents distention of the heart, protects the heart, and anchors the heart in the mediastinum?
Fibrous pericardium
Where does the pulmoary veins send blood to?
heart
interatrial septum
this establishes either the complete or partial separation of a right and left atrium in dipnoans and amphibians
the heart is incased in the _______membrane
pericardial
HOW MANY SOUNDS DOES THE HEART MAKE?
2
pericardium
double layered sac that covers the heart.
epicardium
inner serous layer of the pericardium, lying directly upon the heart
valve
any device for halting or controlling the flow of a liquid, gas, or other material through a passage, pipe, inlet, outlet, etc.
Define. Vasoconstiction Vasodilation.
Helps Stay In Balance
rhesus factor
another blood tag, either + or -
ductus arteriosus
connects the arota and the pulmonary artery, allowing most blood to bypass the fetus' developing lungs
What part of the pharynx cotains the opening ot hte Eustachian tube?
Nasopharynx
Which lymphatic vessels have valves?
a. lymphatic ducts
b. large lymphatic vessels
c. lymphatic capillaries
d. lymphatic sacs
e. all of the above
b. large lymphatic vessel
Cardiac catheterization
threading a catheter into a heart artery. Material opaque to X-rays is flowed into heart, showing details of arteries, blood flow, etc.
what does a veinogram look for?
embolus or thrombus
atrioventicular node
this cluster of nodal tissue gets stimulated by the SA node
arterie (to or from heart)
from heart
WHAT TYPES OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS ARE PRODUCED BY THE LYMPH NODES?
MONOCYTESLYMPHOCYTES
Pulmonary Circulation...
transports oxygen poor blood from R ventricle to the lungs to pick up new blood supply.
endothelium
a type of epithelium composed of a single layer of smooth, thin cells that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatics, and serous cavities.
coronary sinus
large channel in the heart wall, receives blood via coronary veins, empties into the right atrium
cardiovascular (system)
the body system that consists of the heart (atria and ventricles), blood vessels (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins), and blood, and that carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells
PULSE
the result of the wave motion of blood being pumped through the body
What component of blood is not a cell but a cell fragment?
Platelet
The inferior tip of the hear is the
a. pulmonary surface
b. base
c. anterior surgace
d. apex
e. sternocostal surface
D. apex
The right common carotid artery and right subclavian arteries are branches of (the)...
 
A) vertebral artery.
B) brachiocephalic trunk.
C) aortic arch.
D) thyrocervical trunk.
E) none of the above.
B) brachiocephalic trunk.
endocardium
the inner lining of the heart wall and includes the endothelium
iliac artery and vein
transports blood to and from legs
WHAT IS THROMBOPLEBITIS?
INFLAMMATION OF A VEIN WITH A CLOT
The thickest Tunica media is found in the_____: is consists of smooth muscle, collagen, elasticity.
Large Arteries
sinoatrial node
small mass of tissue in the right atrium functioning as pacemaker of the heart
oxygenated blood
blood which has received oxygen in the lungs then carried to the tissues via the arteries
Enter your front text here.
Enter your back text here.
open circulatory system
system that allows the blood to flow out of the blood vessels and into various body cavities so that the cells are in direct contact with the blood
SINOATRIAL (SA) NODE
the main pacemaker in the heart - right side
The heart is composed of ___ layers of tissue:
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
e. 5
c. 3
When is the thymus most active?
 
A) during infancy and youth
B) during old age
C) during middle age
D) from puberty to adulthood
E) throughout life
A) during infacy and youth
The systemic veins have superficial and deep vessels opening into the heart, what are these
Superior and inferior vena cava
WHAT TYPE OF BLOOD DOES THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION CARRY?
OXYGEN RICH BLOOD
superior vena cava
second largest vein in the human body, is formed by the union of the two brachiocephalic veins
ORDER OF BLOOD CIRCULATION
beginning at rt. atria -> right AV valve -> right ventricle -> pulmonary valve -> pulmonary artery (deoxygenated) -> capillaries of lungs -> pulmonary vein (oxygenated) -> left atria -> left AV valve -> left ventricle -> aortic valve -> aorta -> systemic arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins -> superior vena cava (clean lymph added here) -> right atria
 Systole and Diastole
Systole is the first number of a blood pressure reading--refers to the amount of blood moved through the heart during contraction
 
Diasole is the second number (bottom number) and refers to the time between contractions, during which the blood enters the ventricles
The longest vein in the body is the...
 
A) small saphenous vein.
B) femoral vein.
C) sartorius vein.
D) cephalic vein.
E) great saphenous vein.
E) great saphenous vein.
WHERE IS THE THICKEST WALL OF THE HEART FOUND?
IN THE LEFT VENTRICLE
Where is the circle of Willis found?
floor of the cranial cavity surrounding the pituitary gland and posterior to the mammilary bodies and anterior to the optic chiasm
what are the 5 precursor cells and what do they do?
Proerythroblasts (rubriblasts) = form mature RBCsMyeloblasts = form mature neutrophils, eosinophils, & basophilsMonoblasts = form monocytesLymphoblasts = form lymphocytesMegakaryoblasts = form mature platelets
Circulatory System divided into three major parts...
1. heart 2. blood 3. blood vessels
Why is the Purkinje network more extensive on the left side?
It has more muscle mass to depolarize
WHAT IS ANOTHER FUNCTION OF THE SPLEEN?
FILTERS THE BLOOD BY DESTROYING OLD RED BLOOD CELLS
What happens to the foramen ovale after the infant takes her first breath and the lungs inflate?
It closes due to pressure changes and due to prostaglandins released from the lungs at birth
Veins are much more easily distended under pressure than  are arteries...
 
A) only in a few specialized cases.
B) because of vasoconstriction.
C) because their walls are thicker, an veins contain a greater proportion of elastic fibers and collagen.
D) because their walls are thinner and contain a lower proportion of smooth muscle fibers.
What is the function of the nasal conchae?
To create turbulence of the air and increase moisture content as well as warm the air.
WHY IS THIS PORTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE SO THICK?
TO ENSURE THAT THE BLOOD THAT IS PUMPED OUT CAN MAKE IT BACK
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