Civil Rights Movement Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ted Kennedy
bringing races together
James Farmer
Founder of CORE
Congress of racial equality
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
Twenty-fourth Amendment
Constitutional Amendment which outlawed poll taxes during elections.
discriminatory or abusive behavior towards members of another race
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded by WEB DuBois, leading advocate for civil rights, nonviolent, sit-ins and boycotts
de jure segregation
segregation by law
civil rights
les droits civils / civiques
Black Panthers
founded in 1966; revolutionary organization; black power movement; protected against police brutality. founded in Oakland
Little Rock
when nine African-American students were integrated into a previously all white high school in 1957.
have the same quality or value
health insurance for low income people
Malcolm X
militant civil rights leader (1925-1965), Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
15th Amendment
1870, prohibits denial of voting rights based on race or color
The freedoms you have as an individual
Black power
movement that urged African Americans to gain control of political and economic power by force if necessary --> violence
Phyllis Sclafly
against women's rights. She was perfectly happy being a housewife
Earl Warren
Chief Justice that decalred that segregation in education was unconstitutional because it prevented an equal education for all races.
de facto segregation
segregation by custom or tradition
Third party organized for the election of 1948 by the Southern Democrats, who were upset with Harry Truman's stance on civil rights
sit- in
people sit and refuse to leave
Irrational hatred of a people or group
Largest city in Tennessee; located in West Tennessee; 35 degrees N, 90 degrees W
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
Sit In
a demonstration in which protesters sit down and refuse to leave
Huey Newton/Bobby Seale
in Oakland, California, in October 1966 they founded a political party known as the Black Panthers to fight police brutality in the ghetto. The party advocated self-sufficiency for African American communities, as well as the full employment and decent housing.
Freedom Summer
a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi organized by the Council of Federated Organizations and headed by SNCC
Plessy v Ferguson
Court case which allowed the legalization of Jim Crow laws
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Lyndon B Johnson
took over when Kennedy was assinated
The exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel or unjust manner.
Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Project "C"
Challenge the system of segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. The "C" in the project stood for confrontation, the strategy of nonviolent direct action designed to confront segregation through peaceful demonstrations, rallies, boycotts, and appeals to justice.
What law did Plessy violate ?
1890 Louisiana Law
The Great Migration
The migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North.
Martin Luther King Jr.
an American civil rights leader.
Jim Crow Laws
They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans.
Nation of Islam
Organization, also called the Black Muslims, dedicated to black separation and self-help.
Greensboro Sit-In
29 black students arrive at a restaurant and sit. Starting with just four students it quickly grows. White violence took place
Chicago 7
Charged with crossing state lines to start a riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago
Huey Newton
a civil rights activists who cofounded the Black Panthers Party.
Selma March
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American Civil Rights Movement.
James Earl Ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail
Robert Kennedy
John Kennedy's brother who served as attorney general and gradually embraced growing civil rights reform; later, as senator from New York, he made a run for the Democratic presidential nomination. An assassin ended his campaign on June 6, 1968.
Civil Rights Act
- prohibited discrimination in public facilities
- outlawed discrimination in employment
- outlawed bias in federally assisted programs
- authorized the Justice Department to create suits to segregate facilities
- created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
- provided assistance to communities desegregating their schools
Stokely Carmichael
Leader of SNCC and the Black Panther Party, encouraged "black power"
51. Freedom Summer
event where black and white students went to Mississippi to register African Americans to vote in the 1964 presidential election
Rosa Parks
An African American woman who told a white man that she would not give up her seat on the bus and was arrested.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1896 court case that ruled that separate but equal facilities were constitutional
James Meredith
An air force veteran that decided to enroll, and eventually integrate the University of Mississippi.
Bloody Sunday
This occurred on March 7th, 1965 when around 600 civil rights marchers marched east to Selma on Route 80. When the got to Edmund Pettus Bridge, state and local lawmen attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and pushed them back into Selma.
march against fear
james meredith sets off march as result of black power, gets shot-march continues
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
organization created to give younger people greater role in civil rights movement
Booker T Washington
was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. Said African Americas must work patiently to move up in society.
Brown v. Board
The Supreme Court rule that separate but equal clause was unconstitutional in 1954.
This person refused to give their seat up for a white man, was arrested, and this arrest prompted the Montgomery bus boycotts.
rosa parks
Birmingham Confrontation
A protest which was caught on cameras and made Americans realize the seriousness of the civil rights movement.
30. Saudi, Arabia
place where Malcolm went for a life changing pilgrimage
Martin Luther King, Jr.
founded SCLC ---> spokesperson for the Montgomery bus boycott --> peaceful protest
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
nobel peace prize for nonviolent leadership, peacefully fought for racial equality.
George Wallace
After serving in the Air Force in the Second World War, he became assistant attorney general of Alabama. He was elected to the Alabama Legislature in 1947. When he ran as the Democratic candidate for Governor, he was defeated by an outspoken segregationist, John Patterson. He won the election of 1962, however, by telling citizens that he would continue to keep Alabama state schools segregated. He blocked the enrollment of African Americans at University of Alabama and he became one of the country's biggest leaders against the civil rights movement. He resisted JFK's demands. He then decided to run for president in 1968 after he was barred from serving again as Governor in 1966, however, he was defeated.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954) Court ruled that seperate facilities were not equal. Instructed integration. Overruled Plessy v. Furgeson
Brown Vs. Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
He was the young minister that organized the Montgomery bus boycotts and later the SCLC. His "I had a dream speech" is one of the most famous speeches in American history. He was gunned down in 1968 in Memphis, TN.
martin luther king jr.
The Ballot or the Bullets
Speech delivered by Malcom X (a radical black muslim, who later became more accepting but was still assassinated).
Voting Rights Act (1965)
Act which guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote. DATE
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Republicans in the United States since Reconstruction.
Martin Luther King Jr
He was assassinated and he was a clergy man and a reverend. He spoke out non-violently against segregation and was the leader of the civil rights movement.
King's i have a dream speech
Remembered as a highlight of the movement. Spoke to a crowd of 250,000 people infront of the LIncoln Memorial in WDC on Aug 28, 1963.
Compare how Harriet Beecher Stowe's informed the country about the evils of slavery with the news media (television) informing the country about the evils of segregation. Know the difference between slavery and segregation. Is there a difference?
There is a difference because slavery is to keep people as slaves and segregation is to separate blacks from whites.
What was Martin Luther King's role in the civil rights movement
Leader of movement, encouraged non violent opposition as protests;
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
Supreme court case which ruled that public schools must be integrated (banned segregation of public schools).
JFK Assassinated
John Kennedy president
to resort to
recourrir à
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a civil-rights organization founded in 1957 by the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, was a success.
20. Coretta Scott King
MLK's wife
This is the division between stategovernment and federal government. This division became apparent at various points in the Movement, ncluding when Eisenhower sent in the 101st and when Kennedy forced the integration of the University of Alabama.
an organized passive protest, esp. against racial segregation, in which the demonstrators occupy seats prohibited to them, as in restaurants and other public places.
Malcom X
Encouraged violence and wanted separate black communites
Kerner Commission
federal commision that investigated the 1960's riots and blamed them on whit racism
The Great Depression
Black sharecroppers devastated. Whites take over black jobs and the New Deal doesn't support black-dominated work.
Ella Baker
worked at SCLC headquarters in Atlanta; founded a student organization, SNCC
Laurie Pritchett
Attended Auburn University and South Carolina College before graduating from the Southern Police Institute at the University of Louisville as well as the FBI National Academy. Chief of police in Albany, Georgia from 1959 to 1966. Then moved to become chief of police in High Point, North Carolina. Tried to use his arrests to silence Civil Rights movement and encouraged nonviolence. Tried to spread out his arrests into different jails in order to keep protesters away from Albany.
Civil War
Dates: 1861-1865
About Slavery
North Wins
Robert Moses
The "master builder" of Mid-20th century New York city. He is considered the shaper of modern cities and urban planning.
Medger Evers
Head of NAACP in Mississippi; assassinated by Ku Klux Klan
affirmative action
business and schools were encouraged to give preference to members of groups that had been discriminated against in the past. people believed this was a form of reverse segregation because it unfairly favored one group of people over another
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Program to help minorities and women.
affirmative action
strom thurmond
governor of SC, leader of the Dixiecrats, ran for president under State's Rights Party in 1948
President Eisenhower
President who forced Little Rock High School to integrate
African American Migration
many African Americans migrated to large northern cities after the Civil War
Orval Faubus
Governor of Arkansas; tried to prevent the Little Rock 9 from going to Central with National Guard
Snyder Act
Extended the right of citizenship to Native Americans
Jim Clark
Sheriff of Dallas County, Alabama that ordered 200 state troopers to attack the AA's marching to Selma
louis armstrong
black trumpet player big influence on jazz music brought attention to solos (1901-1971) he was from new orleans
Rosa Park
African American who refused to give up her seat to a white American while on a bus.
to stand up for
defend against attack, fight for
14th Amendment
Granted full citizenship to slaves and their descendants (1868)
Selma police 3
clubs, police on horses, tear gas
Plessey v. Ferguson
The court ruling that segregated African Americans and Whites
Grandfather Clause
allowed southerners to vote if their grandfather could vote in 1867; many Af. Americans were still slaves at that time
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
to carry nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship
March 7th Selma March down US 80 to deliver petition, brutality*
Mississippi Freedom Summer
This was a highly publicized campaign to register blacks to vote in the Deep South during the summer of 1964. Civil rights activists, including white northern college students, fought to end the discrimination against blacks as it applied to the right to vote and the 15th amendment.
ku klux klan
violent racist group against blacks in south
words written to be spoken, e.g. for a speech
Elijah Muhammad
Leader of the nation of Islam from 1945 to his death in 1975. He helped many people and was a strong advocate of civil rights, but was involved in some shady activities and lost the favor of Malcolm X, who went on to form his own civil rights group.
1965 Voting Rights Act
gave African-Americans the right to vote in local, stae, and federal elections
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee (SNCC) 1960
student led organization which sought immediate change in the civil right movement
Lyndon Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
Black Panthers/Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Intended to protect African-American neighborhoods from police brutality.
Jammie Lee Jackson
He was a young, unarmed civil rights protestor who was shot by an Alabama State Trooper in 1965. Jackson's death inspired the Selma to Montgomery marches, an important event in the American Civil Rights movement.
Booker T. Washington
a. Earn rights by working hard at their jobs
b. Atlanta Compromise (speech)- 1895
c. Tuskegee Institute
d. Born a slave
1964 Civil Rights Act
This act pushed to Congress by President Kennedy made racial discrimination in public places illegal. Employers were also required to provide equal employment opportunities. If there was evidence of discrimination based on color, race or national origin, federal funds would be cut off. It also addressed the fact that African Americans were denied the right to vote in the Deep South.
hernandez v. texas
convicted of murder in an all white jury
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965.
Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964
CORE and SNCC members began voting drives in deep South to register African American voters
lunch counter sit ins
black students would sit at lunch counters and ask to be served and would sit there all day and wait as a mean of protest, if they got arrested a new group would take their palce, if they were served, they desegreated the restaurant
Little Rock 9
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
49. Voting Rights Act of 1965
prohibited use of literacy tests, authorized votes in dangerous places, federal officials could register to vote in places where local officials were blocking registration; helped create new voting population in the south
Dr. Anderson
He is best known for his role in the Coalition of Desegregation, a civil rights movement called the Albany Movement which Anderson led and was formed by local activists in Albany, Georgia in 1961.
Bayard Rustin
He was born in West Chester in 1910 to a teen mom and raised by his grandparents. He was a pacifist who was greatly influenced by the religious and political beliefs of his grandmother who was a part of the NAACP. After he attended Wilberforce University for a time, he moved to Harlem and studied at New York City College. He became involved in the Scottsboro Case. He joined the American Communist Party, but left after meeting with Philip Randolph in 1941, who was a socialist. He worked with Randolph on Randolph's proposed March on Washington.
the montgomery bus boycotts.
they took place on december 5th, 1955. it took place in montgomery, alabama. from december 1, 1955 til it ended, there were cirtually no black riders. the black people of montgomery stayed off the buses for an entire year. the refuse to ride movement was completely peaceful and legal. martin luther king jr was head of the montgomery improvement association and was involved in the boycott. also, E.D. nixon was the most outspoken civil rights leader in montgomery. he bailed parks out of jail and helped encourage people to boycott the buses. since blacks took up most of the profit for the bus company, the economy suffered from the lack of profit from buses.
What are Jim Crow laws?
They are laws passed to discriminate against blacks and their ability to vote.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
This was a church in Birmingham that was a meeting place for civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Ralph Abernathy and Fred Shutterworth. When the SCLC and CORE became involved in the campaign for voting registration in Birmingham, tension became high. A white man laced a box under the stairs of the church on September 15th, 1963 and the bomb exploded, killing four young girls (3 were 14 and 1 was 11). They had been attending Sunday school. 23 other people were hurt in the bombing.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
President's Commission on the Status of Women
created by John F. Kennedy in 1961; Eleanor Roosevelt = chair; made women's rights a serious political issue
This took place in the academic year 1957 - 1958 when nine students attended high school in Little Rock. They were unable to attend until President Eisenhower forced the hand of the governor. When they were met with mob violence, Eisenhower called in the
the integration of central high school
What did the Brown v. Board of education declare?
The Brown v. Board of education declared that the " seperate but equal" doctrine was unconstitutional
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