Circulatory System 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
systole
contraction
Arteriole
small artery
Erythrocyte
Red Blood Cell
atrium
upper chamber that receives blood
veins
blood volume reservoirs and transporters of oxygen poor blood back to heart
lymphocytes
white blood cells that prodcue antibodies that destroy pathogens (alot of white blood cells die when your sick)
what are platelets?
membrane bound cell fragments
thymus gland
immature T lymphocytes differenciate into pathogen recognizing cells
spleen
abdominal organ that produces and stores lymphocytes and destroys worn-out red blood cells
arteries
large vessals that carry blood from the heart (from aorta)
emphysema
loss of elasticity in lungs becasuse of smoking
how long do rbc live?
only 120 days
in cardiac muscle, what facillitates action potentials?
gap junctions
vein
vessel that returns blood to the heart
valve
any device for halting or controlling the flow of a liquid, gas, or other material through a passage, pipe, inlet, outlet, etc.
mitral valve
prevents blood from flowing back into the left atriumafter it has entered theleft ventrical
diastolic pressure
is the lowest of cardiac cycle, reached when ventricles are relaxed
three chambered heart circ. syste pumps blood through two circuits that are...
partially seperate circuits
Veins do what?
Carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
lymph node
structure in the lymphatic system that contains white blood cells and fights infection
pulmonary circulation
the circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart.
pulmonary arteries
bring oxygen poor blood from the right ventricle to the right or left lung
in mammals oxygen poor blood is pumped to..
the lungs
closed circ. system?
heart pumps blood through a vessel which branches into smaller and smaller vessels. blood stays in vessels and interacts with cells through diffusion. blood re-enters heart at through returning vessels.
capillary
pertaining to or occurring in or as if in a tube of fine bore.
superior and inferior vena cava
deoxygenated blood returns to heart (right atrium)
atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta
order of blood circulation through chambers and vessels
what are the main functions of blood?
transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones, carries carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells
What is the main function of blood plasma?
Get rid of waste
where is blood pressure highest and lowest?
highest in arteries, lowest in veins
what are the four components of blood?
plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
What is hemoglobin and what does it do?
It's a protein that functions in oxygen transport
P
pulse
Lip/o
fat
atri-
atrium
venules
capiillaries -->_____-->veins
TEE
Transesophageal echocardiography
-rrhaphy
sutureex: caridorrhaphy
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
CCU
coronary/cardiac care unit
AS
aortic stenosis; arteriosclerosis
arrhythmias
no rhythm
 
ar- none
largest blood vessel
artery
kidney
-regulates (filters) salt, water,nitrogenous wastes in blood
-makes erythropoietin (hormone) to stimulate bone marrow to increase RBC production
sign
something doctor observes, measurable
 
i.e- you are running a temp of 104
Left atrioventicular valve...
bicuspid valve.
Electrocardiogram
printout recording of electrical activity in the heart
WHAT IS LYMPH?
A MOVING FLUID
capillaries
smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body
aorta
largest artery in the body;
receives blood from the left ventricle and conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues
CORONARY VEINS
veins that supply the heart
Exchange vessels are
a. venules
b. capillaries
c. arterioles
d. arteries
e. all of the above
b. capillarie
WBC are named according to apperance
true
WHAT ARE THE CHAMBERS SEPERATED BY?
VALVES
Anaphylactic Shock causes _____ of blood vessels and a _____ in arterial BP.
vasodilation
decrease
myocardium
the muscular substance of the heart.
leukocytes
white blood cells
consist of 5 major groups of disease fighting cells that defend the body against infection
stroke volume
amount blood pumped with each contraction
myocardial infarction
death of cardiac muscle cells resulting from inadequate blood supply as in coronary thrombosis
In what blood vessels does gas, nutrient, and waste exchange take place?
Capillaries
Does a mature RBC contain a nucleus?
no
thrombocytes
the platelets, they are involved in the clotting response
pulmonary trunk
transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
WHAT ARE TONSILLS?
SMALL MASSES OF LYMPHOID TISSUE
anemia...
a condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood is below normal levels.
cusp
fold or flap of a cardiac valve
atherosclerosis
a common form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty substances form a deposit of plaque on the inner lining of arterial walls.
pulmonary semilunar valve
valve located between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery and controls blood entering the lungs
cardiac output
volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute
What binds to oxygen in red blood cells?
hemoglobin
Infarction
Localized tissue death due by lack of arterial blood supply. It is the end result of ischemia.
Fatty plaque could cause loss of blood to myocardium which could result in what?
Heart attack
sinoatrial node
birds and mammals lose the sinus venosus during development, it will remain only as a mass of nodal tissue in the right atrium called the blank
heart valve
opening between chambers of the heart that only open one-way.(like a door)
IS THE LYMPH UNDER HIGH OR LOW PRESSU?
LOW
waste material our body does not need
carbon dioxide
The principal that blood near the middle of an artery flows faster than blood near it's walls. (like a river)
Laminar flow
pulmonary artery
an artery conveying venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
posterior interventricular sulcus
groove located on the diaphragmatic surface of the heart
closed circulation
fluid is always enclosed in vessels which connect to and from heart (pump); flow of blood is from heart to arteries to arterioles to capillaries to venules to veins to heart
open circulatory system
blood is carried by open-ended blood vessels that spill blood into the body cavity
ex. arthropods, heart open into internal cavities (sinuses)
Differentiate between the upper respiratory systema dn the lower respiratory system?
Upper respiratory includes nares, nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx
Lower respiratory includes the voice box (larynx) down to the alveoli of the lungs
The ascending aorta beings at the
a. aortic valve
b. apex of the heart
c. conus arteriosus
d. external carotid artery
e. all of the above
a. aortic valve
The inferior tip of the heart is the...
 
A) pulmonary surface.
B) base.
C) anterior surface.
D) apex.
E) sternocostal surface.
D) apex.
Neutrophis, name some characteristics
most common WBC, small cytoplasmic granules that stain with both acidic and basic dyes. 2-4 lobed nuclei
tricuspid valve
opens from the right atrium into the right ventricle.(right side of the heart)
WHAT IS ARTERIOSCLEROSIS?
DEGENERATION & HARDENING OF THE WALLS OF THE ARTERIES
Blood flows...
from the right atrium to the right ventricle, then to the lungs.
right atrium
right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
inferior vena cava
either of two large veins discharging blood into the right atrium of the heart
Function- Pulmonary Veins
Oxygen POOR blood . TOWARDS the heart
Enter your front text here.
Enter your back text here.
counter current exchange
way in which arteries and veins are arranged in a way that enables them to conserve heat
what kind of blood is found in the rt. atrium
deoxygenated
The innermost layer of a blood vessel, which includes the endothelial lining and an underlying layer of connective tissue with variable amounts of elastic fibers, is the...
 
A) external elastic membrane.
B) tunica interna.
C) internal elastic membra
B) tunica interna.
What does the lymphatic system do?
manufactures lymphocytes (white blood cells) and antibodies. Filtration of carbon particles, bacteria, and malignant cells occur in the system.
WHEN DOES LYMPH FORM?
WHEN BLOOD PLASMA FILTERS OUT OF CAPILLARIES INTO FLUID BETWEEN THE CELLS
R & L Coronary arteries...
branches of the ascending aorta, supply blood to the myocardium.
atrioventricular node (AV node)
tissues in the heart where the impulse of the heartbeat passes after it has gone through the SA node
Name the wbcs from most numerous to least numerous?
neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils.
What chemicals are secreted by your granular leukocytes & what are their functions?
Neutrophils – lysozyme – antibacterialEosinophils – major basic protein – anti-parasitic worm agentBasophils – Histamine – vasodilator & Heparin - anticoagulant
tunica interna, tunica media, tunica externa
name the three blood vessel tunics
WHERE IS THE SPLEEN LOCATED?
UPPER LEFT CORNER OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY JUST UNDER THE DIAPHRAGM
four chambers of the heart
two upper thin atria; two lower thick ventricles
The grooves on the outside of the heart contain
a. cardiac veins
b. anastomes
c. fat
d. coronary arteries
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
WHERE DOES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE SEND BLOOD?
THROUGH THE PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE TO THE PULMONARY ARTERY ON ITS WAY THROUGH THE PULMONARY CIRCULATION
Why does the cricoid cartilage have clinical importance?
For performance of a tracheotomy just superioer to it and the thyroid cartilage
Where in the heart does the aorta come from, and what does it divide into?
superior portion of the left ventricle, divides into the right and left common iliac arteries, internal and external iliac arteries, and femoral artery.l
At what level does exchange take place? Describe fluid movement on the arteriole and venule ends of the capillary bed. What is the fluid that is outside of the cardio vessels called? Why does fluid move out and why does fluid move back in? What happen
site of exchange of gases and metabolites (between blood and tissue cells); on the arteriole end of the capillary bed, pressure from the heart pushes fluids, without proteins, out of the capillary into the interstitial fluid area and on the venule end of
What is the function of a macrophage after phagocytizing a pathogen to stimulate the specific immune response?
Presents the antigenic portion of the pathogen to B & T-cells via MHC class II receptors
Pathway of Electrical Signals Of The Heart
The SA Node Sends An Electrical Signal Across Both Atria's to make them contract. Then The Signal Reaches The AV Node That E.S Goes through a bundle of fibers called the bundle of His then that goes through the purkinje fibres make the right and left vent
Which of the following is untrue of a capillary?
a. it has a relatively thick tunica media
b. the vessel valls are relatively thing
c. the histological structure of a capillary wall permites a two-way exchange of substances between the blood and body c
 
a. it has a relatively thick tunica media

 
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KEEP THE BLOOD GOING IN ONE DIRECTION?
TO KEEP THE RICH OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM MIXING WITH THE POOR OXYGENATED BLOOD
cyte
cell
leuk-
white
AR
aortic regurgitation
Lymph/o
lymph tissue
anti-
against, opposite
Hypertension
High blood pressure.
NSR
normal sinus rhythm
tPa
tissue plasminogen activator
dys-
poor, painful, difficult
leucocyte
white blood cell.
OCCLUSION
blockage of blood flow
liquid part of blood
plasma
hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying molecule held together by iron
bag of tissue surrounding heart
pericardium
systolic pressure...
due to ventricular contraction.
blood is...
55% is plasma
45% is cellular
What cartilage forms the Adam's apple?
thyroid
Hematologist
physician specializing in diseases of the blood
pericardium
the serous membrane covering the heart
pacemaker
an electronic device implanted beneath the skin for providing a normal heartbeat by electrical stimulation of the heart muscle, used in certain heart conditions.
platelets
fragments of cells with no nuclei. originate as pinched-off cytoplasmic fragments of bone marrow. help with clotting
ARTERIOLES
smallest branch of arteries in the bodycontrols blood flow from arteries into capillaries
What lymphatic organs are responsible for filtering lymph?
Lymph nodes
________ contrast media are used and are available in different iodine solutions.
nonionic
tunica interna
innermost tunic, direct contact with blood, typically has a lining of endothelium supported by areolar c.t.
pre cava
transports deoxygenated blood from the upper body to the heart
WHAT ARE THE MAIN INTERNAL STRUCTURES OF THE HEART?
ATRIAVENTRICLESVALVES
A term that describs the autonomic negative feedback response to changes in BP.
Baroreflexes
pulse
the regular throbbing of the arteries, caused by the successive contractions of the heart, esp. as may be felt at an artery, as at the wrist.
lymphatic system
drains excess fluid from tissues. made up of vessels and lymph nodes
define continuous capillary
The most common type, endothelial cells form a complete continuous lining and are connected by tight junctions
The epicardium is also called the 
a. visceral pericardium
b. pericardial sac
c. parietal pericardium
d. pericardial cavity
e. fibrous pericardium
a. visceral pericardium
Structures in the heart that establish the rate of contraction are called...
 
A) Purkinje fibers.
B) the chordae tendineae.
C) conducting fibers.
D) nodes.
E) none of the above.
D) nodes.
heart serves as pumping mechanism to keep blood in constant circulation through out system
systemic circulation
systemic circuit
this circuit of the amniotic double circuit heart carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all of the tissues of the body. there oxygen is used from respiration and carbon dioxide is dumped into the blood. the deoxygenated blood is returned to the heart
brachiocephalic veins
carries blood from the juagulars and subclavians to the pre-cava
HOW MANY FUNCTIONS DO THE LYMPH NODES HAVE?
2
Left ventricle & the aorta valve...
aortic semilunar valve.
platelet
a small platelike body, esp. a blood platelet.
artery
a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body.
Electrocardiagram (ECG or EKG
reads electrical activity of heart through the skin using electrodes. and artificial pacemaker (electronic device) implanted in walls of right atrium; signals will trigger normal heart beats
RISKS OF THROMBOPHLEBITIS
risks include throwing a clot and causing a pulmonary embolus - clot that lodges in the lungs
what kind of blood is found in the left atrium?
oxygenated
During ventricular systole, the
a. pressure in the ventricles declines
b. ventricles are relaxed
c. atria are contracting
d. ventricles are filling
e. AV valves are closed
e. AV valves are closed
The left ventricle is associated with all of the following except the...
A) papillary muscles.
B) bicuspid valve.
C) aorta.
D) trabeculae cameae.
E) pulmonary trunk.
E) pulmonary trunk.
WHAT VALVES ARE INVOLVED IN THE LUBB SOUND?
BICUSPID TRICUSPID
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE SPLEEN IF THERE IS AN INFECTION?
ENLARGES
The ability of a tissure to control it's own blood supply is called:
Auto Regulation
alveolus
an air cell of the lungs, formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways.
aortic semilunar valve
lies between the left ventricle and the aorta
AV node [atrioventricular]
second step of the cardio cycle
is in the lower wall of the right atrium
sends an impulse through the bundle of His
results in the contraction of the ventricles
What type of vessel carries blood toward the heart?
Veins and lymphatic vessels
Unpaired arteries that branch from the abdominal aorta inclued the
a. gonadal
b. superior mesenteric
c. inferior mesenteric
d. suprarenal
e. B and C
e. B and C
Which of the following is a major component of the conduction system located in the interventricular septum?
 
A) sinoatrial node (SA node)
B) Purkinje fibers
C) atrioventricular node (AV node)
D) bundle branches
E) none of the above
D) bundle branches
granular and agranular leucocytes
what are the two classes of leucocytes
WHAT IS THE RATE OF FLOW THROUGH CAPILLARY BEDS?
A SLOW TRICKLE
Function- Superior Vena Cava
Collects Oxygen POOR Blood From The Head Chest And Arms
Explain how tonsils invite infection?
They contain crypts or crevasses that foreign pathogens or matter get trapped in and the tonsils then begin to destroy them to prevent infection
Blood is supplied to the muscle of the heart through the
a. interventricular septum
b. coronary arteries
c. conus arteriosus
d. cardiac sinus
e. pulmonary ateries
b. coronary arteries
Lymph nodes...
 
A) filter both blood and lymph.
B) receive lymph through the efferent vessels.
C) manufacture lymph.
D) do not occur in the brain.
E) occur in all regions of the body.
D) do not occur in the brain.
IF A VEIN IS ENTERING THE HEART FROM THE UPPER BODY, WHERE IS IT COMING IN FROM?
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA
Divided into four parts...
R & L Atrium; R & L Ventricle
Which valves are the chordae tendinae assocated with?
Left and Right atrioventricular valves or the bicupsid and tricupsid.
Functions of the endocardium include...
 
A) covering the outer surface of the heart.
B) forming the atria and ventricles of the heart.
C) covering the inner surfaces of the heart, including the valves.
D) covering the interatrial septum.
E) all of
C) covering the inner surfaces of the heart, including the valves.
What is the function and description of erythrocytes, leukocytes like neutrophils, and platelets? What is significant about neutrophils?
responsible for blood clotting; pieces of megakaryocyte cells
Cardiac muscles differs from the other muscle tissue in
a. having fewer mitochondria
b. having fibers connected to one another at intercalated disks
c. having striations
d. no ways; it is not unusual
e. haing larger sized fivers thatn other striated
b. having fibers connected to one another at intercalated disks
WHY DOES THE LEFT VENTRICLE SEND BLOOD THROUGH THE AORTA?
TO BE DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
Semilunar valves can only be found in what typeof blood vessels and specifically which two?
Arteries of the pulmonary trunk and aorta
from the right ventricle the blood is pumped into the
capilaries of the lunges to get oxygenated
Name 3 areas of the body that have a large concentration of lymph nodes?
Intestines and mesentery, cervical and axillary regions
ARE ALL HEARTS THE SAME SIZE?
NO YOUR OWN HEART IS THE SIZE OF YOUR CLENCHED FIST
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