graphic design test 2 Flashcards

CCA
Terms Definitions
Farnsworth House
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Russian constructivism (political basis for, ideology)
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Designers that directly incorporated cubism
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Eugene Grasset
Swiss born illustrator/designer. Developed a “coloring book style” thick black contour drawing with flat color (similar to medieval stained glass windows)Influenced by medieval arts and Japanese wood block printsHis formal compositions and muted colors contrast to Cherets informal bright colors.Posters features women in a static position. He also designed books and furniture.
James Fogelman
Helped set up Unimark.
CCA
Container Corporation of America (CCA). Walter Paepcke pioneered the manufacture of paperboard and corrugated- fiber containers. CCA became a national company and the nation's largest prodcuer of packaging mateirals. Visual signature (and implementation) was based on 2 ingrediants: vision of the designer and a supportive client.
Johannes Itten
Established the preliminary course which is the heart of bauhaus education. His goals were to release each students creative abilities, and to teach the fundamental principles of design underlying all visual art. He left Bauhaus in 1923 because of a disagreement for the conduct of the course. Gropius thought his work was 'otherworldliness' and that it was inconsistent with an emerging concern for an objective design language capable of overcoming the dangers of past styles and personal taste. Replaced by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy.
Jan Toorop
Dutch artist that influenced development throughout europe for art nouveau
PROUNS
Painting style developed by Lissitzky. Acronym for "projects for the establishment of a new art". Introduced 3D illustions that both receded and projected from the picture plane. Interchange station b/w painting and architecture.
Lester Beall
Primarily self-taught. After gaining experience as a graphic designer whose work broke with traditional American advertising layout he moved to NY. During depression era, he developed storng, direct and exciting visual forms. Often flat planes of color and elementary signs were combined w/ photography. Posters for the Rural electrification Administration, a federal agency charged w/ bringing electricity to the less populated areas of America reduced pro-electrification messages to elemental signs. Was increasingly involved in the emerging corporate design movement.
William Bernbach
Copywriter, creative force behind Doyle Dane Bernbach ad agency. Influenced by Paul Rand
Doves Press
Tj Cobden Sanderson joined Emery Walker in establishing The doves press in 1900.Wanted to attack problem of pure typography so imagery wouldn’t get in the way of the words. Beautiful typographic books that rejected ornamentation. In 1903 Doves press bible was designed by Edward JohnstonPress ends in 1960
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Hungarian theorist of graphic design. Influenced by constructionism. Brings it with him to Berlin when he moves. He was asked to teach at BAuhaus. He took over Itten's intro course. He was Gropius's right hand man. 3D studies was the most well known part of his class. The constructed stuff out of paper instead of just writing it on paper. Used photomontage which he called fotoplastics. Also did photograms. He takes charge of type design for BH books. He introduced the intro of type desing. Recommended use of lowercase. Opened unsuccessful Bauhaus in Chicago; started school of design in Chicago.
Golden
A typeface devloped by William Morris. Named because his original plan was to print The Golden Legend with this typeface. Based on the Venetian roman faces designed by Jenson.
Ludwig Hohlwein
Plakatstil designer from Munich began his career as a graphic illustror. Was originally inspired by the Beggarstaffs. Reduced images to flat shapes. Applied texture and pattern to his images. WW1 combined simple shapes w/ naturalistic imagery. Designed propaganda posters for the Nazi party. His reputation as a significant graphic designer is seriously tarnished by his close collaboration with the Nazis.
Kurt Schwitters
From Germany, created a nonpolitical offshoot of Dada that he named Merz. One man art movement. His merz pictures were collage compositions using printed ephemera, rubbish and found materials to compose color against color, form against form and texture against texture. Combined Dada elements of nonsene and chance with strong design properties. Published periodical Merz and ran a successful graphic design studio
Frenand Leger
Joined cubist movement. Moved cubism away from the initial impulses of its founders. His style evolved toward art of pure color and shape relationships but also had style that was recognizable, accessible and populist.
Max Ernst
German dadaist used number of techniques that have been adopted in graphic communications. Ernst reinvents 19th century wood engravings by using collage techniques to create strange juxtaposition. Frottage technique involve using rubbings to compose directly on paper. Decalcomania- process of transferring images from printed matter to a drawing or painting, enabled him to incorporate variety of images in his work in unexpected ways.
Jugendstil
Art Nouveau arrived in Germany. Term means young style and originates from the german youth magazine Jugend.
Mathieu Lauweriks
Dutch architect. He was fascinated with geometric form and development an approach to teach design based on geometric composition. His work was part of the tentative beginnings of constructivism in graphic design.
Ukiyo-e
Means "pictures of the floating world" defines an art moement of Japands tokugawa period (1603-1867) Blended realistic narratives with influences from decorative design arts. Screen paintings depicting entertainment districts. Subjects- courtesans, prostitutes, erotica also the life of everyday ordinary people. Embraced the woodblock print.
Cipe Pineles
1st female art director1st female member of the New York Art Directors’ ClubWorked for Glamour, Seventeen, Charm, MademoiselleCommissioned fine art and modern art illustrations resulting in pages that broke conventional imagery. Lyrical appreciation of color, pattern and form. She helped to define the modern womanWon every award an art director could wininfluenced a new role for women as career women in a positive light
Michael Cronin
Often builds his compostitions with shapes that become symbolic cessels or containers for color. Beethoven festival poster (designed with Shannon Terry) uses repetition of diagonal and cuved forms. Uses stairstep flames that is repeated in hair.
David Carson
Former professional surfer and teacher turned to editorial design in the 80s. Chose to explore expressive possibilities of each subject and each page or spread, rejecting conventional notions of typographic syntax, visual hierarchy, and imagry. Text type of chanllenges fundamental criteria for legibilitiy. Explored reverse leading, extreme forced justification, text columns jammed together with no gutter, text columns the width of a page. Seeks to bring harmony of layout in harmony with expression of writing.
Art Chantry
“ive always been attracted to darkness, and that’s evident in my work, which often has shock value. Has a lot to do with growing up in a household that was actually dangerous.” Father was a war vet and embezzled money also was an alcoholic and beat his mom. So art directs his attention to popular culture to escape his tough life growing up. Mom moves him after divorces father but she has hard time getting by financially. So he watches tons of tv, mad magazine comics etc. In 73 went to pacific Lutheran university. Then transfers to community college and gets work study program doing design and so this is how he learns. Transfers again and earns degree in painting. Does free lance poster design. Controversial work. Posters for theatrical things. Follows gf to London and was influenced by movements there and then returns to seattle. There he starts doing album cover work. 83 designs work for the rocket and becomes art director. Also does work for more corporate clients. Then starts to drink heavily and has problems. Works on and off again and does free lance posters. Grunge scene hits seattle did a lot of the major bands and then eventually leaves seattle. Teaches poster classes and still designs a lot of show posters. Did a lot of work for astromen.
Erte
(born Romain de Tirtoff) Russian born and French educated he helped bring European modernism to American graphic design. Became prominent Paris illustrator and set designer working in art-deco manner. Designed covers and illustrations for Harper's Bazaar magazine. Became proponent of the art-deco sensibility. His work combined the stylized drawing of synthetic cubism, persian complexity and high fashion.
Peter Max
Used some aspects of the psychedelic-poster movement in his wildly popular art. In his series of posters during the late 60s, the art-nouveau aspects of psychedelic art were combined with more accessible images and softer colors. Love graphic combined fluid organic line of art nouveau with bold contour of comic bookk, pop art.
Guiloliaume Apollinaire
French poet who was closely associated with the cubists (particularly picasso) involved in a rivalry with Marinetti. 1918 publication of book entitled Calligrammes, poems in which the letterforms are arranged to form a visual design, figure, or pictograph. Explored fushion of poetry and painting.
"Dinamo Arari"
Published by Fortunato Depero in 1927- compilation of his typographical experiments, advertisements, tapestry designs, and other works. Precursor of the artists book.Published as a creative expression independent of the publishing establishment.
Wassily Kandinsky
Russian led der blaue reiter and became leading advocate of art. Wrote book on argument for nonobjective art capable of conveying emotions from the artist to the observer through purely visual means w/o subject atter or literal symbols.
Piet Mondrian
Painter who helped launch De Stijl. Paintings evolved from traditional landscape to symbolic style. Purged his art of all representative elements and moved cubism toward a pure, geometric abstraction. Horizontal and vertical lines and used only primary and neutral colors.
Hugo Ball
Poet who opened the Cabaret Voltaire in Switzerland.
Merz
One man art movement founded by Kurt Schwitters. Merz is coined from kommerz (commerce) from one of his collages. Combined Dada elements of nonsene and chance with strong design properties.
John Heartfield (Helmut Herzfelde)
Berlin Dadaist held vigourous revolutionary political beliefs and oriented many artistic activities toward visual communications to promote social change. John Heartfield is the english name adopted by Helmut Herzfelde as a protest against german militarism. Used harsh disjunctions of photomontage as a propaganda weapon and innovated in the preparation of mechanical art for offset printing. Targeted Weimar republic and nazi party. Fled to Prague after being raided and continued his graphic propaganda. Was on a secret Nazi list of enemies and fled to London.
Rudolf Koch
German taught at an A+C school. Regarded the alphabet as supreme spiritual achievement of humanity. Sought the medieval experieence by hand lettering books and built upon the tradition. Neuland face was one of his designs.
"Glasgow Four"
At the Glasgow school the headmaster pointed out the affinities between the work of Charles Rennie Mackintosh and J. Herbert McNair (evening students) and that of the sisters Margaret and Frances Macdonald. The four students began to collaborate and were known as the "four" or also the "glasgow school" Developed a unique style of lyrical originality and symbolic complexity. They innovated a geometric style of composition by tempering floral and curvilinear elements with strong rectilinear structure. Their work ranged from melancholy expressions to elegant, simplified designes. The MacDonald sisters held strong religious beliefs and embraced symbolist and mystical ideas. Graphic designs by the four are distinguished by symbolic imagery and stylized form. Bold, simple lines define flat planes of color.
Vienna workshops
Launched by Hoffmann and Moser in 1903. An outgrowth of Sezessionstil. this spiritual continuum of William Morris's workshops sought a close union of pure and applied arts in the design of lamps, fabrics, and similar objects for every day use, including books, greeting cards, and other printed matter. The workshops flourished and many other collaborators participated.
Deblaiement d'art
written by Henri Van de Veldecalled for a new art which would be contemporary in concept and form but possess the vitality and integrity of the great decorative and applied arts of the past.
Howard Pyle
He launched the period called the Golden Age of American Illustration. Was an illustrator encouraged by Parsons. Published over 3,300 illustrations and two hundred texts ranging from children's fables to legend of King Arthur
Herbert Bayer
Produced posters during and after WWII that were suprisingly illustrative compared to his ardent insistence on constructivism during his Dessau Bauhaus period. Oriented toward communications problem solving, he painted illustrations with a simplified realism and combined these with the hierarchy of information and strong underlying comoposition. CCA “Great ideas of Western culture” Herbert Bayer joined in portrayed ideas such as liberty justice, human rights. Ads gave artists free reign to do their own style. Idea was that a company that would align themselves with these artists would be positive, social, good solid company. Strong visuals were used with two or three lines of typography, often placed diagonally to lines from illustration.
Henry K Tomaszewski
Became spiritual head of polish graphic design. Poster became source of great pride in Poland. Led in developing an eesthetically pleasing approach, escaping from somber world of tragedy and rememberance into a bright, decorative world of color and shape. Designs created from torn and cut pieces of colored paper, then printed by the silk screen process.
Saul Bass
Carried the sensibilites of the NY school to Los Angeles. Opened his own studio and was inspired by Paul Rand but Bass frequently reduced his graphic designs to a single dominant image, often centered in the space. Stripped visual complexity from American graphic design and reduced messages to simple pictographic images. The images lack the exactitude of measurement or construction that could make them rigid because there are chunky forms cut from paper with scissors or drawn with a brush. Created graphics for Exodus. He also created numerous corporate identity programs.
"great ideas" advertisements
CCA “Great ideas of Western culture” Herbert Bayer and Ben Shahn joined in portrayed ideas such as liberty justice, human rights. Ads gave artists free reign to do their own style. Idea was that a company that would align themselves with these artists would be positive, social, good solid company. Strong visuals were used with two or three lines of typography, often placed diagonally to lines from illustration.
Enter your front text here.
Teuredank. Vincenz Rockner(type designer). Late Gothic. 1517. Earliest examples of fractur letterstyle.
Nazi Propaganda
Swastika was adopted as the symbol for the Nazi party. Hitlers ideas gained a visual presence as the reptition of Hohlwein's images reinfoced Nazi propaganda. Bold imperial and millitaristic style of tight,, heavy forms and strong tonal contrasts.
T.J. Cobden- Sanderson
Started the Doves press. He was originally a bookbinder.
Frank Lloyd Wright (and influences)
American Architect. He designed furniture, graphics, stained glass, wallpaper. His work inspired designers from art nouveau to more rectalinear.Inspired by Japanese architecture and design and pre Columbian arch. Operated a printing press in his basement as a young man.
Jules Cheret
Father of the modern poster. He was convinced that pictoral lithographic posters would replace typographic letterpress posters. Worked on commissions. Transitions from Victorian to a simplistic form, using more scale and increase in letter size. Simplified his designs and begins using more scale. Beautiful women in the posters are called cherettes. Influenced style of womens clothing. Father of womens lib. Designed over a thousand posters. Used primary colors. Designed over 1000 posters.
surrealism
Burst into Paris in 1924. Has roots in Dada. Searing for the "more real than real world behind the real" Dreams, and the unconsious realm explored by Freud explored. Humanity could be freed from social and moral conventions. Demonstrated how fantasy and intuition could be expressed in visual terms.
Doyle Dane Bernbach
Was an advertising agency. Opened in 1949 in NY city. Talked intelligently to consumers. Used white space effectively to focus the reader's attention toward the headline and image on crowded newspaper pages. Creative philosophy was basic: Usually incorporate a dominating image. Revolutionized “soft sell” advertising. Conversational and wittyOhrbach’s—budget department store, client VW—client. Combined words and images in a new way—fused them together so they were interdependent, leading to a new “creative team” relationship between copywriters and art directors.
Egbert Jacobson
In 1936 was selected as the first director of CCA's new department of design. Had an extensive background as a color expert, and this knowledge was put to use as factory interiors were transformed from drab to bright colors. 1st corporate design director in America (for CCA). Design program and new identity based on the vision of the designer and a supportive client
Ralph Eckerstrom
Created corporate logo for CCA in te 1960s. The corporate initials were packaged in a rectangle with two corners shaved at a forty-five degree angle to imply an isometric box. He also helped found Unimark.
Woody Pirtle
a designer from Texas who worked for Stan Richards (Richards Group) during the formative years of the Richards Group. He epitomizes the originality of Texas graphics. He did the Knoll “hot seat” poster with the hot pepper as a chair. This work ironically combines the clean Helvetica typeface and the white space of modernism with a regional iconography. He moved on to join the Manhattan office of the British design studio Pentagram n 1988.
Tibur Kalman
Established m&co in 1979 w/ his wife. They worked together with wide variety of clients: the limited, restaurant Florent, Subaru, MTV and talking headsBecame founding editor in chief of colors Benetton sponsored magazine that promoted progressive agenda pro environment, antiracism anti homophobia and was dubbed “ the first magazine for the global village.”Since graphic design is mass communication believed it should be used to increase public awareness of a variety of social issues. “No sense being politically progressive if you are not commercially viable…” Socially minded. Sent out a boxed lunch like you would get at a homeless shelter did neat promotional materials for himself that also benefited society. Unbrella that is black on the outside and sky on the inside. Clock with only 5 o clock on it. Paper weight that looks like paper. Born in Budapest and comes to USAnd studies. Finds out he has cancer in
April Greiman
Born in New York and studied graphic design at Kansas and then went to Switzerland. Studied under Weingart Worked in museum of modern art in NY and then moves to LA. Connected with new wave type but most known for pioneer with computer design and experimental. Established herself before computers but embraced technology of her first macintosh. Begins to use it to work with type and uses computer to print and then layers. Digitized life size portrait of her. Folded out. Using the primitive technology and not trying to gloss it out. Used macvison and macdraw (pre photoshop). Facsinated with space and scale and achieves a sense of depth in her typographic pages.
"less is more"
said by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe- became major tenet of twentieth-century design.
Charles S. Anderson
At the Duffy Design Group in Minnesota He designed nostalgic revivals of vernacular and modernistic graphic arts from the firs thalf of the century. Grew up in small town and was impressed with old graphics from 40s that hadn't been thrown away. In 1989 left Duffy Design and opened the Charles S. Anderson Design Group. He declared his intent to give images or messages " a tangible and inherent artistic value.
Robert Massin (work & his influences)
French designer.He apprenticed in sculpture, engraving and letter cutting under his father. But learned graphic design under typographic designer. No formal training. Futurist and Dadaist typography are some influences but his unity of literary content and visual form is unique and not as rigid as Dada. The drama of The Bald Soprano is enacted through high-contrast photgraphs (by Henry Cohen). Have characters with words of text and each character is assigned a typeface for their voice.
Significant characteristics of "la Goulue au Moulin Rouge"
Dynamic pattern of flat planes- black spectator's silhouettes, yellow ovals for lamps, aand the stark white undergarments of the can can dancer. Horixontal movement across the center of the poser. In profile is another dancer. Simplified symbolic shapes and dynamic spatial relationships form expressive and commuicative images.
Mies van der Rohe
He was an apprentice to Peter Behrens for the Dusseldorf school of arts and crafts. A prominent Berlin architect whose design dictum 'less is more' became a major tenet of the 20th century design. Became a director at the Bauhaus. Tried to run Bauhaus from Berlin but was shut down by the Nazi party.
The Studio/ importance/ influence
The first of a dozen European art periodicals. Created a strong momentum toward an international style.
International Typographic style grew from?
The swiss design movement has roots from de Stijl, the Bauhaus, and the new typography of the 1920s and 30s. Theo Ballmer and Max Bill are principal links b/w earlier constructivist graphic design and the new movement that formed after WWII.
Milton Glaser
He was also a part of the New York School. He graduated from Cooper Union in 1951 and received a Fulbright scholarship, allowing him to study etching under Giorgio Morandi in Italy. The Push Pin studio was formed upon Glaser’s return from Europe in 1954. Glaser eventually left Push Pin to pursue interests in magazine and environmental design. Glaser can be remembered for his famous concert posters that combined his personal vision with the essence of the poster’s content. One of his most famous works is the poster of Bob Dylan that he did in 1967. It features Dylan’s silhouette with brightly colored patterns for his hair that were inspired by Islamic design.
“Paperboard Goes to War” Ad campaign
During WWII CCA innovated uses for paperboard packaging, which freed metals and other strategic materials for the war effor. The advertising campagin continued the design experimentation of the tearlier institutional ads. Before the war there was still a degree of public concern about the strength of paperboard; this ccampaign prepared the way for its extensive use after the war. Each advertisement showed a specific use of a CCA product in the war effort.
`Lester Beall - corporate identity manual
Lester Beall helped launch the modern movement in American design during the late 20s and early 30s. Created pioneering corporate identity programs for many corporations including Connecticut General Life insurance, and International Paper Company. He also contributed to the development of thecorporate identity manual, a firm's book of guidelines and standards for implementing its program. Beall's manuals specifically prescribed the permissible uses and forbidden abuses of the trademark.
inspiration for conceptual images from art movements
Inspiration came from the advances of twentieth-century art movements: the spatial configurations of cubism; the juxtapositions, dislocations, and scale changes of surrealism; the pure color loosened from natural reference by expressionism and fauvism; and the recycling of mass-media images by pop art. With the invention of the conceptual image, the traditional boundaries between the fine arts and public visual communications became blurred.
Henri Van de Velde
He was an artist and a teacher. A key person in Belgium. Influenced by William Morris. He synthesized sources into a unified style. Known for his essay (deblaiement d'art). Work evolved from plant motifs to rhythemic linear patterns. He did book designs for Nietzsche; they were his masterworks. His work was important for the 20th century art and architecture theory which stated design is as important as all other art. He was asked to Wieman to become a professor or director. Worked with and developed an arts and crafts workshop at the school.
The San Francisco School- (& 3 Designers from)
In the early 80s San Francisco postmodern design emerged quickly , earning the city a reputation as a major center for creative design. 3 designers played major roles1. Michael Vanderbyl2. Michael Manwaring3. Michael CorninTheir work conveyed a cheerful optimism, a warm sense of humor, and an unbrideled attitude about form and space. Freely drawn gestures, a sunny palette of pastel hues, and intuitive composition are often found in their work. Grays were often used with tints of lavender, turquoise, and peach.
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