Civics and economics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
two houses
Regressive tax
Income tax
special rights or freedoms
2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms
serving or tending to coerce.
financially finished. Unable to pay debt
1st Amendment?
R - Religion
A - Assembly
P - Press
P - Petition
S - Speech
largest provider of development assitance for developing nations. offers loans and other resources to developin countries.
World Bank
Examples of Capital are?
Vehicles, Machines, Tools
to form into a legal corporation.
a system in which government extends to almost all aspects of peoples lives.
third parties
party which challenges two major parties
3rd Amendment?
No quartering soldiers during peace time
the height of an economic expansion when real GDP stops rising, part of bus. cycle
free exercise clause
accompanying clause with the establishment clause of the first amendment
Murder, rape, robbery, would all be considered what type of crime?
the use of irregular or obstructive tactics by a member of a legislative assembly to prevent the adoption of a measure generally favored or to force a decision against the will of the majority.
a member of a municipal legislative body, esp. of a municipal council.
Fiscal Policy
The tool with which the government influences the economy. Contains the power to tax and spend (supply/demand-side economics).
open primaries
voters decide on election day which party to participate in, and then can only vote for that party
After this act, colonists dumped tea into the Boston Harbor.
Tea Act
Separation of Powers
powers are distributed nationally to Congress, the President, and Supreme CourtPresident- Power to Enforce LawsCourt- Power to Interpret LawsCongress- Power to Make Laws
economic system
ways of producing the things its people want and need
are the things used in making goods and providing services
NAtional guard
Military force under the authority of the governor. Help states durring national disasters
house of burgesses
the assembly of representatives in colonial Virginia.
the state of being vested with the rights, privileges, and duties of a citizen.
direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Factors that affect the standard of living
Nature, Technology, Choices
two party system
political party system with two major political parties
the use of gov. spending and revenue collection to influence economy
fiscal policy
sherman anti-trust act
to protect us from monopolies, gov't passed act in 1890, which banned businesses that prevent competition
Reserve requirement
Amt. of cash that gov. requires banks to keep on hand rather than to loan out
boston massacre
a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.
Federal Reserve Bank
a group of twelve regional banks which issues bank notes, lends money and helps determine the national monetary policy
$$ given, loaned and or other forms of aid intended to help the development of countries
foreign aid
What is criminal law?
Any crime that involves a serious offense, such as murder. rape, or robbery.
checks and balances
limits imposed on all branches of a government by vesting in each branch the right to amend or void those acts of another that fall within its purview.
What does Article II outline?
The executive branch, or the branch headed by the president and vice-president. It lists the presidents power, including the power to command the armed forces and make treaties.
pocket veto
a veto of a bill brought about by the president's failure to sign it within ten days of the adjournment of Congress.
When price goes up what happens to supply?When price goes down what happens to supply?
Supply goes upSupply goes down
What was the Ordinance of 1785?
This Ordinance set up a system for taking a measurement of an area of land (surveying) and selling the western lands.
Who is able to participate in the political process through political parties?
Citizens are able to participate in the political process through political parties.
How does "The Fed" affects the money in circulation?
If it reduces the discount rate, banks will borrow MORE and REDUCE the interest rate they charge the businesses.
defamation; calumny:
john locke
English philosopher.
moral excellence; goodness; righteousness.
judicial officer; in ancient rome
to accuse governement officials of miscunduct in office. Suit against governement.
the amount greater that one's needs
25th Amendment?
establishes procedures for succession to the presidency
the preamble
introduction + explanation statement in a document that explains the documents main purpose
Supremacy Clause
Federal law overides state law
an estimate, often itemized, of expected income and expense for a given period in the future.
Public Debt
Money the gov. owes to investors.
soft money
funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate
Who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense?
Thomas Paine
government regulations that promote the quality of life for the citizens.
zoning laws/building codes
local education authority
controls school systemsset guidelines for school to allow
Out sourcing
Paying foriegn companies who employ cheap labor to perform task
magna carta
the "great charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons and sealed at Runnymede, June 15, 1215.
city council
a municipal body having legislative and administrative powers, such as passing ordinances and appropriating funds.
Customs Duties
Taxes on imported stuff (from one country to USA)
Democratic party
currently one of the main political parties; in the beginning of political parties wanted more power for states and less for national
When U.S. citizens elect members of Congress, they are practicing what?
Representative Democracy
originaly developed to stablaize international exchange rates. now offers policy advice and techincal assistanst to developing countries.
international monetary fund (IMF)
Local Laws
laws that only apply to specific individuals or regions of the state
A person that starts a business or invents a new product is called an?
American Revolution
The struggle by which the United States won independence from Great Britian. It took place from 1775-1783.
labor union
an organization of wage earners or salaried employees for mutual aid and protection and for dealing collectively with employers; trade union.
to divide anew into districts, as for administrative or electoral purposes.
Judicial Restraint
The belief that the case should be decided on how the original lawmakers meant .
stock exchange
a market where stocks are bought and sold
The Mayflower Compact is an example of what type of democracy?
Direct Democracy
an agreement where a group of countries has agreed to reduce or eliminate trade barriers.
free trade zone
are held by both the states + the federal government + may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory + the relation to the same body of citizens
Founding Fathers
The men who wrote the US constitution. they created our system of government
county commissioners
a member of a U.S. county board overseeing the collection and disbursement of funds and other affairs of the county.
watch dog
the role the press plays by keeping an eye of public officials.
a tool used by the federal reserve to adjust the amount of money in the economy
reserve requirements
When an item is used so much that it disappears, possibly forever, is known as?
declaration of independence
the public act by which the Second Continental Congress, on July 4, 1776, declared the Colonies to be free and independent of England.
When did Colombus discover America?
In 1492 Colombus sailed the ocean blue.
Why did the delegates think the Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced?
They had serious problems. Congress had difficulty passing laws because they needed 9 states voted in favor. Any attempt to amend or change the Articles required all of the states to agree (unanimously). Congress had difficulty accomplishing anything. Congress could not enforce laws either. It did not provide for a governor or courts.
Powers that the state governments have are?
Issue Licenses, Run School, Run Elections, Create Local Governments
What is the current U.S. immigration policy in the U.S.?
The U.S. accepts about 675,000 aliens each year.
What happens to the economy if Banks borrow LESS and RAISE the interest rates they charge businesses?
The Businesses will borrow LESS and the economy will suffer. But this will finish the inflation.
In most states, children under the age of sixteen are required to do this?
It is their legal duty to attend school.
of citizens:
not tolerable; unendurable; insufferable:
counter intelligence achieve by banning or deleting any information of value to the enemy
close sociological study of a maladjusted person or family for diagnosis and treatment
shares of ownership in a corporation
14th Amendment?
Guarantees all citizens "equal protection of the laws"
free enterprise capitalism
country's economic systemprivate businesses own + use the factors of production in order to seek a profit
The 14th admendment
Slavary-equal protection under law
minority party
fewer than half the memebers belong
The person trying not to be sued.
general election
presidential election, Tues. after 1st Monday, every 4 years in November
This principle is applied when differences of opinion arise and citizens abide by what most people want. 
Majority Rule
a period of economic growth as measured by a rise in real GDP
mixed economy
individuals carry on their economic affairs freely ut are often subject to governmental intervention
Zoning laws
Go to city coucil/Sign a petition
the act of expending something, esp. funds; disbursement; consumption.
having power to frame or alter a political constitution or fundamental law, as distinguished from lawmaking power.
The results of cases that are similar serve as guides for modern cases.
an endorsed policy in the platform of a political party
Absolute Monarchy
king or queen has all the power
when stock market steadily rises over time
bull market
legislative oversight
allows legislators to learn how well laws are working + how efficient or inefficient the government is operating
In Cuba, citizens grow virtaully all the food that they require in small gardens, but they also sell food in local areas, this economy is what type?
Market Economy
the process by which a foreign born person can become a United States citizen
common law
the system of law originating in England, as distinct from the civil or Roman law and the canon or ecclesiastical law.
any happening or process that is or appears to be determined by chance:
Right of Legation
Right to send and receive diplomatic representatives.
a rise in the cost or goods and services
Constitutional Monarchy
king or queen has little power: they act as figure heads
a worldwide organization whose goal is free global trade and lower tariffs.
World Trade Organization
federalist papers
meant to persuade people to accpet the new constitution as it was written
To Govern
to set rules that people have to follow; to use political power to lead or administer
council manager plan
a system of municipal government in which the administrative powers of the city are entrusted to a manager selected by the city council.
winner take all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Private Bills
proposal for a law that would apply to a particular individuals or corporate entity
Gross demestic product
total value of all goods and services produced in an economy
albany plan of union
a meeting of delegates from seven American colonies, held in 1754 at Albany, New York, at which Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan
11th Amendment
A state cannot be sued by a citizen of another country
How does the 5th amendment help someone accused of a crime?
A person cannot be indicted without a group of citizens(grand jury).A person who is indicted is not necesarily guilty.It means they may have committed a crime.A citizen cannot be put on trial for the same crime if proven innocent(double jeopardy).Due process(legal procedures)must be followed.It protects eminent domain(private property for public use).
Checks and Balances in the national government ensure that?
Citizens are protected and government power is not abused
What is the major difference between the three colonial regions?
The major difference is the diverse geography and the economic base.
Why was the U.S. Constitution called a blueprint for running our country?
It is the highest authority in the nation. It is the basic law of the United States. The powers of the three branches of government come from the Constitution.
When is registering with the government  for military service a legal duty?
If you are a man between the ages of 18-25.
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