Civil Rights Movement key terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to promote
Job Control Language
Robert Kennedy
Attorney General
coordinated anti-segregation efforts of African American leaders in the South; name chosen so not to exclude anyone & to relate to many; believed in non-violent protests; sit ins, boycotts, marches; brought the church into the civil rights movement
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participating in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
24th Ammendment
Banned poll tax
Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segeration and discrimation and to acheive political and civil rights for African Americans
Judy Heumann
created Disabled in Action.
Non-Violent Protests
Nothing Violent, Ex: Boycotts
Believers: Rosa Parks, MLK jr.
those that crossed state lines
Selma March
marching for voting rights.
What percentage black was Plessy?
April 4, 1968
Date of MLKs assassination
MLK's accomplishments?
Mont. Bus Boycott, Birmingham children's march, March on DC, Selma March, Nobel Peace Prize, Laws of '64 & '65
Equal RIghts Amendment. An amendment to the US Constitution that would prohibit discrimination against women
Supreme Court approval of forced busing for public schools
the bringing together of different races
Fannie Lou Hamer
American voting rights activist. Organized the MIssissippi Freedom Summer for SNCC.
61. Harlem
place where Malcolm X got shot
James Meredith
African American Airforce Veteran who sought to enroll in an all white school known as Ole Miss
De facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
Operation Breadbasket
MLK + Jesse Jackson- encourage businesses to hire blacks + Poor People's Campaign
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
Chicago incident
whoever wins Chicago wins pres
more people voted then actually lived there
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
This is the year of Project Confirmation Birmingham
poverty line
the minimum income needed to live
Located in Alabama. The population was 40% African American, but King called it "the most segregated city in America."
farming system to keep blacks in debt
A group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
Martin Luther King Jr.
AfricanAmerican civil rights leader
The Civil Rights movemnt occurred in the 1950's and 1960's. T or F
a person from or a descendent from people who come from countries of Latin America or Spain
"bull" connor
public safety commish at the time; rode around in the white tank and turned firehoses on the children
Freedom Summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
American GI Forum
established in Corpus Christi for Mexican American veterans; education is our freedom and freedom should be everybody's business
Highlander Folk School
school in Tennessee that allowed African Americans and focused on labor union rights and civil rights leadership.
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Malcolm X
An African American leader of the black power movement assassinated in 1965.
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on the bus.
eleanor roosevelt
wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)
Black Power
movement in the 1960s that urged African Americans to use their collective political and economic power to gain equality
de jure segregation
Segregation that is imposed by law
for a mob to illegally seize and execute someone
Freedom Rides
Civil rights protest in which a racially mixed group of protesters challenged racially segregrated bus terminals
Lyndon B. Johnson
President; all major Civil Rights passed
Project "C"
Challenge the system of segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. The "C" in the project stood for confrontation, the strategy of nonviolent direct action designed to confront segregation through peaceful demonstrations, rallies, boycotts, and appeals to justice.
jim crow
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
Kerner Commission
Group set up to invstigate the causes of the race riots in American cities
Stokely Carmichael
member of SNCC who decided to lead followers in a march to finish what Meredith had started
Adam Clayton Powell
was a pastor and politician who represented Harlem New York. He was the first person of African American descent that was elected into Congress and after 16 years in the House of representatives, he became the chairman of the Education and Labor Committee. He challenged the informal ban on black representatives and he took black guests with him to the "White Only" House restaurants. He aimed to pass a legislation that made lynching a federal crime and he challenged the Southern practice of charging Blacks a poll tax to vote.
16th Street Church Bombing
Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson, and Denise McNair were killed September 15, 1963. Their killers were not brought to justice until much later, the earliest in 1977. This event galvanized the nation and led to blacks and whites becoming more aware of the Movement.
Enforcement Act
In 1870, this Act was passed to protect black voters in the South, but witnesses of violations were afraid to testify.
Thurgood Marshall
He heads the supreme court and legal counsel in the Little Rock 9.
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) U.S. Supreme Court case that established the separate-but-equal doctrine for public facilities. Served as the legal basis for segregation.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlawed descrimination in public places and employment based on race religion or national origin.
What does black power do for Nixon's support
Loses support
Brown vs. the Board of Education
outlawed segregation in schools
booker t. washington
an educator who taught himself to read. he was born into slavery. he worked in coal mines and went to school whenever possible. he helped found the Tuskgee Institute in Alabama. the school offered training in industrial and agricultual skills. he advised blacks to learn trades and try to move higher and gradually in society. eventually, they would have money and the power to demand equality. to help, he built trade schools for blacks.
Watts riot
a white officer beat a black motorist in LA which caused 6 days of violence and thirty four people to die. Home were burned and the national guard had to be brought in.
Congress on Racial Equality/CORE
Organization that was founded in 1942 by James Farmer and George Houser. Worked for equality for everyone unaffected by a person's race, sex, or disabilities.
3. Plessey vs. Ferguson
court case that was finalized saying that the separate but equal law, did not violate the 14th amendment; this made segregation legal in the South
National Urban League 1911
helped African Americans moving out of the South find homes and jobs and ensured that they received fair treatment at work
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Holt Street Baptist Church
The place where the bus boycotting started when Dr. King gave a speech talking about how if no one rode the buses they would go out of business. Churches were used as rallying points.
Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
June 12, 1953
date when Medgar Evers killed by De La beckwith
Voting Rights Act of 1965
It eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people. It authorized the enrollment of voters by federal registrars in states where fewer than fifty percent of the eligible voters were registered or voted.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
List the events in 1963: (4)
March on Washington (MLK)
Birmingham Alabama Church Bombing by KKK (4 little black girls killed)
JFK assassinated, LBJ in
Medgar Evans leader of NAACP was murdered by white extremists
Brown v. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
This took place in the summer of 1964 when thousands of black and white students went into the South to register voters. Three of these people, Chaney, Schwerner and Goodman, disappeared and their dead bodies were not found for over a month.
mississippi freedom summer
Southern Declaration on Integration
- in response to brown case
- Signed by 101 members of congress
- Led to massive resistance period
- Several state rebel battle flags returned
- Resistance against governments actions on integration
Goals of the movement that were met on paper (legally)
voting, education, employment, legal segregation in public
explain any three events from martin luther king jrs life and their impact
-five days after rosa parks refused to obey the citys rules mandating segregation on buses, black residents launched a bus boycott and elected king as president of the newly formed montgomery improvement association
-in 1957 king and other southern black ministers founded the southern christian leadership conference, he emphaized the goal of black voting rights.
- toured india and increased his understanding of Gandhian non-violent strategies
to benefit from
1964, January
24th amendment
to protest against
protester contre
James Earl Ray
killed MLK Jr.
BP motto
"picking up the gun"
Things a person must do.
To discriminate against someone based on the persons race.
Newark and Detriot Riots
1967 race riots
Betty Friedan
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
Thurgood Marshall appoited first AA Supreme Court Justice
Bobby Seale
Co-Founder of the Black Panthers.
10 Point Plan
Black Panther's list of demands.
organization that drove the Little Rock 9 to school
Ella Baker
Helped organize young negroes
Joined NAACP
Helped create SNCC
" " Freedom Ride
Fought against Jim Crow Laws
=Behind the scenes wonder woman, organizations
lyndon johnson
36th President of the United States
freedom riders
CORE stages freedom ride through south-blacks and whites integrated on buses; one bus set on fire, others beaten and arrested
Stockely Carmichael
civil rights leader and black nationalism in the U.S
white flight
50's movement where middle-class white Americans fled to suburbs leaving inner cities to decay
Pertaining to the people in a community or for the use of all.
nation of islam (NOI)
black separatist religion which preached that whites were evil & blacks should be independent of white influence
Montgomery, Alabama
The place where the civil rights movement began
Lee Harvey Oswald
suspected of killing John F Kennedy
James Farmer
organized the 1961 freedom ride which eventually led to the desegrgation of interstate transportation
Civil Rights Movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
Huey Newton/Bobby Seale
in Oakland, California, in October 1966 they founded a political party known as the Black Panthers to fight police brutality in the ghetto. The party advocated self-sufficiency for African American communities, as well as the full employment and decent housing.
Bloody Sunday Participants
Hosea Williams, John Lewis, and marchers
Founded in 1942 by members of the Gandhian pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation who envisioned a nonviolent, interracial civil rights organization for African Americans that wanted integration with whites. Originally called the Chicago Committee of Racial Equality. Included both blacks and whites such as James Farmer and George Houser, Beatrice Fisher and Homer Jack, and rounded out by Joe Guinn who was the head of the Chicago Branch of the NAACP Youth Council.
Emmett Till
1955- AA boy was kidnapped, beaten, shot, and dumped into the Tallahatchie River.
black nationalists
belief in seperate identity and racial unity of the African American community
race riots
blacks using violence against police & white business owners in black neighborhoods
freedom ride
1961 protests by black and white activists who rode buses through southern states to test their compliance with the ban on segregation on interstate buses
Stockely Carmicheal
A leader of the student nonviolent coordinating comitee
2nd paragraph 6 events
BvB, Little rock, Montgomery, Birmingham, Washington, Selma
Nation of Islam
Organization, also called the Black Muslims, dedicated to black seperation and self-help
Protest in Birmingham
The Birmingham campaign was a strategic movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama.
Brown vs Board
1954-ruled that racial segregation in public schools was not equal, so could not occur
Earl Warren
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
Project "C"/Protest in Birmingham
movement organized by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the unequal treatment black Americans endured in Birmingham, Alabama.
Charles Hamilton Houston
Dean of Howard University law school and Thurgood Marshall's teacher; Litigation Director of the NAACP; fought against Jim Crow Laws.
1968 Mexico City Olympics
African American winners in the Olympics raised their fist and bowed their heads (black power symbol) during the nathional anthem. DATE
Poor Peoples' campaign
Organized by Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Poor People's Campaign addressed the issues of economic justice and housing for the poor in the United States Poor People's Campaign
james merideth
first black to enter the university of mississippi in 1962
Mississippi Freedom Summer
(1964) when thousands of black and white students went into the South to register voters. Three of these people, Chaney, Schwerner, and Goodman, disappeared and their dead bodies were not found for over a month.
March of Washington
1963 demonstration in which more than 200,000 people rallied for economic equality and civil rights
Louis Farrakhan
A minister within the Nation of Islam preached for civil rights during the civil rights movement, and is now the current leader of the Nation of Islam.
Dorothy L. Brown
Doctor and first black woman ever elected to the Tennessee General Assembly.
Huey Newton/ Bobby Seale
militant founder/leader of the Black Panthers
black nationalism
a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community
1963 March on Washington
Organized by A. Philip Randolph in support of Civil Rights Legislation. 200,000 people gathered for it.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
formed by black and white students after the Greensboro, Nashville, and Atlanta sit-ins in 1960. established a summer of voting registration in 1963. created to give students an even larger role in civil rights movement sought for more immediate change
Martin Luther King Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
The 1964 Civil Rights Act
Linden Johnson signed it; prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal Agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing
Equal Employment Oppurtunity Commission
Federal agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, creed, national orgin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Started by MLK jr, discussed peaceful change in civil rights for blacks (1957)
African American Children's March
march that made Bull Connor arrest 959 children; and the second time the kids were hosed, attacked by police dogs, and they were beaten with clubs and cattle prods
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) 1942
organization that was dedicated to bringing about change through peaceful confrontation
when plessy's case finally reached the supreme court, what was the decision?
that the louisianna segregation statute was constitutional
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders & Otto Kerner
An 11-member commission established by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the ongoing race riots in the United States and to provide recommendations for the future. Called the Kerner Commission after its chair, Otto Kerner.
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
This took place for more than 370 days when the black residents of Montgomery, Alabama, refused to ride the buses that would not allow desegregation. Though tens of thousands walked for 12 months, what forced the buses to desegregate was not the boycott b
montgomery bus boycott
Central High, Little Rock, AK
Crisis in 1957 when Gov. Orville Fallbiss used national guard troops to turn away black students. Eisenhower used federal troops to protect same students.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Founded by W.E.B. Du Bois and others to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional.
This was passed in 1964 and banned discrimination in public places, ending the era of Jim Crow. Now there could not be separate restrooms, restaurants, water fountains, etc. It was signed by President Johnson.
the civil rights act of 1964
Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
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