Civil Rights Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee: civil rights group made up of students; sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters
Congress of Racial Equality; student led organization instrumental in desegration of interstate busine
United Farmworkers
combined two groups Agricultural Workers Organization Committee plus National Farmworkers; boycotted table grapes in California
Kerner Commission
nickname for the Nation Advisory Commission on civil Disorders, which blames the riots on an "explosive mixture" of poverty, slum housing, poor education, and police brutality caused by "white racism" and advised federal spending to create new jobs for urban blacks, construct additional public housing, and end de facto school segregation in the North
Nation of Islam
African American religious movement founded in Detroit Michigan by Wallace Fard Muhhamed; Malcolm X famous member
American GI Forum
established in Corpus Christi for Mexican American veterans; education is our freedom and freedom should be everybody's business
La Raza Unida
third political party; founded in 1970 in Crystal City TX by Jose Angel Guitterez; sought better housing, jobs and housing for Mexican Americans
Montgomery Improvement Association
under the leadership of MLK and Edgar Nixon; guiding force in Montgomery Bus Boycott
National Association for Advancement of Colored People
NAACP; founded on Feb. 12 1909
Oldest/ largest and most widely recognized grass roots civilization
National Organization of Women
NOW; founded by Betty Frieden; Shirley Chisholm and Paulie Murray in June of 1966; came out of PCSW (president's commission)
13th Amendment
abolished slavery
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
Emmet Till is murdered
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party- Fannue Lou Hammer= delegate who wanted more than 2 seats at large from the government
Bloody Sunday
Selma,Alabama Police attacked demonstrators (people in streets) fighting for= rights.
African-American protesters sat at segregated lunch counters and didn't leave until they were served
24th Amendment
Abolished the 'poll tax'
school integration
Mixing of races within school
the differential treatment to persons of a targeted race or religion with a regard to housing, employment or use of public facilities
Voting Restrictions
poll, taxes, literacy requirements, grand-father clauses, etc. -
sending students to schools outside their neighborhoods to integrate
Voter Education Project, raised funds for Southern civil & voting rights groups, endorsed by Kennedys
Southern Manifesto
document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split in the Democratic Party
black power coined by who
stokely carmichael
November 22nd, 1963
President Kennedy assassinated, Lyndon Johnson sworn in as new president
Compensatory action
helping disadvantaged people catch up, usually by giving them extra education, training, or services
civil rights
rights that guarantee all citizens equal opportunities regardless of race, religion, sex, or national origin
Freedom Rides
Desegregated buses driven into the South to draw attention to segregated buses
Rosa Parks
Africans Americans woman who refused to give up her spot to a white man on a city bus. She was arrested for violating Alambama's Jim Crow laws
White Citizens' Council
white supremacist group, actively opposed school desegregation
Joan Baez
humanitarian latino singer, sang We Shall Overcome
brown 2
1955 the court ordered the desegreation of the public schools to begin with all deliberate speed
Mandatory Retirement
Forced retirement when a person reaches a certain age.
a town in western Mississippi on bluffs above the Mississippi River west of Jackson
James Meredith
African American who wanted to transfer to the University of Mississippi; was rejected; went to the NAACP saying that he was rejected based on racial reasons; eventually gets in
David Walker
a free african american who urged blacks to take their freedom by force
Plessy v Ferguson
court upheld segregation it ruled seperate but equal facilities did not violate the 14th ammendment.
Suspect Classifications
classifications of people on the basis of their race or ethnicity
Linda Brown
violated Linda's rights by denying her admission to an all-white elementary school
Martin Luther King
United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968)
Black Power
Slogan used by Stokely Carmichael in the 1960s. Martin Luther King, Jr. believed this slogan provoked violence. Promotes black pride.
Thurgood Marshall
Lawyer during Brown v. Board of Education
affirmative action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Poll Tax
Tax required to vote; prohibited for national elections by the 24th ammendment (1964)and ruled unconstitutional for all elections in Harper v. Board of Elections (1966).
project c
C is for confrontation to integrate Birmingham
nonviolent resistance
method of social change that uses civil disobedience
Anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Earl Warren
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
Environmental Protection Agency
federal agency formed in 1970to enforce environmental laws
John Lewis
Part of SNCC, led march to Montgomery
john f. kennedy
thirty-fifth president of the U.S. 1961–63.
George Wallace
racist governor of AL who refused to integrate schools & businesses in his state
Plessy V. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Womens' Political Council
a group of black women professionals that focused on abolishing the Jim Crow Laws
Rochester Riot
n the early evening of Friday, July 24, 1964, in Rochester, NY, the Rochester Police Department attempted to arrest a 19 year-old intoxicated black male at a street block party and dance. A member of the group "Mothers Improvement Association of the Eighth Ward" concerned with the male's behavior was the first to contact the Rochester Police Department. The police response to the call included a K-9 Corps dog. Rumors alleging police brutality action against African-Americans spread quickly, and an angry crowd formed on Joseph Avenue and became violent. The riot broke out in two of Rochester, New York's predominantly African-American wards, near the location of the intersection of Nassau Street and Joseph Avenue, as well as downtown.
"Bull" Connor
: , Police official of Birmingham, AL. Was a member of the KKK and supported racial segregation.
Equal Protection Clause
Section of the 14th amendment that guarantees that all citizens receive equal protection of the laws.
Non-Violent Civil Disobedience
Breaking the law not using violence and accepting the punishment. Shines a light on evil.
Malcom X
A popular personality of the Nation of Islam, but rejected
separatest ideas
A. Philip Randolph
- an African American leader whom "championed" a way of non- violent mass protest. He was MLK Jr.'s inspiration and influence on a lot of his thinking. Harvard's first African American PhD, he assured Harvard that the privilege was Harvard's. He was one of the founding members of the NAACP in 1909 and actively worked, through his writing in the Crisis and his speeches, against segregation. He died shortly before the March on Washington.
The age at which a person is entitled by law to the right to manage her or his own affairs and to the full enjoyment of civil rights.
Equality of Opportunity
giving people an equal chance to succeed.
"Comparable worth"
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
equality of results
everyone receives the same in the end (i.e. salaries)
Craig v. Boren
Facts of the Case:
An Oklahoma law prohibited the sale of "nonintoxicating" 3.2 percent beer to males under the age of 21 and to females under the age of 18. Curtis Craig, a male then between the ages of 18 and 21, and a licensed vendor challenged the law as discriminatory.
Did an Oklahoma statute violate the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause by establishing different drinking ages for men and women?
In a 7-to-2 decision, the Court held that the statute made unconstitutional gender classifications. The Court held that the statistics relied on by the state of Oklahoma were insufficient to show a substantial relationship between the law and the maintenance of traffic safety. Generalities about the drinking habits of aggregate groups did not suffice. The Court also found that the Twenty-first Amendment did not alter the application of the Equal Protection Clause in the case.
Brown vs. Board of Education
brown charged school of violation lindas rights by denying admission to a white school, known as unconstitutional
Martin Luther King Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
impact of black codes
back to cotton fields, not citizens yet, they made them lower class, maintains slavery, slave owners are employers - but slaves must pay for all their things, same work they were doing as slaves, violence increases b/c if your worker dies you can just get another, civil rights act of 1866 is proposed by congress
refuse to buy a product as a means of protest
Martin Luther King Jr.
the leader of the civil rights movement
Orval Faubus
He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School
Montgomery vs. Bus Boycott
a united protest among Blacks to not ride buses in order to pressure the city to change its segregation laws.
Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
The founder and leader of the SCLC
Which organization did FDR set up in response to marches?
Fair Employment Practices Committee
Little Rock Nine
9 High School kids that went to Little Rock White High School. Had to be protected by National Guards so that major violence wouldn't break out.
Voting Rights Act 1965
• Takes away the poll tax and literacy tests
• Allows more blacks to be able to vote
high unemployment, poor housing, and inadequate education
Things that the civil rights movement did not erase
1439. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote.
Affirmative Action: Gratz v. Bollinger 2003
Facts of the Case:
In 1995, Jennifer Gratz applied to the University of Michigan's College of Literature, Science and the Arts with an adjusted GPA of 3.8 and ACT score of 25. In 1997, Patrick Hamacher applied to the University with an adjusted GPA of 3.0, and an ACT score of 28. Both were denied admission and attended other schools. The University admits that it uses race as a factor in making admissions decisions because it serves a "compelling interest in achieving diversity among its student body." In addition, the University has a policy to admit virtually all qualified applicants who are members of one of three select racial minority groups - African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans - that are considered to be "underrepresented" on the campus. Concluding that diversity was a compelling interest, the District Court held that the admissions policies for years 1995-1998 were not narrowly tailored, but that the policies in effect in 1999 and 2000 were narrowly tailored. After the decision in Grutter, Gratz and Hamacher petitioned the U.S. Supreme Court pursuant to Rule 11 for a writ of certiorari before judgment, which was granted.
Does the University of Michigan's use of racial preferences in undergraduate admissions violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment or Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Yes. In a 6-3 opinion delivered by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, the Court held that the University of Michigan's use of racial preferences in undergraduate admissions violates both the Equal Protection Clause and Title VI. While rejecting the argument that diversity cannot constitute a compelling state interest, the Court reasoned that the automatic distribution of 20 points, or one-fifth of the points needed to guarantee admission, to every single "underrepresented minority" applicant solely because of race was not narrowly tailored and did not provide the individualized consideration Justice Powell contemplated in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). Chief Justice Rehnquist wrote, "because the University's use of race in its current freshman admissions policy is not narrowly tailored to achieve respondents' asserted compelling interest in diversity, the admissions policy violates the Equal Protection Clause."
What are gender based differences that are allowed?
All boy or girl public schools, widows property tax exemption, delayed promotions in the navy, and statutory rape for men
Civil Rights Tactics
Parents Involved in community schools
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
giving minorities preference in hiring, promotions, college admissions, and contracts
Bull Connor
Birmingham, Police official of Birmingham, AL. Was a member of the KKK and supported racial segregation.
Jimmy Jackson
killed during the Selma campaign
Most decisive battle of the war
due process clause
Constitutional provision guaranteeing fairness and legal rights to people
Robert Moses
one of SNCC's most influencial leaders
Citizen's Councils
an organization formed to support segregation after the Brown v. Board of Ed. decision.
Bloody Sunday What
Violence on Edmund Pettus Bridge
a judgement about a person or thing
when there were frequent attacks on Birmingham
Robert Kennedy
went to Harvard, Attorney General, U.S. Senator, advocated racial and economic equality
separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Voting Rights Act
Banned literacy tests before voting
all people can use all public buildings, putting races together
101st Airbourne
troops that Predident Eisenhower sent into Birmingham to stop mob violence
Rational Scrutiny
Guideline based on Age, wealth, disability, and sexual orientation
Jackie Robinson
A former army lieutenant who became the first black man to play in major league baseball.
What is separating people based on the color of their skin?
5th amendment
right to grand jury, indictment, no double jeopardy, freedom from self-incrimination, due process of law
Malcolm X
urged his followers to take complete control of their communities, livelihoods, and cultures
United Farm Workers
organization of migrant workers formed to win better wages and working conditions led by Cesar Chevez
Freedom Summer
white volunteers were brought into the conflict of voter registration
Elijah Muhammad
Led Nation of ISlam from 1934-1975. Established businesses, armed forces and schools.
14th Amendment
"No State shall...deny to any person ... the equal protection of the laws."
Strict Scrutiny
Guideline for if Gov can make decisions based on fundamental freedoms, race, national origin, alienage
Freedom riders
early 60s movement by SNCC & CORE members to desegregate buses in the South
Brown II- end of segregation with deliberate speed
happened in 1955
Plessie Vs Ferguson Sign
Most southern states created separtate facilities that were not equal
Berlin Blockade
The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.
Brown v Board
Mr. Brown (an African American) sued the Kansas board of Education because they denied the daugter the right to vote to attend an all white school. When the court ruled in favor of Mr. Brown, the result was that all US public schools were ordered to desegregate
A.P. Randolph
asked FDR for job fairness, led march on Washington, wanted integrated military
Rock and Roll
Reworking of Black rhythm and blues. Teenagers claimed it as their own.
National vs. State Jurisdiction
People's rights vs. education: States thought they didn't have to integrate since they were in charge of schools, National thought they did because it wasn't a matter of education, but black's rights
selma march
three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement.
The Children's March
In 1963 Birmingham, Alabama. MLK and kids marched for civil rights. "Bull" Connor set water and dogs on them. (TV) Kids marched because parents get mad about this and no one would lose money.
Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
Enforces laws to prevent unfair treatment on the job due to sex, race, color, religion, national origin, disability, or age.
Lyndon B. Johnson
He signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Selma to Montgomery March
1965 King leads 54-mile march to support black voter registration. Despite attacks from police and interference from Gov. Wallace, marchers reach Montgomery. Pres. Johnson addresses nation in support of marchers
Edmund Pettus Bridge
location of Bloody Sunday - a bridge on which Clark and Cloud would beat Selma marchers
March On Washington
A Civil Rights protest led by MLK; also where he
delivered 'I Have a Dream' speech
Black Panthers
They were a group of black people who claimed that if white people attack them with violence, they would fight back with violence. They also worked with the youth.
Children's Crusade
MLK lead HS and MS students down the streets of AL in a non violent protest, and Bull Connor, in addition to other white police officers, stopped the violence by hitting the students with billy clubs, spraying them with fire hoses, and having attack dogs go after them.
Martin Luther King (MLK)
Lead the bus boycott, GREAT PUBLIC SPEAKER!!, and gets people to believe in change.
Griswold v. Connecticut
found a "right to privacy" in the Consitution that would ban any state law against selling contraceptives
Emmett Till
He was a 14 year old boy from Chicago. He went to visit his great uncle in the south. He went to a store. He Whistled at Mrs. Bryant and made a lewd comment. She was offended and left the story. Emmett Till was scared and went home. Mrs. Bryant's husband, Roy, and his half brother went to teach Emmett Till a lesson. They beat and killed him.They attached a fan around his neck and dumped him in the river. His mother made his funeral public so the world could see his beat up body. The murderes were taken to court and found not guilty by a jury of 12 white men even though they admitted to the murder months later.
Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)
a group of local civil rights leaders who persuaded the community to continue the bus boycott
Martin Luther King Jr. -
He was the young minister that organized the Montgomery bus boycotts and later the SCLC. His "I have a dream speech" is one of the most famous speeches in American history. He was gunned down in 1968 in Memphis, TN on April 4. Leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association
1895 (W.E.B. DuBois)
DuBois called for an end to Jim Crow Laws (1st African-American to earn PhD)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
organized in order to gain seats in Mississippi's all white Democratic Party
brown vs. board of education of topeka, kansas
landmark decision that struck down segregating schools (1954)
Intro: Scott v. Sanford 1857
Facts of the Case:
Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri. From 1833 to 1843, he resided in Illinois (a free state) and in an area of the Louisiana Territory, where slavery was forbidden by the Missouri Compromise of 1820. After returning to Missouri, Scott sued unsuccessfully in the Missouri courts for his freedom, claiming that his residence in free territory made him a free man. Scott then brought a new suit in federal court. Scott's master maintained that no pure-blooded Negro of African descent and the descendant of slaves could be a citizen in the sense of Article III of the Constitution.
Was Dred Scott free or slave?
Dred Scott was a slave. Under Articles III and IV, argued Taney, no one but a citizen of the United States could be a citizen of a state, and that only Congress could confer national citizenship. Taney reached the conclusion that no person descended from an American slave had ever been a citizen for Article III purposes. The Court then held the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, hoping to end the slavery question once and for all.
what do some mark as the begining of the civil rights movment
rosa parks getting arrested for refusing to give up her seat
full of life/energy
the right to vote
De Jure Segregation
Segregation by law
unfriendly feelings directed against an individual, a group, or a race
14 amendment
equal protection from the law
Pillars of Consensus
2)Suburban Life
3.)Baby Boom
4.) Mothers as Homemakers
5.)Red Scare
informal segragation
first practiced segregation not legislated in the late 1800s
people who believed that slavery should be ended
Thurgood Marshal
NAACP attorney. In courtroom battles.
De facto segregation
Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement. For example, often the concentration of African-Americans in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly black, or segregate in fact ( de facto), although not by law ( de jure).
Young americans in 60s who rejected conventional customs & mainstream culture
Women's Suffrage
The right of women to vote.
Andrew Young
Civil Rights activist, mayor of Atlanta, ambassador to UN
doing away with practice of providing separate facilities for black and whites
Amzie Moore
founded Regional Council of Negro Leadership, looked for Emmett Till
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
Harlem Renaissance
when african culture was popular brought pride in the african race and strength
city in alabama where violence towards african american nonviolent protests occured
Summer 1964
First ghetto riots by blacks in northern cities, beginning in Harlem on July 18.
Civil Disobedience
Opposition to an unjust law through refusal to obey.
Betty Friedan
an early leader of the feminist movement
Booker T Washington
believed blacks should concentrate on economic improvements and tolerate existing political/ social discrimination
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern-enforced things such as literacy tests and grandfather clauses on blacks
back students did what to the bus termanials
Freedom of religion
The right, guaranteed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, to choose religious practices or to abstain from any without government intervention.
Fred Shuttlesworth
One of the founding members of the SCLC, minister in Birmingham AL
Memphis Sanitation Strike-
began february 12, 1968 and was started because the black workers were sent home on a rainy day with only a half a day of pay, where as the white workers were sent home with a full day of pays. The workers did daily protest marches and prayer meetings. Dr. King and SCLC were called in for national attention. this was where Dr . king was shot at the Lorraine Motel. He was shot by JAmes Earl Ray, who was caught and arrested 2 months later.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Plessy was 1/8 black, facilities were said to be separate but equal (equal access, not quality), Plessy boarded white train. Significant because it established that racial segregation was protected under the law
Little Rock 9
group of African American students who desegregated Little Rock Central High School with the support of the National Guard, as ordered to assist by President Einsenhower
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Plessy is arrested; Separate carts
SC: (constitutional) Ferguson wins; "carts are separate but equal"
bad SC decision, carts were clearly not equal
Rational Basis Test
Equal protection test used by the Supreme Court that requires a complainant to prove that the use of classifications such as age, gender, or race are not a reasonable means of achieving a legitimate government objective.
Towns in which houses were built on an assembly line. The houses were cheap and all families could afford them.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
federal law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people (usually African Americans) from voting, and expanded government efforts to register voters.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Law that made discrimination illegal in a number of areas, including voting, schools, and jobs
Americans with Disability Act
Defines a disabled person as someone with a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more life activities or who has a record of such impairment.
Muslim Mosque, Inc.
Created by Malcolm X after he leaves the Nation of Islam
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Children's Crusade in Birmingham (Children's March)
kids ages 6-16
goal get into jail(+1,000 in one day in jail)
Civil Rights Act of 1857
Federal protection for blacks who want to register to vote. !st civil rights law since reconstruction.
Lawrence v. Texas (2003)
state law may not ban sexual relations between same-sex partners
what was the little rock 9?
9 african american students were chosen to intergrate central high school
Montgomery Bus Boycott, 3 "demands"
1.) blacks would not ride buses until polite treatment by bus drivers were guarunteed to them
2.)segregation must be abolished on buses and a first come first serve policy adapted
3.)employment of black bus drivers must be given
Civil Rights Act of '68
law signed by LBJ which made it illegal to discriminate in selling or renting homes (housing)
while king is in birmingham city jail this happens
he read an article written by white clergy that labeled him a "troublemaker"- king moved to respond and drafts "i have a dream" on margins of the article and on toilet paper
to end segregation
Mayor of Birmingham
George Wallace
Thirteenth Amendment
Constitutional amendment that officially prohibited slavery in the U.S (1865)
Organized protests
freedom rides, sit-ins, marches
It is ___________________ when a school does not allow girls to wrestle.
Sirhan Sirhan
He assassinated Robert F. Kennedy.
four black college students begin sit-ins
movement of individuals out of a population
women and the economy
government funded day care
enforcement of child support laws
pregnancy leave
comparable worth
elizibeth eckford
15 year old african american girl
Emmit Till
form chicago, money, mississippi, says he has white girlfirend. whistles at a woman and then killed later
Black Power Movement
radical, violent black movements; self-expression, don't assimilate
Olympics, proud/Panthers attack/Muslim, new country
W.E.B. Dubois
Believes people should support equal rights and government.
civil disobedinence
Non-violent refusal to obey ceration laws, in order to challenge their fairness is known as.
August 28th, 1963; 250,000 people marched from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial.
March on Washington
Preferential treatment
Better treatment given to one person or group than to another without reasonable cause
4 college students sat at a lunch counter and sat and protested all day. The protesters increased each day and was supported by SCLS and NAACP.
Plessey v. Ferguson
The court ruling that segregated African Americans and Whites
Brown Vs. Board
(1954, Topeka, Kansas) Linda Brown wants to go to an all white school. Has the backing of the NAACP, lawyer is Thurgood Marshall. They challenged the supreme court's ruling in the Plessy vs. Ferguson case and won. Earl Warren was the Judge.
De Jure Discrimination
Racial segregation that is direct result of law of official policy
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
African-American civil rights activist, inspired millions of people with "I Have a Dream" and "I've been to the Mountain Top" speeches
Greying of America
increasing population of older people in America
Bowers v. Hardwick
1986: Court ruled that the Constitution does NOT explicitly grant the right for homosexuals to practice their lifestyle & that laws against sodomy were Constitutional.
A disabled student who enrolled at UC Berkeley
Ed Roberts
Ku Klux Klan
Organizations in the US that practiced extreme racism, often violent.
intermediate scrutiny
test used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases, which places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in questions is unconstitutional
Selma to Montgomery Marches
Three marches for voting rights, police beat marchers and used tear gas against them; violence was shown on TV
Outcome of Plessy v. Ferguson
upheld Louisiana's "separate byt equal" laws
Plessy vs Ferguson
1896, the supreme court ruled that this seperate but equal law didn't violate the 14th amendment
Hosea Williams
a civil rights leader that led the march across Edmund Pettus Bridge
Reverse Discrimination
Using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people.
A political party committed to Chicano causes
The Raza unida Party
Greensboro Sitins What
Black students sat a lunch counters to protest not being served
national endowment for the arts
Federally funded program that offers support and funding for projects that exhibit artistic excellence; founded in 1965
Cooper v. Aaron
ruled that states could not choose to ignore Supreme Court decisions
United Farm Workers Organization
founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight
Equal Protection of the Laws
Provided by the 14th Amendment mandating all people be protected by the law.
Brown v Board of Edu.
Facts of the Case:
Black children were denied admission to public schools attended by white children under laws requiring or permitting segregation according to the races. The white and black schools approached equality in terms of buildings, curricula, qualifications, and teacher salaries. This case was decided together with Briggs v. Elliott and Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County.
Does the segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race deprive the minority children of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment?
Yes. Despite the equalization of the schools by "objective" factors, intangible issues foster and maintain inequality. Racial segregation in public education has a detrimental effect on minority children because it is interpreted as a sign of inferiority. The long-held doctrine that separate facilities were permissible provided they were equal was rejected. Separate but equal is inherently unequal in the context of public education. The unanimous opinion sounded the death-knell for all forms of state-maintained racial separation.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
a law that banned discrimination in housing
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
An organization formed in 1909 to further the civil rights of African American.
Brown v. Board of Education
When Oliver Brown  tried to enroll his daughter into a "white school", he was turned down because of his daughter's race, and color.  Immediately, he went to NAACP to help his daughter, and other black kids to get into the same school as white people.  Eventually, the Supreme Court made the decision that all Black people are to be treated as equally as the other White people.
Gay Rights: Bowers v. Hardwick 1986
Facts of the Case:
Michael Hardwick was observed by a Georgia police officer while engaging in the act of consensual homosexual sodomy with another adult in the bedroom of his home. After being charged with violating a Georgia statute that criminalized sodomy, Hardwick challenged the statute's constitutionality in Federal District Court. Following a ruling that Hardwick failed to state a claim, the court dismissed. On appeal, the Court of Appeals reversed and remanded, holding that Georgia's statute was unconstitutional. Georgia's Attorney General, Michael J. Bowers, appealed to the Supreme Court and was granted certiorari.
Does the Constitution confer a fundamental right upon homosexuals to engage in consensual sodomy, thereby invalidating the laws of many states which make such conduct illegal?
No. The divided Court found that there was no constitutional protection for acts of sodomy, and that states could outlaw those practices. Justice Byron White argued that the Court has acted to protect rights not easily identifiable in the Constitution only when those rights are "implicit in the concept of ordered liberty" (Palko v. Connecticut, 1937) or when they are "deeply rooted in the Nation's history and tradition" (Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965). The Court held that the right to commit sodomy did not meet either of these standards. White feared that guaranteeing a right to sodomy would be the product of "judge-made constitutional law" and send the Court down the road of illegitimacy.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.
The excerpt in the packet is taken from what?
mexican american
James Earl Ray
MLK's assassin
Charles Houston
very first african american lawyer
Lee Harvey Oswald
Gentlemen that shot JFK.
rules requiring certain numbers of jobs or promotions for members of certain groups called quotas
Thurgood Marshall appointed Supreme Court Justice by President Lyndon Johnson
happened in 1967
period after the civil war of rebuilding the South
go against, as of rules and laws
A system in which government agencies make cash payments to the poor
de jure
"concerning the law", by right; according to law, segregation
1865 (13th Amendment)
Formally/legally ends slavery in America (begun 246 years earlier)
seperate but equal
the judicial precedent established by in the Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interpret the equal protection provision of the fourteenth amendment as a means of establishing segregation
Ross Barnett
governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi
W.E.B Dubois
He could have said, "It (segregation) is wrong and should not stand for anything but equality and freedom immediately."
Jo Ann Robinson
head of Women's Political Council, involved with Montgomery Bus Boycott
King's Assassination
killed while he was on a balcony.
langston hughes
famous black poet and civil rights activist
Medgar Evers
NAACP leader in Mississippi, who was assassinated in Jackson, Mississippi in 1963
Antonia Novello - First woman Surgeon General of the USA
Puerto Rico
Progressive Era
advocated a wide range of economic, political, social, and moral reforms.
Klu Klux Klan
White terrorist group that tried to drive African Americans out of political control of the south.
literacy test
required that all voters take a test to show they could read in order to vote
Sweatt Vs Painter 1950
1950- Thurgood Marshall- Court ruled that separate professional schools for blacks failed to meet test of equality. Sweatt was denied entrance to U. of Texas. They gave him an alternative law school.
Korematsu v. US
The 1944 Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionally of the U.S. government's internment of more than one hundred thousand Americans of Japanese descent during World War II.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
Control of Arkansas police, not help black freedom riders
At the largest civil rights demonstration in history, the speech given by Dr. King was_______.
"I Have a Dream"
14th ammendment
intended to ensure the rights of the freed slaves; it granted citizenship to the freedmen, guaranteed them due process of law, and gave them the right to vote
underground railroad
a system that helped slaves escape. It was not a real railroad
1964 Civil Rights Act
ended segregation in the South, and made segregation in public places illegal
15 amendment
right to vote for ppl of all races/ color
World War II
War fought from 1939 to 1945 between the Allies and the Axis, involving most countries in the world. The United States joined the Allies in 1941, helping them to victory.
Roe v. Wade (1973)*
Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
Women's Political Council
-formed in 1946 as a civil rights organization for women in Montgomery, Alabama.
-Jo Ann Robinson and others wanted to make commissioner aware of the complaints blacks had about the bus system.
-printed out thousands of pamphlets calling for a boycott and handed them out all over the city.
-major role in the planning of the boycott and organizing carpools.
1882 (Pace v Alabama)
Held that states may impose more severe punishments for adultery and fornication between persons of different races than those of the same race
open housing act of 1968
took steps to forbid discrimination in sale and rental of housing
Little Rock Central High School
little rock 9- good grades, middle class, close to high school, NAACP plan to go to school in a group but one girl does not get the msg and goes alone and meets a mob, eisenhower has a meeting with faubus and choas when kids are let in, sends in troops
I Have a Dream
MLK gave this famous speech on the march on washington
malcom x's method of gaining civil rights
believed that african americans could only succeed if they separated from white society
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
1978; supreme court case that first addressed the issue of affirmative action
Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
The US Supreme Court ruled that they approved of bussing to achieve more rapid integration
MAy 4, 1961 another freedom ride
new group left Washington DC on May 4 1961 to New ORleans, blacks sat in white section and whites sat in blacks [email protected] stops both used others facilities
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