cisco Flashcards

Transmission Control Protocol
Terms Definitions
Key
Answer
Question 6
 
A limited-use protocol owned by a company is considered to be _________________.
proprietary
Wireless Technology
Technology that allows communication without needing physical connectivity. Examples of wireless technology include cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDA), wireless access points, and wireless NICs.
TCP/IP Model
defines the four communication functions that protocols perform
 
is an open standard
The show running-config
output displays sub-mode configurations
Bandwidth
In networking, a measurement of the speed of bits that can be transmitted over a particular link. It is the amount of data that can be transmitted in a certain amount of time. For digital bandwidth, it is usually expressed in bits per second (bps).
Modems
Connect users to servers and networks through telephone or cable.
FTP
FTP was developed to allow file transfers between a client and a server.  An FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push and pull files from a server running the FTP daemon (FTPd).
 
To successfully transfer files, FTP requires two connections between the client and the server: one for commands and replies, and the other for the actual file transfer.
 
The client established the first connection to the server on TCP port 21.  This connection is used for control traffic, consisting of client commands and server replies.
 
The client establishes the second connection to the server over TCP port 20.  This connection is for the actual file transfer and is created every time a file is transferred.
QUESTION 11:

Ethernet interfaces
B. A router with two Ethernet interfaces
C. A switch with one Ethernet and one serial interface
D. A router with one Ethernet A new Certkiller office is opening, and a network device needs to be installed in the place
Answer: D
 
Explanation

Only a router can terminate a leased line T1 access circuit, and only a router can connecttwo different IP networks. Here, we will need a router with two interfaces, one serialconnection for the T1 and one Ethernet interface to connect to the switch on the LAN. 
 
   
Blogs
A website where entries are made in journal style. A blog is created by the user, who can make changes to the blog through templates or by altering the HTML code of the blog itself. Visitors can leave posts to the blog. Blog is short for weblog.
Interface
The term interface refers to how the device can allow two different networks to communicate.  Routers connect to different networks, and the specialized NICs on routers are simple called interfaces.  the interface on a router device has a unique physical address and appears as a host on the local network.
Source Device
The device that is originating the PDU.
 
The presentation layer has three primary funcitons:
 
Coding and conversion of application  layer data to ensure that data from the source device can be interpreted by the appropriate application on the destination device
6to4 tunnels.
What IPv6 tunnel technique should be used for interconnecting IPv6 Islands?
QUESTION 13:
While troubleshooting a connectivity problem on the network, you issue the ping command from your PC command prompt, but the output shows "request times out." At which OSI layer is this problem associated with? 
A. The data link layer
B.
Answer: E
 
Explanation: 
TCP/IP includes ICMP, a protocol designed to help manage and control the operation ofa TCP/IP network. The ICMP protocol provides a wide variety of information about anetwork's health and operational status. Control message is the most descriptive part of aname. ICMP helps control and manage IP's work and therefore is considered part ofTCP/IP's network layer.
 
Getting Data to the End Device
During encapsulation, address identifiers are added to the data as it travels down the protocol stack on the source host.
 
The first identifier, the host physical address, is contained in the header of the Layer 2 PDU, called a frame.
 
The Layer 2 address is unique on the local network and represents the address of the end device on the physical media.  This address comes from codes placed on the NIC by the manufacturer.
 
In Ethernet, this address is called the MAC address.
 
Physical address and MAC address are often used interchangeable.
 
After a frame is successfully received by the destination host, the Layer 2 address information is removed as the data is decapsulated and moved up the protocol stack to Layer 3.
Telnet Services and Protocol
Telnet is a client/server protocol that provides a standard method of emulating text-based terminal devices over the data network.  Both the protocol itself and the client software that implements the protocol are commonly referred to as Telnet.
 
Appropriately enough, a connection using Telnet is called a VTY (Virtual Terminal) session, or connection.  Telnet specifies how a VTY session is established and terminated.  It also provides the syntax and order of the commands used to initiate the Telnet session, and it provides control commands that can be issued during a session.  Each Telnet command consists of at least 2 bytes.  The first byte is a special character called the Interpret as Command (IAC) character.  As its name implies, the IAC character defines the next byte as a command rather than text.  Rather than using a physical device to connect to the server, Telnet uses software to create a virtual device that provides the same features of a terminal session with access to the server command-line interface (CLI).
Conversation
At the Transport Layer
At the transport layer, each particular set pieces of flowing between a source application and a destination application is known as a conversation.  Dividing data into small parts, and sending these parts from the source to the destination, enables many different communications to be interleaved (multiplexed) on the same network.
How can you view lacp/pagp protocol details?
"sh etherchannel protocols"
Quality of Service (QoS)
A control mechanism that can provide different priorities to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with request from the application program.
End Device
A device such as a desktop or mobile device that is used by an end user.An end device refers to apiece of equipment that is either the source or the destination of a message on a network.
Telnet protocol commands
Are You There (AYT): Enables the user to request that a response, usually a prompt icon, appear on the terminal screen to indicate that the VTY session is active
 
Erase Line (EL):  Deletes all text from the current line.
 
Interrupt Process (IP):  Suspends, interrupts, aborts, or terminates the process to which the virtual terminal is connected.  For example, if a user started a program on the Telnet server through the VTY, he or she could send an IP command to stop the program.
PSH
A 1-bit flag in the TCP header that is used to request tot he higher layers for immediate delivery of the packet.
What are assert messages?
Assert messages are used when multiple routers send data onto a segment. Each of them figures this out, and sends an assert message. The one with the best AD, metric and then highest IP to the source wins. The other routers stop forwarding traffic onto the lan to stop multiple flows.
QUESTION 18:Which OSI layer is associated with the following: The acknowledgement oftransmissions, sequencing, and flow control across a network? A. Layer 2B. Layer 3C. Layer 4D. Layer 5E. Layer 6F. Layer 7
Answer: C   Explanation:  640-822 The Transport layer (Layer 4) defines several functions, including the choice of protocols. The most important Layer 4 functions are error recovery and flow control. The transport layer may provide for retransmission, i.e., error recovery, and may use flow control to prevent unnecessary congestion by attempting to send data at a rate that the network can accommodate, or it might not, depending on the choice of protocols. Multiplexing of incoming data for different flows to applications on the same host is also performed. Reordering of the incoming data stream when packets arrive out of order is included. Examples include: TCP, UDP, and SPX.
Question 12
 
Which of the following is associated with the network layer?
A = IP address
 
IP addressing is an OSI Layer 3 fucntion.  All others are OSI Layer 2 functions.
Post Office Protocol (POP)
A protocol that allows a computer to retrieve e-mail from a server.
 
Two examples of application layer protocols are Post Office Protocol (POP) and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).
What are the requirements for using private vlans?
VTP mode MUST be transparent.
QUESTION 38:  Although TCP segments are similar to UDP segments, TCP packets contains some additional fields. Which of the following are found in a TCP header, but not in aUDP header?
 (Choose three) A. ChecksumB. Sequence numberC. Destination portD. W
Answer: B, D, E  Explanation:  The Figure below illustrates the fields and overall format of a TCP packet.Twelve fields comprise a TCP packet

TCP Packet Field DescriptionsThe following descriptions summarize the TCP packet fields illustrated in Figure 30-10:1. Source Port and Destination Port-Identifies points at which upper-layer source anddestination processes receive TCP services. 2. Sequence Number-Usually specifies the number assigned to the first byte of data in thecurrent message. In the connection-establishment phase, this field also can be used todentify an initial sequence number to be used in an upcoming transmission.
3. Acknowledgment Number-Contains the sequence number of the next byte of data thesender of the packet expects to receive.4. Data Offset-Indicates the number of 32-bit words in the TCP header.5. Reserved-Remains reserved for future use.6. Flags-Carries a variety of control information, including the SYN and ACK bits usedfor connection establishment, and the FIN bit used for connection termination.7. Window-Specifies the size of the sender's receive window (that is, the buffer spaceavailable for incoming data).8. Checksum-Indicates whether the header was damaged in transit.9. Urgent Pointer-Points to the first urgent data byte in the packet.10. Options-Specifies various TCP options.11. Data-Contains upper-layer information.User Datagram Protocol (UDP)The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless transport-layer protocol (Layer 4)that belongs to the Internet protocol family. UDP is basically an interface between IP andupper-layer processes. UDP protocol ports distinguish multiple applications running on asingle device from one another.Unlike the TCP, UDP adds no reliability, flow-control, or error-recovery functions to IP.Because of UDP's simplicity, UDP headers contain fewer bytes and consume lessnetwork overhead than TCP.UDP is useful in situations where the reliability mechanisms of TCP are not necessary,such as in cases where a higher-layer protocol might provide error and flow control.UDP is the transport protocol for several well-known application-layer protocols,including Network File System (NFS), Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),Domain Name System (DNS), and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).The UDP packet format contains four fields, as shown in the figure below. These includesource and destination ports, length, and checksum fields.A UDP packet consists of four fields.

Source and destination ports contain the 16-bit UDP protocol port numbers used todemultiplex datagrams for receiving application-layer processes. A length field specific the length of the UDP header and data. Checksum provides an (optional) integrity checkon the UDP header and data.     
HTTP Request/Response Protocol Message types
GET:  Get is a client request for data.  A web broser sends the GET message to request pages from a web server.
 
POST:  Post and Put are used to send messages that upload data to the web server.
 
PUT:  Post and Put are used to send messages that upload data to the web server.
 
Although it is remarkably flexible, HTTP is not a secure protocol.  The POST messages upload information to the server in plain text that can be intercepted and read.  Similarly, the server responses, typically HTML pages, are unencrypted.
How can you stop an adjacency from forming on a specific interface?
"passive-interface <if>" under the EIGRP process. This will stop hello's from being sent on the interface, thereby stopping adjacencies.
Basis of network communication between computers
The model of sending a message through a channel to the recevier
Tracking all data pieces for a conversation
The transport layer of the sending host tracks all the data pieces for each conversation and retransmits any data that the receiving host did not acknowledge.  These reliability processes place additional overhead on the network resources because of the acknowledgement, tracking, and retransmission.
If RIP, if the route to be advertised has the same major net as the interface advertising it, if it has the same mask, it will be advertised with this mask. If not it will be dropped. If it is not part of the same major net, it will be summarized to the c
Name the frame-relay encapsulation types available?
15.  What does FTP stand for, and what is it used for?
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.  It is used to move files on the network.  FTP was developed to allow file transfers between a client and a server.  An FTP client is an application that runs on a computer that is used to push and pull files from a server.
It can run as bidirectional, request, reply, reply-passive.
How do you disable timestamps on debug messages?
The frame-relay switch is not offering the PVC anymore even though the router has been using it.
In IGMPv2, when hosts sends a a Leave Message, what destination address is it sent to?
Contrary to normal stub area, a default route is not inserted automatically. A surprising result is that the default-information originate, will insert a type 7 0.0.0.0 route into the nssa area.
Given a type 2 LSA, what does the Link ID mean?
123
456
Challenge Questions
3.  Elaborate on the meaning of the terms server and client in the context of data networks.
Router
A network device, typically connected to a range of LAN and WAN interfaces, that forwards packets based on their destination IP addresses.
Question 10
 
A device that moves data between networks is a ________________________.
router
RAM –
for the active (running) configuration
Download
To transfer data from the computer functioning as a server to the client computer you are using.
TCP
Transport Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the transport protocol that manages the individual conversations between web servers and web clients.  TCP divides the HTTP messages into smaller pieces, called segments, to be sent to the destination client.  It is also responsible for controlling the size and rate at which messages are exchanged between the server and the client.
E-Mail Alternatives
Most e-mail communications use the MUA, MTA, and MDA applications.  However, there are other alternatives for e-mail delivery.  A clinet can beconnected to a coportate e-mail system, such as IBM Lotus Notes, Novel Goupwise, or Microsoft Exchange.  These systems often have their own internal e-mail format, and their clients typically communicate with the e-mail server using a proprietary protocol.
Data Requirements Vary
Multiple transport layer protocols exist to meet the requirements of different applications.
 
Some prtocols, such as UDP (User Datagram Protocol), provide just the basic functions for efficiently delivering the data pieces between the appropriate applications.  These types of protocols are useful for applications whose data is sensitivie to delays.
 
Other transport layer protocols, such as TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), describe processes that provide additional features, such as ensuring reliable delivery between the applications.  While these additional functions provide more robust communication at the transport layer between applications, they have additional overhead and make larger demands on the network.
Convergence
Another form of the root word converge in the phrase "converged network." This kind of network aggregates various forms of traffic such as voice, video, and data on the same network infrastructure. A more common usage represents the process by which routers recognize that something has occurred that changes some routers' routes, reacts to the vent, and finds the now-currently best routes.
Decapsulation
A process by which an end device, after it receives data over some transmission medium, examines the headers and trailers at each successive higher layer, eventually handing the data to the correct application. Sometimes called deencapsulation.
 
Decapsulation is the process of removing the extra information and sending only the original application data up to the destination application layer.
Switch
In Ethernet, a Layer 2 device that receives an electrical signal in one port, interprets the bits, and makes a filtering or forwarding decision about the frame. If it forwards, it sends a regenerated signal. Switches typically have many physical ports, oftentimes RJ-45 jacks, whereas bridges traditionally have two ports.
DNS Explanation
When configuring a network device, you generally provide on or more DNS server addresses that the DNS client can use for name resolution.  Usually the Internet service provider (ISP) gives you the addresses to use for the DNS servers.  When a user's application requests to connect to a remote device by name, the requesting DNS client queries on of these DNS servers to resolve the name to a numeric address.
Reassembling the segments
By numbering and sequencing the segments, the transport layer can ensure that these segments are reassembled into the proper order.
 
At the receiving host, each segment of data  must be reassembled in the correct order and then directed to the appropriate application.
 
The protocols at the transport layer describe how the transport layer header information is used to reassemble the data pieces into in-order data streams to be passed to the application layer.
Default-information originate, redistribution of static routes, ip default-network.
What types of default network injection does EIGRP support?
QUESTION 15:
 A host computer has been correctly configured with a static IP address, but the default gateway is incorrectly set. Which layer of the OSI model will be first affected by this configuration error?
A. Layer 1
B. Layer 2
C. Layer 3
D. Lay

Answer: C
 
Explanation: 
IP Addressing and IP routing resides on the OSI Network layer, which is layer 3.
 
 
Question 13
 
Which of the following is the correct "top down" order of the OSI model?
B = Application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, physical
 
The correct order is application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, physical.
TCP/IP Internet Layer
Finds the best path through the network
Gnutella Protocol Packet Types
The Gnutella protocol defines five different packet types:
 
ping: For device discovery
 
pong: As a reply to a ping
 
query: For file location
 
query hit:  As a reply to a query
 
push: As a download request
Application layer Services
Other programs, such as file transfer or network print spooling, might need the assistance of application layer services to use network resources.  Although transparent to the user, these services interface with the network and prepare the data for transfer.
 
Each application or network service uses protocols that define the standards and data formats to be used.  A service provides the function for doing something, and a protocol provides the rules the service uses.
Purpose of the Transport Layer
Tracking the individual communications between applications on the source and destination hosts
 
Segmenting data and managing each piece
 
Reassembling the segments into streams of application data
 
Identifying the different applications
 
Performing flow control between end users
 
Enabling error recovery
 
Initiating a session
Yes.
What does the command: "mls qos cos 7" do?
Getting Data through the Network
Layer 3 protocols are primarily designed to move data from one local network to another local network within an internetwork.
 
Layer 3 addresses must include identifiers that enable intermediary network devices to locate hosts on different networks.
 
At the boundary of each local network, an intermediary network device, usually a router, decapsulates the frame to read the destination host address contained in the header of the packet, the Layer 3 PDU.  Routers use the network identifier portion of this address to determine which path to use to reach the destination host.  When the path is determined, the router encapsulates the packet in a new frame and sends it on its way toward the destination end device.  When the frame reaches its final destination, the frame and packet headers are removed and the data moved up to Layer 4.
Question 5
 
Which term describes a specific set of rules that determine the formatting of messages and the process of encapsulation used to forward data?
B =Protocol
 
A protocol describes a specific set of rules for communication, including message formatting and encapsulation.
Telnet Authentication, no encrypted data
Although the Telnet protocol supports user authentication, it does not support the transport of encrypted data.  All data exchanged during a tgelnet session is transported as plain text across the network.  This means that the data can be intercepted and easily understood.
SYN
A 1-bit flag int he TCP header used to indicate the initial value of the sequence number. The SYN flag is only set in the first two segments of the three-way TCP connection establishment sequence.
RST
A 1-bit flag in the TCP header that is used to request that a connection be re-established.
How many equal cost paths can by default be installed by EIGRP into the RIB?
By default 4.
QUESTION 21:When files are transferred between a host and an FTP server, the data is dividedinto smaller pieces for transmission. As these pieces arrive at the destination host,they must be reassembled to reconstruct the original file. What provides for t
Answer: A   Explanation:  640-822 The Transport layer can provide reliable networking via acknowledgments, sequencing, and flow control. Acknowledgments Delivered segments are acknowledged to the sender. If they are not acknowledged, the sender will retransmit. * Sequencing Data segments are sequenced into their original order when they arrive at the destination. * Flow Control Provides buffer controls that prevent packet flooding to the destination host. Buffers store bursts of data for processing when the transmission is complete. Layer 4 protocols include the following: * Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) * User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)A reliable communications protocol created by Novell NetWare
Question 3
 
Which type of addressing is found at the OSI Layer 2? (Choose two).
B = Physical
C = MAC 
 
A MAC address is the physcial address burned on to the OSI Layer 2 network interface card.  Logical addressing happens at OSI Layer 3.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
A protocol used to dynamically assign IP configuration to hosts. The services defined by the protocol are used to request and assign an IP address, default gateway, and DNS server address to a network host.
 
The DHCP enables clients on a network to obtain IP addresses and other information from a DHCP server.  The protocol automates the assignment of IP addresses, subnet masks, gateway, and other IP networking parameters.
 
DHCP-distributed addresses are not permanently assigned to hosts but are only leased for a period of time.  If the host is powered down or taken off the network, the address is returned to the pool for reuse.
 
DHCP can pose a security risk because any device connected to the network can receive an address.  This risk makes physical security an important factor when determining whether to use dynamic or static (manual) addressing .
 
DCHP is used for general-purpose hosts such as end-user devices, and static, or fixed, addresses are used for network devices such as gateways, switches, servers, and printers.
"logging file flash:<file> <max-file-size> <severity>"
What order of preference does PBR take in regard to next-hop ip?
QUESTION 16:
Which layer of the OSI reference model is responsible for ensuring reliable end-to-end delivery of data?
A. Application
B. Presentation
 C. Session
 D. Transport
 E. Network
F. Data-Link
Answer: D
 
Explanation: 
A key function of the transport layer is to provide connection services for the protocolsand applications that run at the levels above it. These can be categorized as eitherconnection-oriented services or connectionless services. Some protocol suites, such as
TCP/IP, provide both a connection-oriented and a connectionless transport layerprotocol, to suit the needs of different applications.
The transport layer is also the place in the layer stack where functions are normallyincluded to add features to end-to-end data transport. Where network layer protocols arenormally concerned with just "best effort" communications, where delivery is notguaranteed. Transport layer protocols are given intelligence in the form of algorithms that
ensure that reliable and efficient communication between devices takes place. Thisencompasses several related jobs, including lost transmission detection and handling, andmanaging the rate at which data is sent to ensure that the receiving device is not overwhelmed.
Transmission quality, meaning ensuring that transmissions are received as sent, is soimportant that some networking references define the transport layer on the basis ofreliability and flow-control functions. However, not all transport layer protocols provide
these services. Just as a protocol suite may have a connection-oriented and aconnectionless transport layer protocol, it may also have one that provides reliability anddata management services, and one that does not. Again, this is the case with TCP/IP:there is one main transport layer protocol; TCP, that includes reliability and flow control
features, and a second, UDP, that doesn't.
 
 
11.  Is eBay a peer-to-pper or client/server application?
eBay is a client/server application.  eBay is implemented as a web server that responds to web client (browser) requests using HTTP.
How are (*,G) entries used in IOS?
Everytime a multicast routes exists, there is always a (*,G). Normally in Shared Trees, this would point toward the RP. In PIM-DM it just lists the PIM neighbors, and is used for a better structure in IOS.
Challenge Question 2
 
Which of the following are true about LANs and WANs? (Choose two).
C = WANs connect groups of networks using TSPs
E =Hosts on a LAN use physical addressing to communicate.
 
LANs are connected by WANs.  WANs connect networks through telephone service providers (TSP).  Logical addressing is used between networks, and physical addressing, or MAC addresses, are used inside LANs.
What is a Broadcast Domain
is a set of NIC's for which a broadcast frame is sent by one NIC is received by all other NICS in the same broadcast
On what ports should loopguard be enabled and why?
On all root and non-designated ports. These are the ports that will create a topology change. A root port might start sending out BPDU's. A non-designated port might erroneously go into the forwarding state. Loopguard prevents this. Loopguard puts the ports not receiving BPDU's into a loop-inconsistent state, until BPDU's are received again.It does not work with root guard.
10.  Which of the following is a connection using Telnet?
C.  A connection using Telnet is called a VTY session, or connection.
How do you define a host port for private vlans?
int <interface> switchport mode private-vlan host switchport private-vlan host-association <primary> <secondary>
What is the main difference between IGMPv1 and IGMPv2?
The main purpose of making a version 2 was to improve leave latency by implementing a leave command.
Amount of time a router will wait for an ACK (after sending multicast) before sending unicast update.
In EIGRP how many equal cost routes can by default be installed into the routing table? (or unequal if variance is used)
CCNA
cisco
Challenge Questions
6.  Give the specific purposes of the DNS, HTTP, SMB, and SMTP/POP application layer protocols.
Redundancy
A network architecture desinged to eliminate network downtime cause by a single point of failure.
Protocols
Protocol - A written specification that defines what tasks a service or device should perform. Each protocol defines messages, often in the form of headers, plus the rules and processes by which these messages are used to achieve some stated purpose.
 
All communication, whether face-to-face or over a network, is governed by predetermined rules called protocols.
Open.Update Packet.Informational.Keepalive.
List the BGP path selection.
Cloud
In networking, a symbol used when drawing network diagrams that represent a part of the network whose details can be ignored for the purposes of the diagram.
TCP/IP Transport Layer
Supports communication between devices and performs error correction
distributed
A method of computer processing in which different parts of a program run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network.
 
HTTP, one of the protocols in the TCP/IP suite, was originally developed to publish and retrieve HTML pages and is now used for distributed, collaborative information systems.
Flow Control
Network hosts have limited resources, such as memory or bandwidth.  When the transport layer is aware that these resources are overtaxed, some protocols can request that the sending application reduce the rate of data flow.  This is done at the transport layer by regulating the amount of data the source transmits as a group.  Flow control can prevent the loss of segments on the network and avoid the need for retransmission.
Extranet
Part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company (that is, normally over the Internet).
Communication Servers
Route services such as IPTV and wireless broadband.
DNS Hierarchy
DNS uses a hierarchical system to create a name database to provide name resolution.  The hierarchy looks like an inverted tree with the root at the top and branches below.
 
At the top of the hierarchy, the root servers maintain records about how to reach the top-level domain servers, which in turn have records that point to the secondary-level domain servers and so on.
 
After top-level domains are second-level domain names, and below them are other lower-level domains.
 
Each domain name is a path down this inverted tree starting from the root.
 
DNS relies on this hierarchy of decentralized servers to store and maintain these resource records.  The resource records list domain names that the server can resolve and alternative servers that can process requests.  If a given server has resource records that correspond to its level in the domain hierarchy, it is said to be authoritative for those records.
Best Effort Delivery
In the context of networking, best-effort delivery is referred to as unreliable, because the destination does not acknowledge whether it received the data.
TCP global synchronization.
What is the MPD in WRED?
Single Point of Failure
A system or network design characterized by one or more major components that are required to maintain operation.
Question 14
 
Question 14 Which layer of the OSI model is concerned with end-to-end message delivery over the network?
B = Transport
 
End-to-end message delivery is the concern of OSI Layer 4, the transport layer.
TCP/IP Model Application Layer
Represents application data to the user.  For example, the HTTP presents data to the user in a web browser application like Internet Explorer.
TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols
The most widely known TCP/IP application layer protocols are those that provide the exchange of user information.
 
Among these TCP/IP protocols are the following:
 
Domain Name System (DNS) is used to resolve Internet names to IP addresses.
 
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used to transfer files that make up the web pages of the World Wide Web
 
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for the transfer of mail messages and attachments
 
Telnet, a terminal emulation protocol, is used to provide remote access to servers and networking devices
 
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used for interactive file transfer between systems. 
UDP port 514
Account for the usage of "bgp deterministic-med".
QUESTION 7:  CDP is being used throughout the Certkiller network. What are two reasons why theCertkiller network administrator would use CDP? (Choose two) A. To determine the status of network services on a remote deviceB. To obtain the IP Address of a
Answer: B, D
Explanation:Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a proprietary protocol designed by Cisco to help administrators collect information about both locally attached and remote devices. By using CDP, you can gather hardware and protocol information about neighbor devices, which is useful info for troubleshooting and documenting the network. You can use: Show cdp neighbor Show cdp neighbor details Commands to gather the information of connected neighbors.
OSI Network Layer - 3
Creates and addresses packets for end-to-end delivery through intermediary devices in other networks.
OSI Application Layer - 7
Performs services for the applications used by the end users.
Name resolution and Caching
A DNS server provides the name resolution using the name daemon, which is often called named (pronounced name-dee).  The DNS server acts as the phone book for the Internet:  It translates human-readable computer host names, for example, http://www.cisco.com, into the IP addresses that networking equipment needs for delivering information.
Choosing between reliable and unreliable transmission
Web pages, databases, and e-mail require accurate transmission of data, reliable transmission is chosen
 
Video and VoIP can tolerate small amounts of data loss, but having 100% accurate transmission would degrade the performance of such services, unreliable transmission is chosen
copy running-config startup-config command
saves the changes into the startup configuration in NVRAM
By missing 3 BPDU's (sent every 2 seconds), it will figure out the switch is dead in 6 seconds.
What is backbone-fast?
Source
The origin of the PDU. This can be a process, a host, or a node, depending on the layer to which you are referring.
Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Model

 
When juxtaposed, you can see that the functions of the application, presentation, and seesion layers of the OSI model are combined into one application layer in the TCP/IP model.
 
The bulk of networking functions reside at the transport and the network layers, so they remain individual layers.  TCP operates at the transport layer, and IP operates at the INternet layer.
 
The data link and physical layers of the OSI model comibine to make the network access layer of the TCP/IP model.
TCP and UDP port numbers
As you examine the different TCP/IP application layer protocols and services, you will be referring to the TCP and UDP port numbers normally associated with these services.  Some of these services are:
 
Domain Name System (DNS): TCP/UDP port 53
HTTP: TCP port 80
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): TCP port 25
Post Office Protocol (POP): UDP port 110
Telnet: TCP port 23
DHCP: UDP port 67
FTP: TCP ports 20 and 21
 
Redistribution of static routes, ip default-network, summaries.
What types of default network injection does OSPF support?
QUESTION 26:As a CCNA candidate, you will be expected to know the OSI model very well.Which of the following are associated with the application layer (layer 7) of the OSImodel? (Choose two)A. TCPB. TelnetC. FTPD. PingE. IPF. UDP
Answer: B, C  Explanation: 
The application layer is the top layer of the OSI model and is used to describe the enduser applications that can be used over a network.Layer Name ExamplesApplication (layer 7) Telnet, HTTP, FTP, WWW browsers, NFS, SMTP gateways,SNMPIncorrect Answers: A. TCP resides at layer 4.D. ARP is a function of the data link layer, which is layer 2.E. IP is used at layer 3 (network layer). 
Challenge Questions
1.  List the six-step process for converting human communications to data.
1.  The user inputs data using a hardware interface.
 
2.  The application layer prepares human communication for transmission over the data network.
 
3.  Software and hardware convert data to a digital format.
 
4.  Application services initiate the data transfer.
 
5.  Each layer plays its role, and the OSI layers encapsulate data down the stack.  Encapsulated data travels across the media to the destination.  OSI layers at the destination decapsulate the data up the stack.
 
6.  Data is ready to be processed by the end device.
 
 
It is the router-id of the DR.
What is the multicast flow timer?
Question 1
 
Which OSI layer is associated with IP addressing?
C = 3
 
IP addressing is a concern of the OSI network layer (Layer3).  Physical addressing happens at OSI Layer 2
What is EUI-64?
It is a way to form the host part of an IPv6 address. This is the last 64 bits. Uses the MAC address and inserts FFFE in the middle. The 7th bit in the interface ID must be set to 1 to indicate a unique global address.
1.  The application layer is _______ of the OSI Model.
D.  Layer 7 is the application layer and its components:  applications, services, and protocols.
"remote-span" on the vlan itself (not the SVI).
how do you enable sending snmp traps to an NMS?
What is a DR in a PIM multicast network?
A designated router is selected. This is the one that sends joins toward either the source or the RP on behalf of clients.
When a host sends a leave, the router sends out group specific queries. If a host responds with a membership report, nothing changes. If no reports are heard within the Last Member Query Interval (Set to MRT), for three times Last Member Query Count, data
In IGMPv2, how is the querier for the lan selected?
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